Skip to main content

Full text of "The Map of Africa by Treaty"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



m 



^taasm 




^If^x^i^imii 



r 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



^^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



MAP OF AFRICA BT TBEATI. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



[All Bights Reserved.'] 
THE 



MAP OF AFRICA BY TREATY. ^^ 



Vol J. 
ABYSSINIA 

TO 

GEEAT BRITAIN 

(COLONIES). 

Nos. 1 TO 102. 



With numeroics Maps. 



BY 



SIR EDWARD HERTSLET, K.C.B. 

Cmnpiler and JSdiior of the '* Map of Surope hy Treaty;" **Sert»Ufs Commercial 
Treafien; " the " British and Foreign State Fapert; " the " Foreign Office List" 3(c, 

LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR HER MAJESTTS STATIONERY OFFICE, 

BY HABaiSON AND SDKS, ST. MARTIN'S IiANB, 

FBIVTSBS IK OBDIITABY TO HXB XAJX8TT. 



And to be purobased, either directlj or through any Bookseller, from 
RYRE k SPOTTISWOODE, East HABonra Stbbbt, Flbxt Stbbkt, E.C. i 
JOHN MENZIBS & Co., 12, Havotxb Stbbbt, Bdikbubgh, and 

90, Wbst Nilb Stbbbt, Glasgow; or 
HODGES, FIGGIS, h Co., Limited, 104, Gbabtov Stbbbt, Dttblik. 

1894. 
Trice Thirty-one Shillings and Sixpence (the Two Volumes), 



Digitized by 



Google 



HAsanov AMD foira, pmumM or omDoiAmT to sn KAiwn, 

•T. MASmi'f LAMB. 



NOV 1 1937 



Digitized by 



Google 



CONTENTS. 



Pbifage ix 

List of Maps ziz 

TabIiB of Contents — List of Counteibs xxiii 

List of Documents, Teeaties, Ac. » xxxi 

Vol. I, Nos. 1 to 102 1—535 

Vol. II, Nos. 103 to 208 536—966 

Appbndix » 967 

Alphabetical Indbk 1006 

Oheonoloqical List • 1083 



Digitized by 



Google 



Additional Information and Corrections. 



Britisli Oentral AfUoa Pxyyteotomte and Britiali South AfUoa Co. An 
arrangement was entered into between Mr. Cecil Rhodes and the 
British CK>yemment, in December, 1894, respecting the admini- 
stration of the portion of the British sphere north of the Zambesi, 
oyer which tbe Charter of the British Sonth Africa Company was 
extended in 1891 (Njasaland, &o.). 

O^nnany. Page 302. Omit " Ghrmanj and Zanzibar/' hut line but four. 

Italy and Ethiopia. A detailed Bonndary Agreement was signed on tho 
6th February, 1891. (See Italian Ghreen Book. Missione 
Antonelli in Ethiopia, 14th April, 1891, page 101.) 

Oubangi. Index, page 1053. See also Agreement, 14th August, 1894, Appendix. 

South African Republic. Since the foot-notes were added (pages 868—879), 
stating that the Conrention of 8th November, 1893, was not 
ratified up to September, 1894, it has come to my knowledge that 
it was ratified on the 30Ui June, 1894. 



Jfo/e.— H. T. and 8. P. The references in the foot-notes to H. T. and S. F» 
refer to " Hertalet's Treaties " and ** State Papers " respectirely. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PREFACE. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



PREFACE. 



The favourable reception which was accorded to my " Map 
OF EuBOPE BT Treaty/' on its publication in 1875, has em- 
boldened me to undertake, with the sanction of Her Majesty's 
Government, another work of the same description, entitled 
" The Map of Africa by Treaty," with the object of showing 
how, by Treaty, Conquest, or Cession, or under the name of 
a Protectorate, European Powers have succeeded, at dif- 
ferent times, in obtaining a footing in various parts of the 
African Continent, and how those occupations have been 
greatly extended during the last few years ; in other words, 
to enable all those who are interested in the develop- 
ment of Africa to examine for themselves the Title Deeds 
by which each Foreign Power maintains its right to the 
Possessions which it holds, or to Territory which it occupies, 
or claims influence over, in that part of the world. 

In the preparation of the present work the same arrange- 
ment has been followed (as far as it has been found practic- 
able to do so) as was adopted in the preparation of the 
former work : the Documents being arranged, first in alpha- 
betical order of Country, and then in their chronological 
order. Each Document has a distinctive number given to 
it, by which it is known and referred to in other Documents 
throughout the work. All Treaties and other Documents 
axe given in the English language, and each Article is pre- 
ceded by a brief description of its contents. 

As a general rule^ only such Articles of Treaties are gii'en 
in full as relate to Terfitorial Boundaries, Spheres of Influ- 
ence, and Political Belations. An exception, however, has 
been made in favour of the " Berlin Act " of 26th February, 
1885, and of the "Brussels Act" of 2nd July, 1890, which 



Digitized by 



Google 



X PREFACE. 

are given in ejutenso, as they relate to such important questions, 
bearing on the future development of Africa, as the Naviga- 
tion of the Eivers Congo and Niger and their affluents ; the 
Suppression of the Slave Trade by land and sea; and the 
notifications to be given of all future occupations of Territory 
by Foreign Powers on the j^frican Coasts. 

The clauses of Eoyal Charters given to certain Com- 
panies in Africa are also somewhat fully given. 

The work has no pretensions whatever to being considered 
a History of Africa ; nevertheless, the following facts bearing 
on the partition of its Territory may be usefully recorded in 
its pages. 

The "scramble for Africa" may be said to have com- 
menced in earnest about the year 1882, when a Belgian 
Expedition, known as the " International Association of the 
Congo," started for the Upper Congo and Niadi-Quillou, and 
in that and the two following years entered into Treaties 
or " Contracts " with certain Native Chiefs, by which the 
Association obtained important territorial and other rights 
over their Territories, 

In 1 884 a German Colonization Society penetrated into 
the Kilimanjaro and other districts of Eastern Africa, beyond 
the Territories over which it maintained the Sultan of Zan^ 
zibar had no Jurisdiction or Eights of Sovereignty, and it also 
concluded Treaties with Native Chiefs whereby it obtained 
territorial concessions and other rights ; while certain other 
German subjects, about the same time, visited the South- 
West Coast of Africa (Namaqualand and Damaraland) and 
the West Coast (the Cameroons District), and concluded 
important Treaties with Native Chiefs, by which those 
Chiefs placed themselves under German protection. But 
British Agents had also concluded Treaties with local Chiefs 
in these several Districts, which led to disputes between 
Great Britain and Germany, which were, however, eventually 
settled by mutual j^greements, to which further reference 
will be made later on. 

But before proceeding to describe the territorial changes 
which have taken place in Africa since 1882, it may be 
useful to record the fact that, for many years before that 



Digitized by 



Google 



PBEFACE. XI 

date, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Spain, and other 
countries had occupied, by right of conquest or otherwise,. 
Territorial Possessions in various parts of the African Con- 
tinent. 

Great Britain, for instance, acquired the Eiver Gambia 
from France, in 1783, and many important possessions on 
the banks of that river have since been acquired. 

She also secured possession of the Cape of Good Hope in. 
1814, which Settlement (now called the Cape Colony) has 
been very considerably extended since that date. 

She has also, for many years past, occupied important 
positions at Sierra Leone, on the Gold Coast, at Lagos, and 
on the Niger. These possessions have been greatly extended 
in more recent years, and they have now become important 
Colonies or Protectorates. 

Denmark formerly held certain Forts and Possessions oi* 
the Gold Coast, but they were ceded to Great Britain in. 
1850. 

TJie Netherlands also held certain possessions on the same 
coast, but these were also sold to Great Britain in 1867. 

France has also long held Territorial Possessions in 
Africa. Previous to 1882, various disputes had arisen^ 
between the British and French Governments respecting 
the occupation of Territories on the West Coast of Africa, 
over which they each maintained that they had, by Treaties 
with Native Chiefs, acquired sovereign and other important 
rights. These disputes lasted for many years ; but, eventu- 
ally, on the 28th June, 1882, a Convention was concluded 
between the two countries for defining their respective 
limits over Territories to the North of Sierra Leone. This 
Convention was confirmed by a subsequent Agreement which 
was signed on the 10th August, 1889, for defining the limits 
of the British and French Possessions from Senegambia to 
the Gold Coast, including the Slave Co6ist, the Gambia,. 
Sierra Leone, Assinie, and Porto Novo. 

France had also, before 1882, obtained possession of other 
Territories in Africa. She had acquired, from local chiefs in 
the Bay of Tajourra, outside the Straits of Babelmandeb^ 
certain territorial rights over Obock, and similar rights were 



Digitized by 



Google 



xn PBEFAOB. 

subsequently conceded to her over other Territories in the 
same Bay and on the Somali Coasts by Treaties with other 
local Chiefs : and as Great Britain had acquired, by Treaties 
with certain local Chiefs on the Somali Coast, a Protectorate 
over them^ an Agreement was entered into between the 
British and French Governments, on the f th February, 1888, 
for defining the limits of their respective Possessions and 
Spheres of Influence in that neighbourhood. 

Portugal has also had claims to Territories in Africa for 
many years. She disputed the right which Great Britain 
claimed to sovereignty over the Island of BiUama, together 
with certain Territories adjacent thereto on the West Coast of 
Africa. The dispute was eventually referred to the Arbitra- 
tion of the President of the United States, and, on the 2l8t 
April, 1870, he gave his Award in favour of the claim of 
Portugal ; when the Portuguese proceeded at once to occupy 
the island and territory in question, and it has been in their 
possession ever since. 

Another dispute arose between Great Britain and Por- 
tugal, respecting the right of sovereignty over Delagoa Bay, 
which lasted for many years. It had been recognized by a 
Convention, signed between the two countries on the 28th 
July, 1817, that the Portuguese Possessions on the East 
Coast of Africa extended from Cape Delgado to Delagoa Bay 
(or the Bay of Lorenzo Marquez) ; but the British Govern- 
ment claimed rights over territories in the neighbourhood of 
Delagoa Bay which formerly belonged to the kings of Tembe 
and Mapoota, including the Islands of Inyack and Elephant. 
The dispute was referred to the Arbitration of the President 
of the French Republic, who gave his Award, on the 24th 
July, 1873, in favour of the Portuguese claim. 

It was also recorded in the Convention of 1817 that 
Portugal declared that she had retained her rights over 
Molembo and Cabinda on the Western Coast of Africa from 
5° 12' to 8^ S. Lat, and on the 26th February, 1884, a Treaty 
was concluded between Great Britain and Portugal, by which 
the British Government agreed, among other things, formally 
to recognize the Portuguese right to the Territory which she 
claimed on that part of the Coast of Africa. This Treaty was 



Digitized by 



Google 



PUEFACE. Xlii 

not ratified ; but rortii«4al subsequently asserted that as she 
possessed territories both on the East and the West Coasts 
of Africa, she possessed sovereign rights over the Terri- 
tories in Central Africa which separated her Possessions 
of Angola on the West Coast from those of Mozambique 
on the East Coast, and a Map was laid before the Portu- 
guese Cortes showing the extent of that claim. France, by a 
Treaty with Portugal of 12th May, 1886, and Germany by a 
Treaty with Portugal of 30th December, 1886, were prepared 
to recognize that claim, without prejudice to the rights which 
other Powers might have acquired over the Territories so 
claimed; but the British Government formally protested 
(loth August, 1887) against the validity of any such claim, 
and eventually, on the 11th June, 1891, a Treaty was signed 
between the two countries (and ratified) by which their 
respective spheres of influence in East and Central Africa 
were defined. 

The Islands of S. Thomas and Prhvces still remain in the 
undisputed possession of Portugal. 

Spain has, for many years, besides holding possession 
of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic, possessed the Islands 
of Fernando Po and Annobon, in the Bight of Biafra ; Ceuta 
and Melilla on the Coast of Morocco ; and certain Islands 
lying off the Mediterranean Coast of Morocco. She has 
also claimed Sovereign Rights over and has occupied certain 
Territories in Corisco Bay on the West Coast of Africa, 
although her claims to such possessions are still disputed by 
France. 

On the 9th January, 1885 (before the signature of the 
" Berlin Act ") she issued a Notification to the Powers to 
the effect that the Spanish Possessions over North- West 
Africa extended from Cape Blanco to Cape Bojador, and she 
has since, it is said, by an Agreement with France (26th 
December, 1886), extended her sphere of influence into the 
Interior as far as the parallel of 21^ 20' north latitude and 
of the meridian of 10° of long. W. of Paris. 

The principal European Powers, therefore, which occupied 
Territory in Africa in 1882, were Great Britain, France, 
Portugal and Spain. At that time neither the King of the 



Digitized by 



Google 



XIV PREFAOF. 

Belgians (as Sovereign of the Congo Free State), nor Ger- 
many, nor Italy held any recognised possessions in Africa. 

But as the attention of all the principal Powers of 
Europe was then attracted to Africa, a Conference was 
held at Berlin, at the invitation of the German Govern- 
ment, to discuss many important matters relating to the 
affairs of that vast Continent. At this Conference the 
following Powers were represented by Plenipotentiaries : — 
Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, 
Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, 
Sweden and Norway, Turkey, and the United States. 

It held it;S first sitting on the 15th November, 1884, and 
terminated its labours on the 26th February, 1885, on which 
day a General Act was signed, known as the " Berlin Act,'' 
in which the result of its deliberations were fully recorded. 
It dealt with the following questions : — 

1. Freedom of Trade in the Basin of the Congo. 

2. The Slave Trade. 

'S. Neutrality of Temtories in the Basin of the Congo. 

4. Navigation of the Congo. 

5. Navigation of the Niger. 

6. Rules for future occupations on the Coasts of the 
African Continent. 

This General Act was ratified by all the Powers assembled 
in Conference, except the United States. 

Early in 1890 another Conference between the Repre- 
sentatives of the same Powers was held at Brussels. This 
Conference dealt mainly with the question of the African 
Slave Trade by land and sea. 

Representatives from the Congo Free State, Russia, 
Turkey, and Zanzibar, also attended this Conference, and on 
the 2nd July, 1890, the Plenipotentiaries signed a General 
Act, known as the " Brussels Act," in which its deliberations 
were also fully recorded. 

A Declaration was also signed by the Signatory or adher- 
ing Powers who had Possessions or Protectorates in the Con- 
ventional Basin of the Congo, authorizing the imposition of 
an import duty not exceeding 10 per cent, ad valorem. 

The first country to recognize the Independent State of 



Digitized by 



Google 



PREFACE. XV 

the Congo was the United States (23r(l April, 1884). In 
April — May, 1884, France obtained from tlie King of the 
Belgians an Engagement not to cede to any other Power 
tlian France the Territories and States established by the 
Belgian International Society in the Congo region, and in 
the Valley of the Niadi Quillou ; but the King, by his Will, 
dated 2nd August, 1889, declared that after his death his 
sovereign rights over the Independent State of the. Congo 
such as they had been recognised by Treaties, Declarations, 
&c., entered into since 1884 between Foreign Powers on the 
one part and the International Association of the Congo and 
the Independent State of the Congo on the other part, 
were to be transferred to Belgium, together with all proper- 
ties, rights, and advantages attaching to that sovereignty, 
The recognition of the Flag of the Independent State of the 
Congo was recognized by Germany on the 8th November, 
1884 ; by Great Britain on the 16th December, 1884, and 
subsequently by all tlie principal Powers of Europe. 

On the 1st August, 1885, a Circular was issued by the 
Independent State of the Congo declaring its neutrality 
within the limits of its territory which were then defined. 

After this, events began to move rapidly in Africa. It 
was declared by the "Berlin Act" that whenever any 
Foreign State should, thereafter, acquire fresh Territory on 
any part of the African Coasts it should notify the same to 
all the Treaty Powers ; but this did not extend to Acquisitions 
or Protectorates in the Interior. In accordance with this 
understanding, Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, 
and Portugal, have notified to the Powers the various Pro- 
tectorates which they have assumed on the Coasts, all of 
which Notifications can readily be traced by reference to the 
Alphabetical Index under the heading of Protectouates. 

But, besides these Notifications, Agreements have also 
been entered into between Great Britain and Foreign States, 
as well as between Foreign States, for defining their respec- 
tive boundaries and spheres of influence in the interior of 
the African Continent and over the neighbouring Islands, as 
well as on the African Coasts. 

For instance. Agreements have been entered into between 



Digitized by 



Google 



XVI PRSFACB. 

Great Britain and France, for defining their respective limits 
and spheres of interest on the West Coast of Africa from 
Senegambia to the Gold Coast, in the Bay of Tajourra, and 
on the SomaU Coast. 

Similar Agreements have also been entered into between 
Great Britain and Germany for defining their respective 
limits and spheres of interest in East, South-West, and West 
Africa. 

In 1880 Italy began to take an interest in Africa, and a 
Blue Book was laid before Parliament respecting the pro* 
ceedings of the Italians in Assab Bay. (ParL Paper, Egypt, 
No. 15, 1882.) 

In February, 1885, she occupied Massowah, and she has 
since acquired extensive possessions on the Bed Sea literal 
now know as "Eritrea." In 1889 she acquired from the 
Sultan of Oppia a large extent of Territory along the East 
Coast of Africa, which has since been extended still further 
northwards by concessions from other local Chiefs. Protocols 
have also been signed between the British and Italian 
Governments for defining their respective spheres of interest 
in Eastern Africa, in the region of the Blue Nile and Abys 
sinia, and on the Somali Coast. 

The boundaries between the British and Portuguese 
Possessions and Spheres of Action on the East and West 
Coasts of AMca have also been defined. 

But besides the Agreements entered into between Great 
Britain and Foreign Powers, other Boundary Agreements 
have been concluded by France, Germany, Portugal, Zanzibar, 
and other Powers between themselves, and these various 
International Agreements will be found recorded in the fol- 
lowing pages under their respective headings. 

Maps have been inserted in numerous instances to illus- 
trate the text of these Agreements, which have been either 
reduced from the originals or specially prepared for this work. 

A General Map of Africa has also been added, upon 
which has been marked (approximately) the Boundaries of 
each separate State or sphere of influence, and the Nos. given 
of the Boundary Treaties and other Documents contained in 
the work which apply to that particular locality. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PREFACE. XVll 

A Subject Index, as well as a Chronological List of 
Documents, will also be found at the end of the Second 
Volume. 

There still remain many Territorial and other important 
questions to be determined in Africa, negotiations for the 
settlement of which are still pending, but it has been 
thought better to publish a Work containing a collection of 
the Documents which already exist and which constitute the 
Title Deeds of the various Powers to their present posses- 
sions and spheres of influence in Africa, rather than to wait, 
for an indefinite period, until the whole African Continent 
should be subdivided among the various nations of the world. 
With the present Work before them, it is to be hoped that 
others may be able, hereafter, to publish a more complete 
work upon the subject, and one more worthy of the Title 
which I have ventured to give to this incomplete one. 

Although the Work has been published with the sanction 
of the Secretary of State for Foreign AflTairs, it must be 
clearly understood that I am solely responsible for the 
selection of the Documents, as well as for the Notes which 
appear throughout its pages. 

In conclusion, I will only express an earnest hope that 
the many difficulties which have naturally attended the 
compilation and editing of such a comprehensive work as 
this will be fully realized ; and that any errors or omissions 
which may be discovered may be kindly pointed out to 
me, as such communications will always be received with a 
cordial welcome. 

• Edward Hertslet. 
Foreign Office, 

December, 1894. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OF MAPS 

TO ILLUSTRATE THE FOLLOWING TREATIES. 



Name of Country or Place. 



j Date of Treaty ] 

I or other i 

Document. 



No. of 
Docu- 
ment. 1 



-^ 



Afirioa. Gekebal map showing Territorial 
BousdarieB and Spheres of Influence of 
various States. 
Arms, ftc. Pbohibited zone. See Africa. 

General map. 
Bechuanaland. See Great Britain and Ger- 
many. 
Biffht of BiAfira. See France and Germany. 
Britiah East Africa Company. Possessions. 

Wanga to Juba River. 
Central Africa. Free Trade Zone. Basin of 

the Congo. Boundaries. Congo State. 
ConffO Basi^. See Central Africa. 

Conffo Free State. Boimdaries. 

,, and France. Manyanga 

District. 

„ and Great Britain 

„ and Portugal. Lower 

Congo. 
Damaraland. See Great Britain and Ger- 
many. 
Bast African Coaet. See British East Africa 
Company. Germany. Great Britain and 
Germany and Great Britain and Italy. 
Free Trade Zone. See Central Africa. 
Franoe and Congo Free State. See Congo Free 
State and France. 

„ and Germany. Bight of Biafra 

„ and Liberia 

„ and Obock 

„ and Tajurah '. , 

0ambia. See Great Britain and France. 
G^many. Possessions. Wanga to Bovuma. 
„ and France. See France and Ger- 

many. 
„ and Great Britain. See Great 

Britain and Germany. 
Gold Coast. See Great Britain and France. 

Great Britain and Congo Free State 

„ and France. Gambia 

„ and France. Gold Coast 

,, and Germany. Xyasa-Tan- 

ganyika Plateau. 





1 


1894 


— 


5 Mar., 1891 


20 


1885 


— 


1885 
22 Nov., 1885 


10 


12 May, 1894 
25 May, 1891 


A pp. 
GO 


24 Dec., 1886 

8 Dec, 1892 

11 Mar., 1862 

21 Sept., 1884 


78 

164 

68 

71 


1880 


129 


12 May, 1894 

10 Aug., 1889 

12 July, 1898 

1 July, 1890 


App. 
110 
118 
129 



Facing 
page. 



19 



150 
216 



210 
214 

992 
238 



296 

784 
270 
274 

650 



992 
558 
590 
648 



Digitized by 



Google 



XX 



Xame of Conn try or Place. 



I Date of Treaty 
I or other 
I Dooument. 



4' 



^ 



Ghreat Britain and Germany. Damaraland, 
Namaqualand, and Beclm- 
analand. 
,, Ditto. Togoland and Volta 

DiBtricts. 

„ Ditto. RiodelBey 

„ Ditto. Umba Biyer. Wanga 

to Lake Jip4$. Kilimanjaro. 

fy Ditto. Gull of Guinea to 

Lake Chad. 
,, Ditto. RasKasar to Blue Nile.. 

„ Ditto. Somali Coast 

Gulf of Guinea. See Great Britain and 
Germany. 

Italy. PosseBsions. Danakil Coast 

and Abyssinia 

and Great Britain. See Great Britain 
and Italy. 
Liberia. See France and Liberia. 
Karitime Zone. See Central Africa. 
Nyasa-Tanffanyika Plateau. See Great 

Britain and Germany. 
Obock. See France and Obock. 
Portugal and Congo. See Congo Free State 
and Portugal. 
jy and France. See Franco and Portu- 

, y Territories claimed in Central Africa 

Bio del Bey. See Great Britain and Ger- 
many. 

Slave Trade Zone. See Africa. General 
map. 

Somali Coast. Great Britain and Italy 

South African Bepubllo 

Spirituous Liquors Zone. See Africa. 
General map. 

Tajourah. See France and Tajourah. 

Tati District. South Africa 



1 July, 1890 



1 July, 1890 

14 Apr., 1893 
25 July, 1893 

15 Not., 1893 

15 Apr., 1891 
5 May, 1894 



2 May, 1889 
15 Apr., 1891 



No. of 
Docu. 
ment. 



129 



129 

131 
132 

133 

136 
136* 



IS 
136 



1887 



5 May, 1894 
27 Feb., 1884 



29 Oct., 1889 



186* 
179 



67 



Facing 
page. 



646 



6i6 

654 
656 

660 

668 
670 



12 
668 



326 



670 
848 



177 



Digitized by 



Google 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



LIST OP COUNTRIES. 

Page 
Abyssinia, fto. (Shoa, Ethiopia, Assab^ Aussa, Zula, and Danakils) 

n and Great Britain 1 

t, and Italy. See also G-reat Britain and Italy 4 

Africa. OentraL See Congo Free State, Egypt, France, and Xyasa- 

land. 

,, Bast. See British East Africa Company, Comoro Islands, 

Congo, Franco, German East Africa Co., Germany, Great 

Britain, Italy, Madagascar, Portugal, Somali, and Zanzibar. 

,, (General.) 19 

" Berlin Act," 26th February, 1885 20 

„ " Brussels Act," 2nd July, 1890 48 

,, North. See Egypt, France (Algeria), Morocco, Spain, 
and Tunis. 

„ North-west 105 

„ South. See British South Africa Company, Great Britain 

(Cape Colony), Great Britain and Netherlands, Orange 
Free State, and South African Republic (Transyaal). 
„ South-west. See Germany, Great Britain (Cape Colony), 

and Portugal. 
„ West. See Dahomey, Denmark, France, Germany, Great 
Britain (various Colonies), Liberia, Great Britain and 
^N'etherlands, Portugal, and Spain. 
Algeria. See France (Algeria) and Morocco. 
Assab. Sec Abyssinia, &o. 
Aussa* See Abyssinia, dc. 

Austria-Hungary 106 

„ and Congo. See Congo and Austria-Hungary. 

„ and Zanzibar. See Zanzibar and Austria-Hungary . 

Basutoland* See Great Britain (Basutoland). 
Beohuaaaland. See Great Britain (British Bechuanaland). 

), Territories nortli of. See Great Britain (Bechu- 

analand). 
Belffium and Congo. See Congo and Belgium. 

„ and Zanzibar. See Zanzibar and Belgium. 
British Central Africa Protectorate. See Nyasaland. 

British East Africa Co. and Brit ish GoTemmont . . » , 107 

„ and Italy 107 

„ and Zanzibar 107 

British South Africa Co <«... 178 

Cape of Gtood Hope. See Great Britain (Cape Colony). 

c 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



XXIV TABLE OF CONTEXTS. 

Page 
Comoro Islands. See France and Comoro Islands. 

Conffo 101 

,, and Austria-Uuiigary , 194 

,, and Belgium 106 

,, and Denmark 206 

,, and France 207 

and Appendix 

■ „ and Ghermany « 219 

„ and Great Britoiu 221 

and Appendix 

„ andltaly 227 

,, and Liberia 229 

„ and Netherlands 230 

„ and Portugal 232 

and Appendix 

„ and EuBsia . . . . • 239 

,, and Spain , 240 

„ and Sweden and Norway • 242 

„ and United States 244 

Dahomey 247 

,y and Franoe .....•• 247 

and Appendix 

,, and Great Britain 247 

„ and Portugal 247 

and Appendix 
Bamaraland. See Germany and Africa (S.W. Coast) and Great 

Britain and Germany. 
Banakils. See Abyssinia, &o., and France, and Africa East Coast. 

Denmark 255 

„ and Congo. See Congo and Denmark. 

„ and Great Britain 255 

East AtrioB. Co. See British East Africa Co. and German East Africa 

Co. 
East Coast of Africa* See Africa, East. 

Efirypt ; .t 259 

„ and Abyssinia. See Abyssinia (Ethiopia), &c. 
„ and Grtet Britain. See Egypt. 
Ethiopia. See Abyssinia, &c. 

Franoe , 267 

,, and Africa (Enst Coast), Obock, Tajura, Somali, &c 267 

„ and Africa (General). See Africo (General). 

,, and Africa (West Coast) 278 

„ (Algeria) 287 

- „ and Comoro Islands , 291 

„ and Congo. See Congo and France. 
,, and Dahomey. Sec Daliomey. 

„ and Germany 293 

and ippendix 



Digitized by 



Google 



TABLE OF CONTENTS, XXV 

Page 
France and Qroat Britain. See Great Britain and France, 
and Liberia. See Liberia and France, 
and Madagascar. See Madagascar and France, 
and Morocco. See Morocco and France. 

and Portugal • 208 

and Tunis. See Great Britain and France, and Tunis and 
France. 
„ and Zanzibar. See Zansibar and France. 
Gambia. See Great Britain (Gambia). 

0«nttan Baat Africa Co. 801 

,» n „ and Zanzibar. See Zanzibar and German 

Fast Africa Co. 

Germany 801 

„ and Africa (Fast Coast) 801 

,, and Africa (General). See Africa (General). 

„ and Africa (Soutb-west Coasl) 817 

,, and Africa (West Coast) 820 

ft and Congo. See Congo and Germany. 

„ and France. See France and Germany. 

„ and Great Britain. See Great Britain and Germany. 

„ and Portugal 828 

and Appendix 
„ and Zanzibar. See Zanzibar and Germany. 
Great Britain and Abyssinia. See Abyssinia, &c., and Great Britain. 
„ and Africa (Central). See Nyasaland. 

„ and Africa (East Coast) 827 

„ and Africa (North-west Coast) 106 

„ and Africa (South Coast). See Cape Colony. 

„ and Africa (South-west Coast). See Great Britain and 

Germany. 
„ and Africa (West Coast). See Great Britain, Gambia, 

Gold Coast, Lagos, Niger, Sierra Leone. 

, , (Basutoland) 329 

„ (Bechuanaland and the Kalahari) 383 

„ (British Bechuanaland) 333 

„ and Belgium, &c. See Congo Free State. 

,, (British East Africa Co.) . See British East Africa Co. 

„ (British South Africa Co.). See British South Africa Co. 

„ (Cape Colony) (Cape of Gk>od Hope: Walfldch Bay, 

Griqualand West, Koffraria, Pondoland, &c.) 889 

„ and Congo Free State. See Congo Free State. 

,, and Denmark. See Denmark, 

„ and Egypt. See Egypt. 

,, and France 687 

and Appendix 

, , (Gambia) 363 

„ and Germany 598 

„ (Gold Coast) 385 



Digitized by 



Google 



XXVI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page 
QT99Lt Britain Griqualand (East). See G-reat Britain (Cape Colony). 
,, (Qriqualand West). See Q^reat Britain (Cape Colony). 

and Italy 663 

,, (Eaffraria). See Great Britain (Cape Colony). 

(Lagos) 403 

„ and Liberia. See Liberia. 

„ and Madagascar. See Madagascar. 

„ (Matabeleland). See British South Africa Co. and 

Great Britain and Portugal. 

„ (Natal) 433 

,, (Niger). Niger Districts and Niger Coast Protectorate 439 

,, and Netherlands 671 

», (Pondoland). See Great Britain (Cape Colony). 

, , and Portugal 681 

tf (Sierra Leone) 481 

„ and South African Bepublic. See South African 

Republic. 

„ (Tongaland or Amatonga) 629 

„ (Walfisch Bay). See Great Britain (Cape Colony). 

„ and Zanzibar 749 

and Appendix 

„ (Zuluknd) 531 

Ghilnea Ooaat. See Chreat Britain (Gold Coast). 
Xbe*. See British East Africa Co. 
loliaboe Island. See Great Britain (Cape Colony). 
Xdutywa Beaerve. See Great Britain (Cape Colony). 

Italy 771 

„ and Africa (East Coast) (Oppia) 776 

„ and Assab, Ethiopia, Zula, and Danakils. See Abyssinia, &c.| 

and Italy. 
y, and British East Africa Co. See British East Africa Co. and 

Italy. 
„ and Congo. See Congo and Italy. 
„ and Great Britain. See Great Britain and Italy. 

„ andOppia 772,774 

„ and Spain. See Spain and Italy. 
„ and Zanzibar. See Zanzibar and Italy. 
KaArarla, See Great Britain (Cape Colony). 
Kalahari. See Great Britain (Bechuanaland, ^.). 

Liberia 777 

„ and Congo. See Congo and Liberia. 

„ and France 777 

and Appendix 

„ and Great Britain 777 

Xadaffasoar 787 

„ and France 787 

„ and Great Britain ,., , ,. 796 



Digitized by 



Google 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xxvii 

Ptga 
XatabelelaiUL See British South Africa Co. and Appendix. 
Xoroooo and France 801 

,> and Spain. See Spain and Morocco. 

„ and rarions Powerg 806 

Xt. AylUt See Great Britain ((^pe Colony). 

Xuaoat and Zanzibar. See Zanzibar and Muscat. 

ITamaanalwid. See Germanj and A£noa (S. W. Coast) and Great 

Britain and Germany. 
Katal. See Great Britain (Natal). 
KathtrliMidfl and Congo. See Congo and Netherlands. (See also 

Great Britain and Netherlands.) 
New Bapublic. See South African Kepublic. 
Niffar Oe. (Bojal Niger Co.) See Great Britain (Niger). 
Nomanaland. See Germanj and Africa (South-west Coast), and 

Great Britain (Cape Colony). 
Norway. See Sweden and Norway. 
NubU. See Egypt. 

Nyaaaland (British Central Africa Protectorate) '. All 

Obook. See France and Africa (East Coast). 
Oppia and Italy. See Italy and Oppia. 

Oraag«Free State 813 

Penfuin Zalanda. See Great Britain (Cape Colony) and Great 

Britain and Germany. 
Persia. Accession to Brussels Act. Note p. 48. 
Pondoland, See Gbeat Britain (Cape Colony). 
P^rtosal 821 

y, and Africa (East Coast). See Great Britain and Portugal, 
France and Portugal, and Germany and Portugal. 

„ and Africa (General). See Africa (General). 

„ and Africa (West Coast). See Great Britain and Portugal, 
France and Portugal, and Germany and Portugal. 

,, and Congo. See Congo and Portugal. 

ff and France. See France and Portugal. 

„ and Germany. See Germany and Portugal. 

„ and Great Britain. See Great Britain and Portugal. 

», andSouth African Bepublic (Transvaal) 821 

BlTera of the Soutli. See Gbeat Britain and France. 

Sode Yalley. See Great Britain (Cape Colony). 

Boyal Nicer Go. See Ghreat Britain (Niger). (See also Great Britain 

and France, and Great Britain and Germany), 
Bneeia and Congo. See Congo and Bussia. 
8t. John** Biver Territories. See Great Britain (Cape Colony). 
Seneffambia. See Great Britain and France. 
8hoa, Bee Abyssinia, &o. 
Sierra Z«eone. See Great Britain (Sierra Leone). 

Soootra 823 

SomaU Ooast 881 

Soudan. See Fgjpt. 



Digitized by 



Google 



XXVUl TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page 
South Africa Oo. See British South Africa Co. 

South African Bepubllo (TransTaal) 837 

South-west Ooaat of Africa. See Africa (South-west). 

Spain and Africa (North Weitt Coast) 881 

„ and Africa (West Coast) 881 

,t and Congo. See Congo and Spain. 
,, and Italjr. 

„ and Morocco 881 

Sweden and Norway and Congo. See Congo and Sweden and 
Norway. 

Swaziland 903 

Transkei. See Great Britain (Cape Colony). 
TransTaal. See South African Eepublio. 

TripoU 918 

Tunis and France 905 

(See also G-reat Britain and France). 

Turkey 917 

Vffanda. See British East Africa Co., Great Bricain, Africa (East 

Coast), and Appendix. 
United States and Congo. See Congo and United States. 
Walflsch Bay. See Great Britain (Cape Colony). 
West Coast of Africa. See Africa (West). 
Witu. See British East Africa Co. and Great Britain, Africa (East 

Coast) . 
XDsibeland. See Great Britain (Cape Colony). 

Zanzibar and Africa (General) 925 

and Austria-Hungary , 920 

and Belgium 926 

and British East Africa Co. See British East Africa Co. 

and France 927 

and German East Africa Co. , 923 

and Germany 930 

and Great Britain. See Great Eritaln and Zanzibar. 

and Italy 924. 

and Muscat 961 

and Portugal 963 

and United States 966 

Zuloland. See Great Britain (Zululand). 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OF DOCUMENTS. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OF DOCUMENTS, 



ABYSSINIA, &c., AND GREAT BRITAIN, 
No. Page 

1. 16 Not., 1841. Treaty Shoa and Qreat Britain. FriendBhip, 

&c 2 

2. 2 Nov., 1849. Treaty AbjBsinia and Ghreat Britain. Friend- 

ship, fto 2 

3. 3 June, 1884. Treaty Ethiopia and Great Britain and Egypt. 

BogOB, &o , 8 

ABYSSINIA, DANAKILS, &c., AND ITALY. 

4. 10 Feb., 1859. Treaty Ethiopia and Sardinia. Commerce. . . 4 

5. 15 Mar., 1883. Treaty Assab (Danakils) and Italy. Cession, 

Abliss (AuBsa), &c 5 

6. 21 May, 1883. Treaty Shoa and Italy. Boundaries, &c 6 

7. 3 Feb., 1885. Proclamation Italy. Occupation of MasBowah 8 

8. 7 July, 1887. Convention.. Aussa (Danakils) and Italy. Boad« 

Assab to Mt. Musalli 8 

9. 10 Aug., 1887- Convention.. Aussa (Danakils) and Italy. ABsab- 

AuBBa-Shoa Boad 9 

10. 20 Oct., 1887. Convention. . Shoa and Italy. Alliance 9 

11. 2 Aug., 1888. Notifioation . Italy. Protectorate over Zula 10 

12. 9 Dec., 1888. Treaty Aussa (Danakils) and Italy. Italian 

Protectorate 11 

13. 2 May, 1889. Treaty Ethiopia and Italy. Boundaries. 

Foreign Belations 12 

14. 1 Oct., 1889. Additional Ethiopia and Italy. Boundaries, &c. » 16 

Convention. 

15. 12 Oct., 1889. Notifioation . Conduct of Ethiopian Foreign Affairs 

by Italy 17 

16. 6 Dec, 1889. Notification . Italy. Protectorate. Aussa (Danakils) X8 

AFRICA (Gbnekal). 

17. 26 Feb., 1885, "Berlin Act'* Trade and CiviHzation. Free Navi- 

gation of Bivers Congo, Niger, &o. 
Slave Trade by Sea and Land. Oc- 
cupation of Territory on African 
Coasts, &o 20 

18. 2 July, 1890. "Brussels African Skve Trade, &c 48 

Act." 

Declaration. Import Duties , , . . S8 

10. 22 Dec, 1890. Tariff. Eastern Zone. Congo Basin 90 

20- 2July, 1891, Protocol.... Katifications. " BrusselB Act," Yarious 92 



Digitized by 



Google 



xxxu 



LIST OK DOCUMENTS. 



Xo. 

21. 2 Jan., 1892. Protocol.. 



Page 



Hatifications. Do. Austria-Hungarj. 
Russia, Turkey, France, Nether- 
lands 97 

22- 2 Feb., 1892. Protocol... Batifioations. Do. United States. .. . 102 



23- 80 Mar., 1892. Protocol... Ratifications. Do. Portugal. 



101 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA COMPANY. 



24. 24 May, 18S7. Concession . . 



25, 3 Sep., 1838. Royal Charter 



26. 9 Oct., 1888. Concession . 



27- 3 Aug., 1889. Agreement . 



28. 18 Nov., 1889. Deed 



29. 21 Dec, 1889. Agreement . . 

30. 4 Mar., 1890. Concession . . 



31, 5 Mar., 1891. 



Suppl. Agree- 
ment. 



Saltan of Zanzibar to British East Africa 
Association. Mrima. Wanga to 
Kapini. (See also Concession, 9th 
October, 1888) HO 

Imperial British East Africa Company. 
Zanzibar Dominions. Mrima. Wanga 
to Kipini, and Territories of Natire 
Chiefs U8 

SuUnn of Zanzibar to British East Africa 
Company. Extension of Privileges. 
Mrima. Wanga to Kipini and Islands. 
(See also Concession, 4th March, 
1890) 125 

British East Africa Company and Italy. 
Concession of Kismayu, Bravn, 
Meurka, Magadisho, and Warsheikh 
to be made by Company to Italy when 
conceded by Zanzibar to Company. . 187 

Transfer by British East Africa Com- 
pany to Italy of Company's rights 
over Brava, Meurka, Magadisho, and 
Warsheikh. Joint Occupation of 
Kismayu 142 

British East Africa Company and Zan- 
zibar. Customs R<;venues. Wanga 
to Kipini. 14G 

Sultan of Zanzibar to British East Africa 
Company. Kipini to Mruti. Lamu. 
Manda. Patta. Kwyho. Benadir 
Ports : — Kismayu, Brava, Meurka 
Magadisho, and Warsheikh. (Amend- 
ed by Agreement of 6th March , 1 893 1 48 

Modification by Sultan of Zanzibar of 
Concession to British East Africa 
Company of 4th March, 1390. Wanga 
to Kipini ; Lamu, IManda, Patta, and 
Kismayu oonoeded to Company ** in 
perpetidty.** Benadir Ports: — Brava, 
Meurka, Magadisho, Warsheikh, and 
Mruti undisturbed 150 



Digitized by 



Google 



UST OF DOCUMENTS. XXXUl 

No. Page 

32. 5 Mar., 1891. Agreement . . British OoTemment and British East 

Africa Company. Administration bj 
Company of Territory of Witu .... 153 

33. 18 Mar., 1891. Agreement.. British Vice- Consul at Zanzibar, the 

British East Africa Company, and 

the People of Witu 157 

34. 20 Mar., 1891. Notification. . British East Africa Company. Ad- 

ministration of Witu and of Coast 

from Kipini to Kismayu lOOl 

35. 1837 — 1891. List of British East Africa Company and Native 

Treaties. Chiefs .... 1G4 

3Q, 1887—1891. Notes On Boundaries of British Sphere of 

Influence on East Coast of Africa . . 170 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA COMPANY. 

37. 29 Oct., 1889. Boyal Charter Incorporation of British South Africa 

Company 174 

38. 1890, 1891 . . Notes On the British South Africa Company. 

Nrasaland, &o 183 

39* 1889—1891. Ahstraot of Macololo, Yao, and other Chiefs. Shir^ 

Treaties. Highlands 187 



CONGO FREE STATE. 

40. Austria -Hun- 24 Dec, 1884. Declarations. Becognition of Asso- 

gary. ciation, Trade, &c 194 

41. Belffiom 23 Feb., 1885. Declarations. Becognition of Asso- 

ciation, &c 196 

42. Oongo 1 Aug., 1885. Circular. Neutrality. Limits 198 

43. ,, 1 Aug., 1888. Decree. Administrative District}. . . 201 

44. n 10 June, 1890. Decree. Ditto. Eastern Kwan go . . 204, 

45. Denmark 23 Feb., 1885. Convention. Becognition of Asso- 

ciation, &c 205 

46. France Apr. — May, Notes. French right of rre-cmptiou 207 

1884. 

47. 9i 5 Feb., 1885. Couvention. Becognition of Asso- 

ciation. Boundaries, &c 209 

48. If 5 Feb., 1885. Additional Convention. Private Sta- 

tions and Properties 212 

49. ») 22 Nov., 1885. Protocol. Manyanga Region 213 

50. „ 22, 29 Apr., Notes. French right of Pre-emption 215 

1887. 

51. „ 29 Apr., 1887. Protocol. Oubangi Begion 217 

— n 14 Aug., 1894. Agreement. Boundaries App. 1002 

52. Germany .... 8 Nov., 1884. Convention. Recognition of Asso- 

ciation, &c 219 



Digitized by 



Google 



XXXIV LIST OF DOCUMENTS. 

Xo. Page 

53. Great Britain 16 Dec., 1884. Declaration. Kecognition of Asso- 

ciation, &.C 221 

54. n 16 Dec., 1884. Convention. Consular Jurisdiction, &c. 223 

— „ 12 Maj, 1894. Agreement. East and Central Africa. 

Spheres of Inflaence App. 990 

— „ 22 June, 1894. Withdrawal of Art. 8 of do App. 1000 

55. Italy 19 Dec, 1884. Convention. Booognition of Asso- 

ciation, &c 227 

66. Liberia 15 Dec, 1891. Treat j, Commerce, &c 229 

, 25 Aug., 1892. Adhesion to " Brussels Act " of 2nd 

Julj, 1800. (Note 48.) 
57i NetherlandE. . 27 Dec, 188 i. Convention. Kecognition of Asso- 
ciation, &c V 230 

58. Portugal 14 Feb., 1885. Convention. Recognition of As>o- 

ciation, &c. Boundaries. Cnbinda 232 

59. „ 25 May, 1891. Treaty. Lunda Region 234 

— „ 24Mar.,1894. Do. do App. 9S6 

60. )) 25 May, 1891. Convention. Boundaries. Lower 

Congo. Cabinda 236 

61. Bnssia 5 Feb., 1885. Convention. Recognition of Asso- 

ciation, &c 239 

62. Spain. ....... 7 Jan., 1886. Convention. Recognition of Asso- 

ciation, &c 240 

63. Sweden and 10 Feb., 1885. Convention. Recognition of Asso- 

Norway. ciation, &c 242 

64. TTnited States 22 Apr., 1884. Declaration. Recognition of Asso- 

ciation, &c 244 



DAHOMEY. 

65. 1847—1898. Kotes On Dahomey, Kotonou, Whyddb, Porto 

Novo, Ac 248 

— Jan. — June, Notes., French Protectorates and Sovereignty. 

1894. App. 990 



DENMARK. 

66 • 17 Aug., 1850. Convention , , Cession of Fort« and Possessions on the 

Gold Coast 256 



EGYPT. 
67. 1840—1892. Notes On the Boundaries of Egypt 25D 



Digitized 



7by Google 



LIST OF DOOUMEKTS. XXXV 

FRANCE AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). 

No. Pago 

68. 11 Mar., 1862. Treaty France and Danakils. Cession of Obook 

to Franoe 269 

69. 26Dec.,1880. French Notice Limits of Obock 272 

70. 9 Apr., 1884. Treaty France and Gobad. Friendship, Ac. . . 278 

71. 21 Sept., 1884. Treaty Franoe and Tajurah. Cession of Ta- 

jurah to France. G-ubbeb-Kharab, 

&c 274 

72. 18 Oct., 1884. Act Cession by Sultan of Tajurah to France 

of Q-ubbed-Eharab, Basala, and 
Sagallo 276 

73. 14 Dec, 1884. Act Cession by Saltan of Tajurah to Franco 

of Territory between Adaeli and 
Ambado • 277 

FRANCE AND AFRICA (WEST COAST).— Senegal, Gaboon 
(Nunez), Casaman^a, Niger, G-uinea Coast, French Congo, &c. 

74. 1819-1890. List Treaties with KatiTO Chiefs 278 

FRANCE (ALGERIA). 

75. 1880^-1844. Note French Occupation of Algiers 287 

FRANCE (COMORO ISLANDS). 

76. 21 Apr., 1886. Conyention.* France and Anjouan (Johanna). 

French Protectorate, &c 291 

— 26 June, 1886. Notification • French Protectorate orer Comoro 

Islands 292 

77. 15 Oct., 1887. Conrention.. France and Anjouan (Johanna). 

Amendment of Convention of 21st 
April, 1886 292 

FRANCE AND GERMANY. 

78. 24 Dec., 1885. Protocol Boundaries. BiafraBay. SUtc Coast; 

Togo. Porto Seguro and Little Popo. 
Senegambia. Southern Biyers IMs- 
trict, &c 293 

79. 1 Feb., 1887. Proems- Verbal Boundaries. Slave Coast 297 

— * l^^'* 1894. Protocol Boundaries. Cameroons. French 

10 Mmt.. 

Congo. Lake Tchad App. 981 



Digitized by 



Google 



XXXvi LIST OF documents/ 

FRANCE AND PORTUGAL. 
Xo. Page 

80. 12 ^ay, 1886. Convention • . Boundaries. Guinea, Fouta-Djallon, 

Con^o, Angola, Mozambique 298 

; GERMANY AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). 

81. 17 Feb., 1885. Charter German Colonization Society 803 

82. 1884—1890. Notes on German Fi-ote?loratcs in East Africa 305 

GERMANY AND AFRICA (SOUTH-WEST COAST). 

83. 1884—1892. Notes on German Protect orat<;8 on the South-west 

Coast of Africa 317 

GEilMANY AND AFRICA (WEST COAST). 

84. 1884—1890. Notes on German Protectorates on the West Coast of 

Africa 320 

GERMANY AND PORTUGAL. 

85. 30 Dec , 1886. Declaration . Spheres of Influence in South-west 

and South-cast Africa 323 

— Aug., 1891. Agreement . . Spheres of Influence. East Africa. 

Kiougr), &c App. 1004- 

GREAT BRITAIN (AFRICA EAST COAST). 

86. 19 Nov., 1890. Notification.. British Protectorate over Witu and 

other Territories and Islands lying 

off the Coast 327 

— 29 May, 1893. Provisional Vganda. British Protection, &c... App. 978 

Agreement 

— 18 June, 1894. Notification. British Prctcctorat p. Ugjincia. . . App. 90S 



GREAT BRITAIN (BASUTOLAND). 

87. 1813 1801. Notes on Basutolaml ,. 329 

GREAT BRITAIN (BRITISH B EC HU ANAL AND, BECHU- 

ANALAND AND THE KALAHARI), ami Terbitoky North 

OF Briiisu Beciiuanaland. 

88. 1831—1893. Notes on British Bechuanaland, Bcchuanalantl and 

the Kalukari, and Territory North of British Bechu- 
annlnnd 334 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OF DOCUMENTS. XXXVii 



GREAT BRITAIN (CAPE COLONY). 

No. Page 

89. 1662—1887. Notes on the Cape of Good Hope (Gape Colony) .... 341 



GREAT BRITAIN (GAMBIA). 
90 1788—1889. Notes on the Gambia 365 

GREAT BRITAIN (GOLD COAST). 

91. 1831—1891. Notes on the Gold Coast « 888 

GREAT BRITAIN (LAGOS). 

92. 1851—1891. NotesonLagOB 405 

GREAT BRITAIN (NATAL). 

93. 1843—1886. Notes on Natal 434 

GREAT BRITAIN (NIGER). 

94. 1*2—1893. Notes on the Niger Districts and Niger Coast Protec- 

torate • 440 

95- 5 June, 1885. Notification,. British Protectorate over Niger Dis- 
tricts 445 

96. 10 Julj, 1886. Royal Charter " National African Company " 44G 

97. 18 Oct., 1887. Notification. . British Protectorate over Niger Dis- 

tricts. " National Africa Com- 
pany," now called the " Boyal 
Company " 449 

98. 1884—1892. List Treaties with African Chiefs , 450 

99. 13 May, 1893. Notification. . Oil Rivers' Protectorate to be called 

the " Niger Coast Protectorate". . 479 

GREAT BRITAIN (SIERRA LEONE). 

100. 1788—1892. Notes on Sierra Leone 484 

GREAT BRITAIN (TONGALAND). 

101. 6 July, 1887. Treaty Tongaland. British Protection, 

Boundaries, &c • 629 

GREAT BRITAIN (ZULULAND). 

102. 1836—1888. Notes on Zululand 632 



Digitized by 



Google 



XXXVlll 



LIST OF DOCUMENTS. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND FRANCE. 



No. 




103. 


3 Sept., 1783. 


101. 


3D May, 1814. 


105. 


30 Nov., 1843. 


106. 


7 Mar., 1857. 


107. 


10 Mar., 1862. 


108. 


.!^Ma.y,1881. 


109. 


28 June, 1882. 


— 


I Feb., 188S. 


110. 


10 Aug., 1889. 


111. 


j| Nov., 1883. 


112. 


5 Aug., 1 800. 


113. 


5Au^'.,189\ 



Page 



114. 26 June, 1891. 



116. 1891—1892. 



lie. 

117. 



1886—1893. 
8 May, 1893. 



118. 12 July, 1893. 



Treaty West Coast of Africa. Senegal, Por- 

tendic, Gore^e, Fort James, River 
Gambia, &e 539 

Treaty Restoration of certain Colonies to 

France • . • . 640 

Prussian Award. Portendic Claims 641 

Convention . . Portendic and Albreda • 644 

Declaration. . Independence of Muscat and Zanzibar 

(Modified 5th August, 1890) 547 

Notes French Protectorate of Tunis. Main- 
tenance of Treaty Rights of Ghreat 
Britain and Foreign Powers, Bi- 
zerta, &c 648 

Convention.. Territorial Limits north of Sierra 

Leone 564 

Exchange of Spheres of influence. Q-ulf of Tajoura 

Notes and Somali Coast. Appendix . . • • 970 

Arrangement Seneganibia to Gold Coast. Slave 
Coast, Gambia, Sierra Leone, As- 
since, Porto Novo 658 

Exfliange of Approval of Arrangement of IQt^h 

Note?. August, 1889, do 668 

Dfchiration.. French Recognition of British Pro- 
tectorate over Zanzibar and Pemba. 
Modification of Declaration of 10th 
March, 1862 570 

Doclavnt Jon. . French Protectorate over Madagascar. 
French Sphere of Influence south 
of her Mediterranean Possessions. 
Line from Saye, on the Niger, to 
Barruwa, on Lake Tchad 671 

Agreement . . British and French Spheres of In- 
fluence in Niger Districts. Ap- 
pointment of Technical Boundaiy 
Commission 573 

Exchange of Ivory Coast. Extension of French 

Notes. Territory to Frontier of Liberia. . . 675 

Notes African Boundary Arrangements. . . . 682 

Joint Report British and French Commissioners. 
Position of Panchang and of Niam- 
buntang (Gambia) 588 

Arrangero ent Boundary between British and French 

Possessions on the Gold Coast .... 589 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OF DOCUMENTS. 



TCTCTn-T 



No. 
119. 

120. 

121. 

122. 
123. 



124. 



125. 



126. 



127. 



128. 



129. 
130. 



131. 



132. 
133. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY. 

Pago 
iej^e ^^^* Arrangement Spheres of Action. Gulf of Guinea, 

CameroonB, Ambas Baj, St. Lucia 

Bay,&c 596 

9 June, 1886. Froc^s-Vcrbal Great Britain, France, and Germany, 

Maritime, Littoral, and Continental 
Possessions of Sultan of Zanzibar. . 666 

16 Julj, 1886. Protocol .... British Claims in German Protector- 

ates in South-west Africa, Penguin 

Islands 608 

2j^* 1886. Suppl. Ar- Spheres of Action. Gulf of Guinea, 

rangement BiTcr Benue, Tola 612 

. J. '' 1886. Agreement. . Sultan of Zanzibar's Soyereignty over 

Islands and Territories on East 
African Mainland. Spheres of In- 
fluence. Adhesion of Germany to 
Declaration between Great Britain 
and France of 10th of March, 1862 616 
4 Dec., 1886. Adhesion. , . . Sultan ot Zanzibar to Anglo-German 

Agreement of October — NoTember, 

1886 622 

Mar., 1887. Agreement . . Establishment of Trading Stations 

within Spheres of Influence in East 

Af idea 623 

July, 1887. Agreement . . Discouragement of Annexations in 

rear of Spheres of Influence in East 

Africa 625 

Dec, 1887. Joint Becom- Britiah and German Commissioners, 
mendations Spheres of Influence. Interior of 

Togoland. Volta 628 

17 Aug., 1889. Award Belgium. Difference between British 

East African Company and German 

Witu Compjiny. Farming of 

Customs. Administration of Island 

of Lamu 630 

1 July, 1890. Agreement .. Spheres of Influence. East, West, and 

South-west Africa 642 

ll-?^-lS92, Protocol.... Boundaries. British and German 
24 Dec, 

Spheres of Influence. Lake Jip^, 

Wanga, &o 652 

14 Apr., 1803. Agreement.. Boundary. Gulf of Guinea. Bio del 

K«y 654 

26 July, 1893. Agreement . • Boundary. From Umba River to 

Lake Jip^ and Kilimanjaro 656 

15Nuv.,1808. Agreement.. Boundaries. From Gulf of Guinea 

into the Interior. • 1 1 . « 658 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OF DOCUMENTS. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND ITALY. 
No. Page 

134. 17 Aug., 1888. Declaration., Abolition of British Consular Juris- 

diction at MasBOwab • 664 

135. 24 Mar., 1891. Protocol .... British and Italian Spheres of Influ- 

ence in Eastern Africa. Biver 
Juba to Blue Nile 665 

136. 15 Apr., 1891. Protocol ., . . British and Italian Spberes of Influ- 

ence. Ras Kasar to Blue Nile. . . • 667 
138.* 5 May, 1894. Agreement . . Spheres of Influence. Eastern 

Africa. Somali, &o , . . . . 669 



GREAT BRITAIN AND NETHERLANDS. 

137. 1814—1871. Notes Possessions formerly held by the 

Netherlands on the West Coast of 
Africa 672 



GREAT BRITAIN AND PORTUGAL. 

138. 28 July, 1817. Additional Portuguese Limits on East and West 

Convention Coasts of Africa , • • 633 

139. 13 Jan., 1869. Protocol .... Dispute respecting Sovereignty over 

Island of Bulama to be referred to 
Arbitration 684 

140. 21 Apr., 1870. Award United States. Sovereignty of Por- 

tugal over Island of Bulama 688 

141. 1 Oct., 1870. Notification. . Portuguese Occupation of Island of 

Bulama 691 

142. 25 Sept., 1872. Protocol .... Dispute respecting Delagoa Bay 

(Louren90 Marques) to be referred 

to Arbitration 693 

143- Sept., 1873. British Case. Conflicting Claims to Delagoa Bay 

(Louron9o Marques) 694 

144. June, 1875. Exclutnge of Do. Non-cession of Territory to 

Notes. whichever Power awarded 697 

145. 24 Jidy, 1875. Award.. .... President of French Bepublic. Portu- 

guese Sovereignty over Delagoa Bay 
(Louren9o Marques) 701 

146. 7 Oct., 1882. Protocol . . • • Ratification of Convention between 

Portugal and South African Re- 
public of 11th December, 1875 
(with Explanatory Notes) 704 

147. 26 Feb., 1884. Treaty Portuguese Boundary on West Coast 

of Africa. Navigation of Rivers 
Congo and Zambesi . . , . • 713 



Digitized by 



Google 



UST OF DOCUMENTS. 



xli 

No. Pago 

148* 20 Aug. 1890. ConTontion • • Spheres of Influence. Navigation of 

the Zambesi, &c. (not Ratified, but 
see Agreement of 14th November, 
1890 716 

149. 14 Nov., 1890. Agreement . . Modus Vivendi. Spheres of Influence. 

Navigation of the Zambesi and 
Shir^, Ac Note 728 

150- II June, 1891. Treatv Spheres of Influence. East and 

Central Africa 781 

151. Mar. — June, Agreement .. Modus Vivendi. Spheres of Influence 

North of the Zambesi 743 



GREAT BRITAIN AND ZANZIBAR. 

152. 80 April, 1886. Treaty Exterritorialitj. Consular Jurisdiction 751 

153. 3 — 4 Dec., 1886. Agreement . . Limits of Sultan's Dominions. 

Islands of Zanzibar, Pemba, Lamu, 
and Mafia. Eau, Eismayu, War- 
sheiUi, Dar-es-Salaam, Pangani, 
Kilimanjaro District, Witu, &c. 
British and G-erman Spheres of 
Influence 754 

154. 31 Aug. 1889. Agreement. . . Lease for 6 years of Sultan's Domiu' 

ions to British East Africa Com- 
pany, Kipini to Mruti (except 
Witu, Lamu, Manda, Patta, Ki- 
whyu, Eismayu, Brava, Meurka, 

Magadisho, and Warsheikh 760 

155* 14 June, 1890. Provisional British Protectorate over Zanzibar 

Agreement Dominions (Succession, &c.) 763 

156. 4I^ov., 1890. Notification . British Protectorate over Zanzibar 

Dominions (with exceptions) 766 

157. 2 Feb., 1891. Declaration. . Exercise of Judicial Powers in Zan- 

zibar by other than Consular Offi- 
cers 767 

— 8 Feb., 1892. Notification . Free Port of Zanzibar App. 975 

— 22 June, 1892. Notification . Free Trade Zone App. 976 

158. 16 Dec, 1892. Declaration. . Consular Jurisdiction 768 

159. 17 July, 1893. Order in C... Natives of British Protectorates. 

British Jurisdiction over Zanzibar 
Subjects. Enforcement of Treaties, 
&o 769 

160. 31 July, 1893. Proclamation Administration of British Proteo- 

torate north of the Tana delegated 

to Sultan of Zanzibar. Witu, &c.. 770 

ITALY, 

161. 2 Mar., 1889. Notification . Italian Protectorate over Sultanate of 

Oppia. (Amended 20 May^ 1889) 772 



Digitized by 



Google 



xUl LIST OF DOCUMENTS. 

No. Page 

162. 20 May, 1889. Notification . Italian Protectorate over Sultanate of 

(Amended) Oppia, &c 776 

163. 19 Nov., 1889. Notification • Italian Protectorate oyer part of East 

Coast of Africa 774 

LIBERIA. 

164. 1816—1893. Notes On Liberia and Maryland 778 

MADAGASCAR AND FRAJ^CB. 

165. 8 Aug., 1868. Treaty French Consular Jurisdiction, Ac. . . 788 

166. 17 Dec, 1885. Treaty Foreign Relations, &c 791 

167. 27 Dec., 1885. Declaration . Maintenance by France of Treaties 

with Madagascar 794 

168. 1760--1885. List . . • . . . . Accessions by France of Madagascar 

Territory and Islands 795 

MADAGASCAR AND GREAT BRITAIN. 

169. 27 June, 1865. Treaty British Consular Jurisdiction. Sup- 

pression of Piracy and the Slare 
Trade,&c 796 

MOROCCO AND FRANCE. 

170- 10 Sept., 1844. Convention.. Frontiers between Morocco and 

Algiers 802 

171. 18Mar.,1845. Treaty Boundaries 808 

MOROCCO AND VARIOUS POWERS. 

172. SI May, 1866. Convention . . Capo Spartel Lighthouse • . . . • 808 

NYASALAND (BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA PROTEC- 
TORATE). 

^15 May, 1891. Notification. British Protectorate over Nyasaland 

Districts 811 

24 Feb., 1893. Notification. Title changed to "British Central 

Africa Protectorate'* 811 



173. 



ORANGE FREE STATE. 

174. 1848—1876. Notes On the Orange Free State 814 

PORTUGAL AND SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC 
(TRANSVAAL). 

175. 29 July, 1869. Treaty Boundary Dispute. Bay of Lourcnyo - 

Marques or Dclagoa Bay 822 

176. 11 Dec., 1875. Treaty Boundary, Dolagoa Bay Railway, &c. 823 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OP DOCUMENTS, xliil 

SOCOTRA. 
No. Page 

177. 23 Apr., 1886. Treaty British Protection ••... 828 

SOMALI COAST. 

178. 1840—1889. Notes On the Somali Coast 832 

SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC. 

179. 1852—1 890. Notes On the South African Republic .... 839 

SPAIN. 

180. 1479—1893. Notes on Spanish Possessions in Africa 882 

181. 24 Oct., 1778. Act Cession of Fernando Po br Portugal 

to Spain 884 

182. 9 Jan., 1885. Notification.. Spanish Pi otection over North West 

Coast of Africa. Capo Blanco to 
Cape Bojador 886 

SPAIN AND ITALY. 

183. Bee., 1887. Exchange of Spanish Naval Station. Assab Bay. 888 

Notes. 

SPAIN AND MOROCCO. 

184. 70ct.,1844. Treaty Limits of Ceuta 891 

185. 6 May, 1845. Treaty Frontiers of Ceuto, Laracho, Melilla, 

&c 893 

186. 24 Aug., 1859. Conrention.. Extension of Spanish Jurisdiction 

near Melilla, &c 894 

187. 26 Apr., 1860. Treaty Spanish Fortress of Ceuta, Sec 897 

188. 80 Oct., 18G1. Treaty. ..... Limits of Spanish Fortress of Melilla, 

&c 901 

SWAZILAND. 

189. 1881—1893. Notes on Swaziland , 90 

TUNIS. 

190. 1893—1883. Notes on Tunis ,,,. 906 

TURKEY. 

191 Notes on the Ottoman Dominions. 918 

192. 16 Dec., 1889. Law Prohibition of Traffic in Black Slaves 919 

ZANZIBAR AND AFRICA (GENERAL). 

193. 8 Not., 1886. Adhesion of Zanzibar to the Berlin Act. 926 



Digitized by 



Google 



xHv LIST OF DOCUMENTS. 

ZANZIBAR AND AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 
No. Pago 

194. 1 1 Aug., 1887. Treaty Consular Jurisdiction, &o 926 

ZANZIBAR AND BELGIUM. 

195. 30 May, 1886. Treaty Consular Jurisdiction, &o 926 

ZANZIBAR AND FRANCE. 

196. 17 Not., 1844. Treaty Independence of Sultans of Muscat 

and Zanzibar 927 

ZANZIBAR AND GERMANY. 

197. 20 Dec, 1885. Treaty Consular Jurisdiction, &c 930 

ZANZIBAR AND GERMAN EAST AFRICA SOCIETY. 

198. 28 Apr., 1888. Conyention . . Administration of portion of Zanzibar 

Territory by the Society 933 

199. 4 June, 1888. Agreement , • Custom Houses, &c 941 

200. 13 Jan., 1890. Suppl. Agree- Regie or Lease of Zanzibar Customs 

ment. Duties to the Society • . . • • 943 

ZANZIBAR AND ITALY. 

QOI / ^^ ^^7* ^^^^' Treaty Consular Jurisdiction, &c 945 

' 1 10 Oct., 1885. Add. Art. . . . Do. Italian Laws 948 

202. 8 Apr., 1890. Notification. . Administration by Company of Ports 

of Brava, &c., transferred by British 

East Africa Company to Italy . . • • 949 

203. 12 Aug., 1892. Concession to Italy of Benadir Ports, Brava, &c. . . • 950 

204. 15 May, 1893. Agreement.. Provisional Administration of Benadir 

Ports by Italy for three years . . • • 958 

ZANZIBAR AND MUSCAT. 

205. 2 Apr., 1861. Award Independence of Sultans 961 

ZANZIBAR AND PORTUGAL. 

206. 25 Oct., 1879. Treaty Consular Jurisdiction, &c 963 

ZANZIBAR AND UNITED STATES. 

207. 21 Sept., 1833. Treaty Consular Jurisdiction, Ac 965 

208. 3 July, 1886. Convention • . Consular Jurisdiction, &c c . 966 



[See also Appendix.] 



Digitized by 



Google 



ABYSSINIA, &c. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



ABYSSINIA, &c. 

LIST OF TREATIES, Ac. 

[For convenience of reference, all the Treaties concluded by Great 
Britain and Italy with Abyssinia, Shoa, Ethiopia, Assab, Aussa, 
Danakils, and Zula are inserted under the general heading of 
Abyssinia, Ac. The Protocols concluded between Great Britain and 
Italy respecting Abyssinia, Massowah, Ac, appear under the heading 
of Great Britain and Italy, p. 663]. The King of Ethiopia 
acceded to the " Brussels Act" of 2nd.Jnly, 1890, on the 16th Sep- 
tember, 1890. (See note« p. 48.) 

ABYSSINIA, &c., AND GflEAT BRITAIN. 
No. Page 

1. 16 Not., 1641. IVeaty Shoa and Great Bri- Friendship, &o. 2 

tain. 

2. 2 NoY., 1840. Treaty Abyssinia and Great FriendsLip, &c. 2 

Britain. 

3. 8June, 18Q4. Treaty Ethiopia and Great Bogos, &c. ... .• J2 

Britain and Eg^|;. 
— 17 Aug., 1888. 'De(*laration . . Abolition. British Consular Jurisdio- 

tion 4t Massowah. See Great Britain 
and Italy, p. 663. 

ABYSSINIA, DANAKILS, Ac, AND ITALY. 

4. 10 Feb., 1859. Tieaty Ethiopia and Sar- Commerce .... 4 

dinia. 

6. 15 Mar., 1888. Treaty Assab (Danakils) Cession, Ablis 5 

and Italj. (AuaBA)y&.c, 

6. 21 May, 1888. Treaty ....... Shoa and Italy .... Boundaries, Ac, 6 

7. 3 Feb., 1885. Eroclaroation . Italy Occupation of .8 

Massowah. 

8. 7 July, 1887. Conyention . . Aussfi (Danakils) Boad. Assab to -8 

and Italy. Mt. MusolU. 

9. lOAug., 18S7. Convention .. Aussa (Danakils) A^sab • Auesa « 9 

and Italy. Shoa Eoad. 

10. 20 Oct., 1887. Treaty ^ Shoa and Italy .... AlUance 9 

11. 2 Aug., 1888. Notification . • Italy Protectorate 10 

over Zula. 

12. 9 Deo., 1888. Treaty Aussa (Danakils) Italian Ptoteo- 11 

and Italy. torate. 

13. 2 May, 1889. Treaty Ethiopia and Italy. • Boundaries. 12 

Foreign Re- 
lations. 

14. 1 Oct., 1889. Additional Ethiopia and Italy . • Boundaries, &c. 15 

Conyention. 

15. 12 Oct., 1889. Notification . . Conduct of Ethiopian Foreign Affairs 17 

by Italy. 

16. 6 Dec , 1889. NotiBcation . . Italy Protectorate 18 

over Aus.sa 
(Danakils) 

1 IJ 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



1811-1881] ABYSSINIA, &c., AND GREAT BRITAIN. [NOB. 1-3 
l^Shoa, Elthiopia» Assab, AuBsa, Danaklla» and Znla.] 



Abyssinia, &c., and Great Britain. 

No. 1.— TREATY, Great Britain and Shoa, Efat, and the 
Galla, 16th Noveniber, 1841. 



On the I6fch November, 1841, a Treaty of Friendship and 
Commerce was concladed between Great Britain and His 
Majesty Sehala Selassie, " King of Shoa, Efat, and the Galla,** 
and his lineal sucoessorg ; but no boundaries were defined in 
this Treaty, and it is no longer in force.* 



No. 2.— TREATY, Great Britain and Ahysdnia. 
2nd November y 1849. 



On the 2nd November, 1849,t a Treaty of Friendship and 
Commerce was concluded between Gbeat Britain and the King 
of Abyssinia and his successors. The boundaries of Abyssinia 
were not defined, and the Treaty was terminated by thje war 
between this country and Abyssinia in 1868, which resulted in 
the death of King Theodore. 



No. 2.— TREATY, Great Britain, Ethiopia, and Egypt. 
Signed at Adowa, 3rd June, 1884. 



On the 3rd June, 1884, J a Treaty was concluded between 
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, His Majesty Johannis 

• H.T., Tol. Tii, p. 966. S.P., vol. xxix, p. 156. 
t n.T., vol. ix, p. 1. S.P., vol. xxxvii, p. 4. 
I II.T., vol. xvii, p. 1. 

o 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ko. 3] ABYSSINIA, &c., AND aRBAT BRITAIN. [3 Jnne, 1884. 

[Boffcw, fto.] 

Negoosa Negust of Ethiopia and its Dependencies, and His 
Highness the Khedive of Egypt, for the settlement of differ- 
ences between Egypt and Abyssinia. 

The following is an epitome of its provisions : — 
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Iraland, Empress of India, and His Majesty 
Johannis, made by the Almighty King of Sion, Negoosa NegUst 
of Ethiopia and its Dependencies, and His Highness Mahomed 
Tewfik, Khedive of Egypt, being desirous of settling the dif- 
ferences which exist between the said Johannis, Negoosa 
Negast of Ethiopia, and Mahomed Tewfik, Khedive of Egypt, 
and of establishing an everlasting peace between them, have 
agreed to conclude a Treaty for this purpose, which shall be 
binding on themselves, their heirs, and successors ; and Her 
Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, Empress of India, having appointed as her Repre- 
sentative Bear-Admiral Sir William Hewett, Commander-in- 
Chief of Her Majesty's ships of war in the East Indies, and 
His Majesty the Negoosa Negust of Ethiopia, acting on his own 
behalf, and His Highness the Khedive of Egypt, having ap« 
pointed as his Bepresenfcative his Excellency Mason Boy, 
Gt>vemor of Massowah, they have agreed upon and concluded 
the following Articles : — 

Art. I. — Free Transit for all Goods through Massowah to and 
from Abyssinia. 

Restoration of Bogos to Ethiopia. 
Art. II. — On and after the Ist day of September, 1884, 
corresponding to the 8th day of Maskarram, 1877, the country 
called Bogos shall be restored to His Majesty the Negoosa 
Negast ;* and when the troops of His Highness the Khedive 
shall have left the garrisons of Kass^ila, Amedib, and Sanhit, 
the buildings in the Bogos country, which now belong to His 
Highness the Khedive, together with all the stores and muni- 
tions of war which shall then remain in the said buildings, shall 
be delivered to and become the property of His Majesty the 
Negoosa Negnst. 

* Bogos was handed over to Abyssinia, 12th September, 1884. 

3 



Digitized by 



Google 



10 Feb., 1859.] ABTSSINIA (ETHIOPIA) AND ITALY. [No. 4 

[Oommeroe.] 

Art. III. — Withdrawal of Troops of Khedive from Kanala^ 
Amedib, and Sanhit. 

Art. IV. — Appointment of Ahoonas for Ethiopia by the 
Negoosa Negust. 

Art. V. — Extradition of Oriminals, 

Differences hetween the Negoosa Negust and the Khedive to he 
referred to Ser Britawnic Majesty, 

Art. VI. His Majesty the Negoosa Negust agrees to refer 
all differences with His Highness the Khedive which may arise, 
after the signing of this Treaty to Her Britannic Majesty for 
settlement. 

Art. VII,— Ba<i^a/iofw.» 

(King's Seal.) 
(L.S.) W. Hewett. 
(L.S.) Mason. 
Adowa, 3fd June,- 1884. 



Abyssinia, ftc^ and Italy. , 

'So. 4:.— TREATY. Sardinia and Ethiopia, 10th Febru- 

aiy, 1859.t 



On the 10th February, 1859, a Commercial Treaty was con- 
cluded between His Majesty the King of Sardinia, <bc., and 
the Desesmach Negnssie, *' King in Ethiopia." No bonndarios 
were defined in this Treaty and it was only to remain in force 
for 10 years. 

* Ratified by Her Majesty on the 4th July, 1884^ and by the Ehediye 
of Egypt on the 26th September, 1884. 
t Italian Green Book, 18S0, p. 10. 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 6] (ABYSSINIA, Ac.) ASSAB AND ITALY. [15 March. 1883, 
[Daaakils. CeMion of AblU (Aussa), &c.] 

No. 5. — TREATY between the Italian Oovemmeni and the 
Sultan of Assai, Mohavxed Hanfari, Chief of the Danakils. 
Signed at Kadeli Gubo, 15th March, 1883,* 

(Approved by the King of Shoa, 22ud May, 1883.) 

(Translation.) 

Art. I. — Peace and Friendship between the Italian Authori- 
ties in Aeaab and the Sultan Hanfari and his Dependents. 

Art. II. — Appointment of Representatives, 

Art. III. — Safety guaranteed to Italian Caravans passing 
between Assab Aussa, in the Kingdom of Shoa, and the Sea Coast, 

Art. TV. — Freedom from Duties and Tributes of all Italian 
Caravans coming from or going to Assab. 

Cession to Italy of part of Ablis (Aussa), 

Art. Y. The Saltan Mohamed Hanfari cedes to the 
Goyemment of His Majesty the King of Italy the use of the 
territory of Ablis (Aussa) on that part of the territory of Aussa 
suited for cultivation, there to establish an Italian commercial 
station. 

Art. VI. — All Religions to be equally protected. 
Art. VIL — Freedom to Italians to travel in all the Territories 
under the Dependency of the SuUan Mahomed Hanfari, Protec- 
tion of Dependents by the Italian Consula/r Authorities. 

Italian Protection of Safety of the Danakil Coast. 

Art. VIII. The men-of-war of His Majesty the King of Italy 
will protect on the sea-coast the safety of the Danakil littoral. 

Art. IX. — Convention to be submitted for the Approval of 
the King of Shoa^ and to be ratified at Shoa by an Italian Repre- 
sentative. 

Art. X. — Convention to be signed in three Languages. 

(Seal of Sultan Mahomed Hanfari). 
Kadeli Gnbo, 15th March, 1883. 

(Seal of the King of Shoa). 
Ankober, 22nd May, 1883. P. ANTONBLLI. 

• Italian Green Book, 1890, p. 127. S.P., vol. Ixxir, p. 695. 
5 



Digitized by 



Google 



21 May, 1833.] (ABYSdIXIA, &c.) SHOA AXD ITALY. [No. 6 
[Boundaries, &c.] 

No. 6. — TREATY between Shoa and Italy. Ankober, 
21st May, 1883.* 
(Ti'anslation.) 

Art. I. — Feace and Friendship betioeen the King of Italy 
and the King of Shoa. 

Art. II. — Appointment of Diplomatic and Consular Officers. 

Art. 111.— Liberty of Commerce . 

Aet. ly. — National Treatment in Comm^ce, Agriculture, and 
Manufacture. 

Art. V. — Religious Worship aiid Teaching. No other religion 
to be taught in Shoa except the Christian professed by the King. 

Aet. VI. — Disposal of Effects of Deceased Subjects of both 
Nations dying in the Territory of the other. 

Art. VII. — Facilities for travelling in Shoa. 

Art. VIlL' — Export and Impoft Duties* Ad valorem duty of 
5 per cent, on Italian Merchandize. 

Commercial Intercourse between Shoa and Assab. 

Art. IX. The two Contracting Parties shall do all in 
their power to establish frequent and safe commercial inter- 
course betweeh the States of His Majesty the King of Shoa 
and the Colony of Assab. 

Italy will watch over the security of the sea and the Colony. 
Shoa, on its side, shall provide by all its means for tbe safety 
of the roads in the interior, and for the transport of the caravans 
from, and to the sea, and His Majesty the King of Shoa will 
encourage the dispatch of caravans from Shoa to the sea 
towards the port of Assab. 

Art. X. — Free Transit for Italians from one Country to 
another. Protection of Roads against Danakils and Som>alis. 

Treatment by Italy of Natives of Shoa in Assab. Right to build 

Houses^ Sc 
Art. XI. His Majesty the King of Italy will freely grant 
to the natives of Shoa, who may arrive in Assab, a place where 
they may encamp or even build houses or huts, during the 
whole time that they may abide there. 

* Italian Green Book, 1890, p. 128. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Na. 6] (ABYdSINIA, Ac.) SHOA AND ITALY. [21 May, 1883. 

[Boundarias, fto.} 

Italian Consular Jurisdiction. Settlement of DisptUes between 

Italians in Shoa^ between Italians and Natives, and between 

Italians and Foreigners. 

Art. XII. The Government of Sboa shall never interfere 
in disputes between Italians, which shall be always and ezclns- 
ively decided by the Italian Consul or his deputy. 

On the other hand, the Italian Consular authority shall 
never interfere in the disputes between subjects of His Majesty 
the King of Shoa, which shall always be settled by the au- 
thority of the country. 

Suite between Italians and subjects of His Majesty the King 
of Shoa shall be decided by the Italian Consul or hia deputy, 
assisted by a Judge of the country. 

Suits between Italians and foreigners shall be decided in 
Shoa by the Consul of the party summoned, or, in default of 
the Consular authority of the State, by the Italian Consul. 

Transmission of Letters, ^c, from King of Shoa to European 

Oovemments through Italian Consuls. Italian Protection of 

Subjects of Shoa in Foreign Countries. 

Art. XIII. It shall be in the power of His Majesty the 
King of Shoa to avail himself of the Italian Consular authority 
or of the Royal Commissioner in Assab for all letters or com- 
munications which he may wish to have forwarded to the 
Governments in Europe where such aothorities are accredited. 
The subjects of His Majesty the King of Shoa may in the same 
way claim the protection of these authorities, both on the coast 
and in the various countries they may frequent. 

Art. XIV. — Most- Favoured-Nation Treatment to Permanent 
Trade Establishments, ^c. 

Art. XV. — Differences between Italian Govemm,ent and 
Chvemment of Shoa to be settled by Arbitration. 

Art. XVI. — Italian and Shoan Texts of Treaty to be of equal 
Validity. 

Art. 'S.Yll.— Revision of present Treaty after 10 years, by 
giving 12 m<mths* notice. 

Art. XVIII. — Exchange of Batifications. 

(Seal of King Menelik). 
Ankober, 21st May, 1883. PIETRO ANTONELLI. 



Digitized by 



Google 



3 Feb., 1885 J (ABYSSIXIA, &o.) AUSSA AND ITALY/ [No. 7 

[Boundaries, fto.] 

No. 1.— PROCLAMATION. Italian Occupation of Masso- 
wah. 3rd February, 1885.* 



(Translation.) 

To the Population of Massowah : 

The Italian Goyernment, in accord with the English and 
Egyptian, and without doubt also with the Abyssinian, have 
ordered me to take possession of the Fort of Massowah this day, 
and to hoist the Italian flag by the side of the Egyptian. 

By this occupation our troops will protect you ; and we are 
ready to pay for all we want. We shall respect your customs 
and religion. 

No obstacle shall be put by me to your trade ; on the con- 
trary, all my exertions shall aim at facilitating it, and I can 
assure you of the friendship of my Oovemment. 

We beg then that you will consider us as friends, and carry 

on your ordinary business and feel in perfect security. 

A. Caimi, Rear- Admiral. 
3rd February, 1885. 



No. 8.— CONVENTION between the Sultan of Aussa (Dana- 
kUs) and Italy. 7th July, 1887.t 



(Translation.) 

The 15th day of the month of Shawall of the year 1304 of 
the Hegira (that is the 7th of July, 1887), between the Sultan 
Mohamed Anfari and Count Antonelli, as Envoy of the Bo^al 
Italian Government, the following was agreed upon : — 
Art. I. — Abolition of the Traffic in Slaves. 1,600 " talleri " a 

year to be paid by Italy to Sultan Mohamed Anfari. 

Art. II. — Caravan road to be constructed from Assdb to Mount 

MusalU. Well to be sunk at Mount Musalli. 

(Stamp of the Sultan of Anssa). 

(L.S.) PIETRO ANTONELLI, 
Envoy of the Royal Italian Government. 

* A Prodamatioii to the same effect was issued bj the King of Italj on 
the 10th February, 1885. 

t Italian Green Book, 1890, p. 270. 

8 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 9] (ABYS3INIA, Ac.) AUSSA AND ITALY. [10 Aug., 1887. 
[Aflsab-AuMa-Shoa Boad.] 

No. 9.—C0NVENTI0Nletwem the Sultan of Aussa (Dana- 
kUs) and Italy, 10th August, 1887.* 



Convention between SuUan Anfari of Aussa and the Boyal Civil 
Commissioner of Assah for the opening of the Assah-Aussa^ 
8hoa Boad, 

(Translation.) Assah, 10th August, 1887. 

H.H. Mobamed Anfari, Head of the Danakils, agrees with 
the Royal Civil Commissioner of Assab to the following : — 

1. — Assah' Aussa-Shoa Boad opened to Traffic, 

2.-18,000 " talleri " to he paid to SuUan Anfari by Italy in 

four years. 

Administration of Justice hy Italy. 

3. The Administitktion of Justice belongs to the Italian 
anthorities on the territory of Beilnl and Onbbi, from Bas 
Dermah to Bas Bakma, and from the sea coast to Tomi (10 
miles from the coast). 

4. The inhabitants remain in possession of their goods. 

, 6. — Liberty to Italians to construct Wells, Beads, and Houses, 

(Stamp of the Sultan of Aussa). 
(L.S.) L. De SIMONE. 



No. 10.— TBFA TY, Shoa and Italy, 20th October, 1887.t 



On the 20th October, 1887, a Treaty of Alliance was con- 
cluded between H.M. the King of Italy and H.M. Menelik II, 
" King of Shoa, Kaffa, and the Galla Country." By this 
Treaty, Italy promised not to annex any of King Menelik's 
territory. 

• Italian Ghreen Book, 1890, p. 278. 

t Italian Gbeen Book, 1890, p. 270. 

9 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 Aug., 1888.] (ABYSSINIA, &c.) ZULA AND ITALY. [No. 11 

[Italian Protectorate of Zola.] 

No. M.— NOTIFICATION. Italian Protectorate over ZtUa^ 
2nd August, 1888. 



M, Catalani to the Marquis of Salisbury. — (Received 4ith August.) 

(Translation.) 

London, 2nd August, 1888. 
My Lord, 

In couseqnence of the repeated req nests of tlie people of 
Zula, which is situated to the south of Massowah, and which 
has remained np to this time under the Egyptian flag, although 
occupied by irregular Italian troops, the Italian flag has just 
been hoisted in this place by a detachment of Marines, and the 
Italian Protectorate has been solemnly established there and 
proclaimed in the name of the King's Government. 

In conformity with the instructions which I have received 
from H.E. Signor Crispi, according to Art. XXXIV of the 
General Act of the Berlin Conference, of the 26th February, 
1886 (No. 17), I have the honour to notify this fact to your 
Excellency, and I have recourse to your usual kindness in re- 
questing you to be so good as to take note of it. 

I have, <bc., 

T. CATALANI. ' 



The Marquis of Salisbury to M, Catalani. 

Foreign Office, 7th August, 1888. 
M. le Charge d'AfFaires, 

I HAVB the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your note 
of the 2nd instant, in which you inform me that the Italian flag 
has been hoisted at Zula, and that it has formally been declared 
to be under the Prot-eotorate of the Italian Government. 

I have, <tc., 

SALISBURY. 



• S. p., vol. Ixxix, p, 749.] 
10 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 12] (ABrSSINEA, &c.) AUS9A AND ITALY. [9 Dec, 1883. 
[Aasab-AuBsa-Shoa Boad. Danakil Coast.] 

No. 12. — TREATY of Friendship and Commerce between the 
Government of His Majesty tlie King of Italy and the 
Saltan Mohamed, Son of Anfari, Sultan of Aussa and 
Head of ail the DanaJcils, Adeli Gubdy 9th December, 1888. 



(Ti-anslation.) 

The Government of His Majesty the King of Italy and the 
Saltan Mohamed, son of the Saltan Anfari, Head of all the 
Danakils, being desiroas of uniting in one the varioas Con- 
ventions concladed between them on the 15th March, 1883 
(No. 5), the 7th July, 1887 (No. 8), and the 10th Angast, 1887 
(No. 9), and with the intention of rendering the Assab-Anssa- 
Shoa road perpetually free and open; and the Government 
of His Majesty the King of Italy having named as his Repre- 
sentative Count Peter Antonelli, and the Sultan of Anssa acting 
in his own name, have agreed to the following Articles : — 

Art I. — Peace and Friendship. 

Protection of Caravans. Italian Ships of War to protect Danakil 

Coast* 

Art. II. The Sultan Mohamed Anfari guarantees the 
security of the Assab-Aussa-Shoa road to all caravans coming 
from or going to Assab. 

The ships of war of His Majesty the ELing of Italy will 
watch over the safety of the Danakil coast. 

Italian SovereigTUy over Danakil Coast. 

Art. III. The Sultan Mohamed Anfari recognizes the whole 
of the Danakil coast from Amfila to Ras Dumeira as an 
Italian possession. f 

Art. IV. — Appointment of Diplomatic Fepresentative, 

Prevention of any other tlian Italians from occupying Aussa. 

Art. V. In case any other Power should attempt to occupy 
Aussa or any part in it, or its Dependencies, the Sultan 

• Italian Otreer\ Book, 1890, p. 376. 
t fc^ee map, p. 12. 

u 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 May, 1889.] (ABYSSINIA) ETHIOPIA AND ITALY. [No. 13 
[Boundaries, Ac.^ 

Mohamed Anfari shall oppose it, and shall raise the Italian flag, 
declaring that his own States with all their dependencies are 
nnder Italian Protection. 

Abt. VI. — Constriiction of Gomel Eoadfrom AsmJ) to Aus$a. 

Aet. YIL— Slave Trade. 

Abt. VIII. — Immunity of Caravans from Taxation and 
Customs Dues. 

Aet. IX. — Prices for Camel Hire, 

Art. X. — Remuneration of Couriers between Assah and 8koa, 

Aet. XI. — Payment of Italian Subsidy to Sultan Anfari. 

Concession of Oambo Kona to Italy. 

Aet. XII. The Sultan Mohamed Anfari gives np to the 
Italian Qoyemment the use of the territory of Gambo Kona to 
establish a commercial station there, and a place for yictnalling 
caravans to or from Assab. 

Aet. XIII. — Annual Remuneration to Sultan for Protection of 
Caravans. 

Aet. XIV. — Exchange of Ratifications. 

PIETRO ANTONELLI. 
(Seal of the Snltan of Anssa.) 
Adele Gab<$ (Anssa), 9th December, 1888. 



No. 12.— TREATY. Ethiopia and Italy. 2nd May, 1889.* 



(Translation.) 

His Majesty Humbert I, King of Italy, and His Majesty 
Menolek II, King of Kings of Ethiopia, in order to render pro- 
fitable and secure the peace between the two Kingdoms of Italy 
and Ethiopia, have decided to conclude a Treaty of Friendship 
and Commerce : 

And His Majesty the King of Italy, having sent as his Re- 
presentative and Envoy Extraordinary to His Majesty King 
Menelek Count Antonelli, <&c., whose powers have been duly 
recognised, and His Majesty King Menelek, negotiating in his 

• Ratified 29th September, 1880. Italian Green Book, 1800, p. 434. 

12 



Digitized by 



Google 



To^pagt 12. 



Map shewing the Italian Possessions 

on the 

Danakil Coast according to the Treaty between Italy 

and the 
Sultan of Aussa of S'T Dec? 1886- 



jMtaiACflTi^ Jk>ss0ssion»s coHour^ Orsen. 




43 



Mat ?fB^<undahr 




MuMJP 



% 






JbrU 



W 






I Arw^y^Q 



j^ 



«^' 



M map was aXtojcfud to IhtTrtMfy of S^Decembet 1888, i 

WyMn ft Sons.l!*.Lith.63.C«rt€P L^OQkSy.//^* 



Map Showing 
Italian Possessions on Danakil Coast. 
TO Illustrate theTreaty between 

Italy and Aussa. 

of the 9T" December 1888. 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 13] (ABYSSINIA; ETHIOPIA AND ITALY. [2 IT ay, 1880. 
[Bonndarie*, Ao,"] 

own name as King of Kings of Ethiopia, have concluded and do 
oonclnde the following Articles : — 

Art. I. — Perpetual Peace afid FriencUhijp. 

Art. II. — Appointment of IHplomaiic and Consular Officers, 

Boundary between Italy and Ethiopia. 

Art. III. In order to remove any doabt as to the limits of 
the territory over which the two Contracting Parties exercise 
sovereign rights, a Special Commission, composed of two Italian 
aod two Ethiopian Delegates, shall trace with permanent land- 
marks a bonndarj-line, the leading features of which shall be 
ap follows ; — 

(a.) The boundary between Italy and Ethiopia shall follow 
the high table-land. 

(6.) Starting from the coantry of Afrafali, the villages of 
Uulai, Soganeiti, and Asmara shall be within the Italian 
boundary. 

(c.) Adi Nefas and Adi Johannes, in the direction of the 
Bogos tribe, shall be within the Italian boundaiy. 

(rf.) From Adi Jbhannes the boundary between Italy and 
Ethiopia shall be marked by a straight line running east and 
west. 

Convent of Dehra Bizen, 

Art. IV. The Convent of DebraBizen, with all its property, 
shall remain in the possession of the Ethiopian Government, 
who shall not, however, be able to make use of it for military 
purposes. 

Art. V. — Customs Dues payable by Caravans, 8 per cent, 
ad valorem. 

Freedom of Commerce in Arms and Ammunition through MaS' 
sowah for King Menelek, 

Art. VI. Commerce in arms and ammunition to and from 
Ethiopia shall be free to pass through Massowah only for King 
Menelek, who will be bound to make a regular application to 
that effect to the It^alian authorities, famished with the Royal 
seal. 

13 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 May. 1889.] (ABYSSINIA) ETHIOPIA AND ITALY. [No. 13 
[Boundaries, Ao, "Foreign Belations.] 

The caravans, arms, and ammnnition will travel under the 
protection and with the escort of Italian soldiers as far sa the 
Ethiopian frontier. 

Aet. VII. — Freedom of Travel and Cormnerce. Armed 
Men prohibited from crossing frontier to intimidate or molest In- 
habitants. 

Art. VIII. — Freedom of Commerce with Natives in Italy 
and Ethiopia. 

Art. IX. — Eeli^imis Liberty guaranteed. 

Art. 'X^.^^Jv/risdiction. Disputes and Lawsuits betweeji Italians 
in Ethiopia to be settled by Italian Authorities at Massowah or their 
Delegates. Disputes between Italian and Ethiopians to be settled 
by Italian Authorities at Massowah, or by Italian and Ethiopian 
Delegates. 

Art. XI. — Disposal of Effects of Italians dying in Ethiopia 
and of Ethiopians dying in Italy. 

Art. XII. — Jurisdiction. Italians accused of a Crims to be 
judged by the Italian Authorities at Massowah. Ethiopians 
accused of a Crime committed in Italian Territory to be tried by 
Ethiopian Authorities. [Altered by Ai-t. IX of Treaty of Ist 
October, 1889. No. 14.] 

Art. XIII — Extradition of Criminals. 

Art. XIV. — Prevention of Slave Trade. No Caravan of 
Slaves to be allowed to pass through King Menelek's Territories. 

Art. XV. — Validity of Treaty in the whole of the Empire. 

Art. XVI. — Power of either Party to modify Treaty after 
5 years, on giving a yearns notice. Concessions of Territory to be 
unalterable. 

Negotiations of Ethiopia with Foreign Powers to be mad>^ through 
Italian Government. 

Art. XVII. His Majesty the King of Kings of Ethiopia 
consents to avail himself of the Italian Government for any 
negotiations which he may enter into with the other Powers or 
Governments* (per tutte le trattazioni diaffari che avesse con alt re 
potenze o govemi). 

• Notified to Brititli OoTernmont, 12th October, 18^'9, p. 17. 
U 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 14] (ABYSSINIA) ETHIOPIA AND ITALY. [1 Oct., 1889. 

[Botindaries, &o.] 

Preferential Treatment to Italians in Ethiopia in regard to the 
establishment of Hotcses of Commerce or Manufactures, 

Abt. XYIII. If at anj time His Majesty the King of 
Ethiopia should have the intention of granting special privileges 
to subjects of a third State in regard to the establishment of 
houses of commerce or manufactures in Ethiopia, he shall 
always give preference, when all other conditions are equal, to 
Italians. 

Abt. XIX. — Both Italian and Amharic Texts of Treaty to 
he considered Official^ and of the same authority. 

Ratification of Treaty » 
Abt. XX. The present Treaty shall be ratified.* 
In faith of which Count Pietro Antonelli, in the name of 
His Majesty the King of Italy, and His Majesty Menelek, 
King of Kings of Ethiopia, in his own name, have signed and 
sealed the present Treaty in the encapment of Uccialli, on the 
25th Mazzia, 1881, corresponding to the 2nd May, 1889. 
For His Majesty the King of Italy, 

(L.S.) PlETBO ANTONEtLI. 

(Imperial Seal of Ethiopia.) 



No. VL— ADDITIONAL CONVENTION to TreaiyUtwcen 
Italy and Ethiopia^ of 2nd May^ 1889. Naples^ \st 
October, 1889.} 



In the name of the Most Holy Trinitj. 
(Translation.) 

His Majesty the King of Italy and His Majesty the Emperor 
of Ethiopia, being desirous of concluding a Convention in addi- 
tion to the Treaty of Friendship and Commerce signed at the 
Camp of Uccialli on the 2nd May, 1889 (25 Mazzia, 1881, of 
the Ethiopian Calendar (No. 13), have named as their Plenipo- 
tentiaries : 

• Ratified by the King of Italy, September 29, 1889. 

t Ratified by the King of Kings, Menelek, at MakalU, on th« 26th 
February, 1890. 

t Italian Green Book, 1890, 2nd Series, p. 19. 

15 c 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 Oct^ 1889 J (ABYSSINIA) ETHIOPIA AND ITALY. [No. 14 

[Botindiules, fto.] 

His Majesty the King of Italy, Cavaliers Francesco Crispi, 
President of the Coancil of Ministers, and his Minister Secretary 
of State ad interim for Foreign Affairs ; and 

His Majesty the Emperor of Ethiopia, the Degiasmac Makon- 
nen, his Ambassador to His Majesty the King of Italy ; 

irho; famished with full powers, have agi*eed as follows : 

Becognition hy Italy of King Menelek as Emperor of Ethiopia, 

Art. I. The King of Italy recognizes King Menelek as 
Emperor of Ethiopia. 

/\ Recognition hy King Menelek of Italian Posgessions in the Bed Sea. 

3(l Art. II. King Menelek recognizes the sovereignty of the 
King of Italy in the Colonies which go under the name of 
Italian possessions in the Red Sea. 

Rectification of respective Possessions. 

Art. III. In virtae of the preceding Articles, a rectification 
of the territories shall be made, taking as a basis the actual state 
of possession, by the means of Delegates who shall be nom- 
inated by the King of Italy and by the Emperor of Ethiopia, 
according to the terms of Article III of the Treaty of the 2nd 
May, 1889 (25 Mazzia, 1881). (No. 13.) 

Art. IV,— Coinage to he struck in Italy for currency in 
Ethiopia, 

Art. V. — Loan of 4,000,000 Lire to he contracted hy 
Emperor of Ethiopia with an Italian Bank, under guarantee of 
Italian Oovemment, on security of receipts of Harrar Custom 
House.* 

Art. VI. — Bight of Italy to take over Administration of the 

• On the 26th October, 1889, a Conyention wm concluded between the 
Italian Goyernment, the Ooyemment of the Emperor of Ethiopia, and 
the National Bank of the Kingdom of Italy, respecting the grant of a loan 
of 2,000,000 lire (80,000^.) by the National Bank of Italy to the Goyem- 
ment of the Emperor of Abyssinia ; and on the same day another Conyen- 
tion was signed between the Italian Goyemment and the National Bank 
of Italy for guaranteeing the said loan, subject to the approyal of the same 
hj the Italian Legislature. 

16 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 15] (ABYSSINIA) ETHIOPIA AND ITALY, [lit Oct., 1886. 
[Bthioplan Foreign Alfitirs.] 

Harrar Oustom House in event of non-repayment of the Loan 
regulwrly. 

Art. YII. — Half of Loan to he paid in Silver^ and the fe^ 
mainder to he deposited in Italy to meet purchases from Ethiopia in 
Italy, 

Abt. VIII. — Application of Gustom Duties referred to in 
Article V to all Caravans passing over Ethiopian Roads* 

Italian Jurisdiction, 

Akt. IX. The Ethiopians who commit a crime on Italian 
territory will always be judged by Italian authorities.* 

Art. X. — Application of Convention to all Territory within 
King MeneleWs dominions. 

Art. XI. — Convention to he ratified, 

[For Boundary Agreements between Great Britain and Italj^ 
of 24th March and 15th April, 1891, see Great Britain 
and Italy. Pages 665, ^^7,1 



No. IS.— ITALIAN NOTIFICATION. Conduct by Italy 
of Ethiopian Foreign Affairs. 12th October, 1889. 



M. Catalani to the Marquis of Salisbury* 
(Translation.) 
My Lord, 20, Orosvenor Square, 12th Octohery 1889. 

Under Article XVII of the perpetual Treaty between Italy 
and Ethiopia, signed by His Majesty King Menelek on the 2nd 
May, 1889 (No. 13), and ratified by His Majesty the iGug of Italy 
on the 29th September last, it is provided that " His Majesty the 
King of Ethiopia consents to avail himself of the (government 
of His Majesty the King of Italy for the conduct of all matters 
which he may have with other Powers or Governments." 

In virtue of the instructions which I have received from his 
Excellency Signer Crispi, I have the honour to notify the 

• See also Art. XII of Treaty of 2nd May, 1889, p. 14. 

17 C 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



6 Dec, 1889.] (ABYSSINIA, &o.) AUSSA AND ITALY. [No. 16 
[Italian Protectorate of Anssa. Danakils.] 

above-mentioned sfcipnlation to your Excellency in pursuance of 

Article 34 of the General Act of the Conference of Berlin of 

February, 1885 (No. 17). 

V Accept, &c., 

T. CATALANI. 



No. \e.— ITALIAN NOTIFICATION. Italian Protec- 
tor ate over Aussa (Danakils), 6th December, 1889. 



(1.) Count Tomielli to the Marquis of Salisbury, 
(Translation.) 
My Lord, London, 6th December, 1889. 

I AM instructed by my Government to make to that of Her 
Britannic Majesty the following communication : — 

Article V of the Treaty concluded between Italy and the 
Sultan of Aussa, Head of the Danakils (No. 12), is worded thus : 
" In case any other Power were to try to occupy Aussa, or any 
point within its territory or Dependencies, the Saltan shall 
oppose it ; and is bound to hoist the Italian flag, declaring that 
his States and their Dependencies are under Italian protection." 
I ani informed by my Government that this notification has 
been simultaneously made to all the States who have signed the 
" Acte General " of the Conference of Berlin (No. 17). 

1 have, &c., 

G. TORMELLI. 



(2.) The Marquis of Salisbury to Count Tomielli, 

M. TAmbassadeur, Foreign Office, 16th December, 1889. 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your 
Excellency's note of the 6th instant, notifying to Her Majesty's 
Government, in accordance with the provisions of Article 34 of 
the General Act of the Conference at Berlin of the 26th Febru- 
ary, 1885 (No. 17), that an Italian Protectorate has been 
established over the Sultanate of Aussa and its Dependencies. 

I have, &c., 

SALISBURY. 
18 



Digitized by 



Google 



AFRICA (GENERAL). 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 




17. 


26 Feb., 1885. 




19 Apr., 1886.. 


— 


8 Not., 1886. 


18. 


2 Julj, 1890. 


— 


2 July, 1890. 


— 


8 July, 1890. 


— 


16 Sep., 1890. 


19. 


22 Dec., 1890. 


20. 


2 July, 1891. 


21. 


2 Jan., 1892. 


22. 


2 Feb., 1892. 


23. 


80 Mar., 1892. 


— 


7-25 Aug., 1892. 



AFKICA (General). 

Page 
** Berlin Act." Trade and Civilization. Free 
Navigation of Birers Congo, Niger, &c. Slave 
Trade by Sea and Land. Occupation of 

Territory on African Coasts, &c 20 

. Ratifications. Do. (except United States) .... 45 
Accession. Zanzibar. Berlin Act. (See Zanzi- 
bar, p. 913.) 

'* Brussels Act." African Slave Trade, &c 48 

Do. Declaration. Import Duties 88 

Accession. Persia. Brussels Act Note. 88 

Accession. Ethiopia. Brussels Act Note. 48 

Tariff. Eastern Zone. Congo Basin 90 

Protocol. Aatifications. Brussels Act. Yarioua 92 
Protocol. Batifications. Do. Austria-Hungary. 

Bussia. Turkey. France. Netherlands ... 97 

Protocol. Batifications. Do. United States. . 102 

Protocol. Batifications. Do. Portugal 104 

Accession. Liberia. Brussels Act Note. 88 



19 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 Feb., 1885.] AFRICA (OEXERAL). [No. 17 

[Berlin Act. Trade and ClviliBation. Blvers Conffo, Nisrer, Ac. Slave 
Trade by Sea and Land. Oooupation of Territory on Coasts, &o.] 

No. n.— GENERAL ACT of the Conference of Berlin, 
relative to tlie DevelopinerU of Trade and Civilizaii&a in 
Africa ; the free Navigation of the Rivers Congo, Niger 
ikc. ; the siippressio7i of the Slave Trade by Sea and Land ; 
the occupation of Territory on th^e African Coasts^ &c. 
Signed at Berlin, 26th February, 1885.* 
(Translation.) 
In the Name of Almighty G-od. 
Preamble, 
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, Empress of India ; His Majesty the German 
Emperor, King of Prussia; His Majesty the Emperor of 
Anstria, King of Bohemia, &c., and Apostolic King of Hun- 
gary ; His Majesty the King of the Belgians ; His Majesty the 
King of Denmark ; His Majesty the King of Spain ; the Presi- 
dent of the- United States of America; the President of the 
French Republic ; His Majesty the King of Italy ; His Majesty 
the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxemburg, &c. ; 
His Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves, &c. ; His 
Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias; His Majesty the 
King of Sweden and Norway, . &c. ; and His Majesty the 
Emperor of the Ottomans, wishing, in a spirit of good and 
mutual accord, to regulate the conditions most favourable to 
the development of trade and civilization in certain regions of 
Africa, and to assure to all nations the advantages of free navi- 
gation on the two chief rivers of Africa flowing into the 
Atlantic Ocean ; being desirous, on f he other hand, to obviate 
the misunderstanding and disputes which might in future arise 
from new acts of occupation (" prises de possession ") on the 
coast of Africa ; and concerned, at the same time, as to the means 
of furthering the moral and material well-being of the native 
populations, have resolved, on the invitation addressed to them 
by the Imperial Government of Germany, in agreement with 
the Government of the French Republic, to meet for those 

• For Protocols of Conferences, see S. P., vol. Ixxv, p. 1178, and toI. Ixxvi, 
p. 1021. See also Brussels Act of 2nd July, 1890, p. 48, and Declaration 
of same date, respecting Import Duties, p. 88. 

80 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 17] AFRICA (aENERAL). [26 Feb., 1885. 

[Berlin Act. Trade and Civilization. Bivers Conffo, Niffer, Ac. Slave 
Trade by Sea and Land. OocajMition of Territory on Ooasts, Ac] 

parposes in Conference at Berlin, and have appointed as their 
Plenipotentiaries, to wit : — 

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, Sir Edward Baldwin 
Malet, her Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at the 
Court of His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia ; 

His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia, Otho, 
Prince von Bismarck, his President of the Prussian Council of 
Ministers, Chancellor of the Empire; Paul, Count von Hatzfeldt, 
his Minister of State and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs ; 
Aaguste Busch, his Acting Privy Councillor of Legation and 
Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs ; and Henri von 
Kusserow, Privy Councillor of Legation in t e Department for 
Foreign Affairs ; 

His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, Ac, 
and Apostolic King of Hungary, Em eric. Count Sz^cli^nyi de 
Sarvari Felso-Videk, Chamberlain and Acting Privy Councillor, 
his Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at the Court 
of His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia; 

His Majesty the King of the Belgians, Gabriel Anguste 
Count van der Straten-Ponthoz, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of His Majesty ' the 
German Emperor, King of Prussia ; and Auguste, Baron Lam- 
bermont. Minister of State, Envoy Extraordinary and Mmister 
Plenipotentiary ; 

His Majesty the King of Denmark, fimile de Vind, Chamber- 
lain, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at 
the Court of His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia ; 

His Majesty the King of Spain, Don Francisco Merxy j 
Colom, Count Benomar, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary at the Court of His Majesty the German 
Emperor, King of Prussia ; 

The President of the United States of America, John A. 
Kasson, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of 
the United States of America at the Court of His Majesty the 
German Emperor, King of Prussia, and Henry S. Sandford, 
ex-Minister ; 

21 



Digitized by 



Google 



28 Feb., 1885.] AFRICA (GENERAL). [No. 17 

[Berlin Act. Trade and CivilliEatlon. Bivers Conero, Nlffer, fto. Slave 
Trade by Sea and Land. Oocupation of Territory on Coasts, Ac] 

The President of the French Republic, Alphonse, Baron de 
Coarcel, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
France at the Court of His Majesty the German Emperor, King 
of Prassia; 

His Majesty the King of Italy, Edward, Count de Launay, 
his Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at the Court 
of His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia ; 

His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of 
Luxemburg, Frederick Philippe, Jonkheer van der Hoeven, 
his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at the 
Court of His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia ; 

His Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves, &c., 
Da Serra Gomes, Marquis de Penafiel, Peer of the Bealm, his 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court 
of His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia, and 
Antoine de Serpa Pimentel, Councillor of Stat^p and Peer of 
the Realm ; 

His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias, Pierrp, Count 
Kapnist, Privy Councillor, his Envoy Extraordinary ^nd 
Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of His Majesty thp ^ing 
of the Netherlands ; 

His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, A^., (Willis, 
Baron Bilt, Lieutenant-General, his Envoy Extraordipary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of His Majesty the 
German Emperor, King of Prussia; 

His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans, M^h^med Said 
Pasha, Vizir and High Dignitary, his Envoy Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary at the Court of His Majesty the German 
Emperor, King of Prussia ; 

Who, being provided with full powers, which have been 
found in good and due form, have successively diEcuFsed and 
adopted : — 

Freedom of Trade in Basin of the Congo, fyc. 
1. A Declaration relative to freedom of trade in the basin of 
the Congo, it« emboachures and circumjacent regions, with 
other provisions connected therewith. (See p. 24.) 

22 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 17] AFRICA (aENERAL). • [28 Feb., 1886. 

[Barlin Act. Trade and OiviliBatlon. Blvara Ctonaro, Niger, Ac, Slave 
Trade by Sea and Land. Oooupatlon of Territory on Ooaets, Ac] 

Slave Trade, by Sea or Land, 

2. A Declaration relatiye to the slave trade, and the opera- 
tions bj sea or land which fnrnish slares to that trade. (See p. 29.) 

Neutrality of Territories comprised in the Conventional Basin of 

the Congo, 

3. A Delaration relative to the neutrality of the territories 
comprised in the Conventional basin of the Congo. (See p. 29.) 

Navigation of the Congo^ 8fc. 

4. An Act of Navigation for the Congo, which, while having 
regard to local circumstances, extends to this river, its affluents, < 
and the waters in its system (" eaux qui leur sont assimilees "), 
the general principles enunciated in Articles CVIII and CXVI 
of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna,* and intended to 
regulate, as between the Sig^natory Powers of that Act, the free 
navigation of the waterways separating or traversing several 
States — these said principles having since then been applied by 
agreement to certain rivers of Europe and America, but 
especially to the Danube, with the modifications stipulated by 
the Treaties of Paris (1856),t of Berlin (1878),t and of London 
(1871 ajid 1883).§ (See p. 30.) 

Navigation of the Niger, 

5. An Act of Navigation for the Niger, which, while likewise 
having regard to local circumstances, eiitends to this river and 
its affluents the same principles as set forth in Articles CVIII and 
CXVI of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna. (See p. 39.) 

Future Occupations on the Coast of Africa, 

6. A Declaration introducing into international relations 
certain uniform rules with reference to future occupations on 
the coast of the African Continent. (See p. 43.) 

♦ Herl«let*fl " Map of Europe by Treaty," toI. i, p. 76. 
t 1, „ „ „ Tol. ii, p. 1276. 

t ». „ „ „ vol. It, p. 2729. 

§ a I, „ „ Tol. iii, p. 1919, and vol. It, 

p. 8110. 

23 



Digitized by 



Google 



2S Feb., 1885.] AFRICA (aENEEAL). [No. 17 

[Berlin Act. Freedom of Trade. Basin of the Oon^o, Ac] 

And deeming it expedient that all these several docnments 
should be combined in one single instrument, they (the Signatory 
Powers) have collected them into one General Act, composed of 
the following Articles : — 

Chapter I. — Declaration relative to Freedom op Trade in 
THE Basin op the Conqo, its Mouths and circumjacent 
Regions, with other Provisions connected therewith. . 

Freedom of Trade to all Nations. 

Art. I. The trade of all nations shall enjoy complete free- 
dom: — 

Basin of the Congo Defined, 

1 . In all the regions forming the basin of the Congo and its 
outlets. This basin is bounded by the watersheds (or mountain 
ridges) of the adjacent basins, namely, in particular, those of 
the Niari, the Ogowe, the Schari, and the Nile, on the north ; 
by the eastern watershed line of the affluents of Lake Tan- 
ganyika on the east \ and by the watersheds of the basins of the 
Zambesi and the Log6 on the south. It therefore comprises all 
the regions watered by the Cougo and its affluents, including 
Lake Tanganyika^ with its eastern tributaries. 

Maritime Zone Defined.* 

2. In the maritime zone extending along the Atlantic Ocean 
from the parallel situated in 2° 30' of South Latitude to the 
mouth of the hog6, 

Northern Boundary, 

The northern boundary will follow the parallel situated in 
2° 30' from the coast tu the point where it meets the geo- 
graphical basin of the Congo, avoiding the basin of the Ogow6, 
to which the provisions of the present Act do not apply. 

Southern Boundary, 

The southern boundary wiM follow the course of the Loge to 

* See also Briissels Act of 2nd July, 1890, Art. XXI, p. 63 (Slave Trade). 

24. 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 17] AFRICA (OENERAL). [28 Feb., 1885. 

[Berlin Aot. Freedom of Trade. Basin of the Conaro, Ac] 

its sonrce, and thence pass eastwards till it joins the geo- 
graphical basin of the Congo. 

JBdstem Boundary. 

3. In the zone stretching eastwards from the Congo Basin as 
above defined, to the Indian Ocean from 5 degrees of North 
Ijatitude to the month of the Zambesi in the south, from %vhich • 
point the line of demarcation will ascend the Zambesi to 5 miles 
above its confluence with the Shir6, and then follow the water- 
shed between the affluents of Lake Njassa and those of the 
Zambesi, till at last it reaches the watershed between the waters 
of the Zambesi and the Congo. 

Free Trade Principles applied to Signatory Powers, and to such 
Independent States as may approve the same. 

It is expressly recognized that in extending the principle of 
free trade to this eastern zone, the Conference Powers only 
undertake engagements for themselves, and that in the terri- 
tories belonging to an independent Sovereign State this principle 
shall only be applicable in so far as it is approved by such State 
But the Powers agree to use their good offices with the Govern- 
ments established on the African shore of the Indian Ocean for 
the purpose of obtaining such approval, and in any case of 
securing the most favourable conditions to the transit (traffic) 
of all nations. (See also Art. XV, p. 33). 

Free Access of all Flags to Coast-line. 

Art. II. All flags, without distinction of nationality, shall 
have free access to the whole of the coast-line of the territories 
above enumerated. 

Navigation of Bivers ; of Congo and Us Affluents, and Lakes, 
Ports, and Canals, 

To the rivers there running into the sea to all the waters of 
the Congo and its affluents, including the lakes, and to all the 
ports situate on the banks of these waters, as well as to all 
canals which may in future be constructed with intent to unite 

25 



Digitized by 



Google 



86 Feb., 1885.] AFRICA (GENERAL). [Mo. 17 

[Berlin Act. Freedom of Trade. Basin of the Oonffo, fto.] 

the watercourses or lakes within the entire area of the territories 
described in Article I. 

Transport^ Coasting Trade, and Boat Traffic, 

Those ti*ading under such flags may engage in all sorts of 
transport, and cany on the coasting trade by sea and river, as 
well as boat traffic, on the same footing as if they were subjects. 

No Taxes to he levied on Wares Imported (with slight exceptions). 

Art. III. Wares, of whatever origin, imported into these 
regions, under whatsoever flag, by sea or river, or overland, 
shall be subject to no other taxes than such as may be levied as 
fair compensation for expenditure in the interests of trade, and 
which for this reason must be equally borne by the subjects 
themselves and by foreigners of all nationalities. 

Differential Duties forbidden. 

All differential dues on vessels, as well as on merchandize, 
are forbidden. 

No Import or Transit Duties to he levied on Merchandize, 

Art. IY. Merchandize imported into these regions shall 
remain free from import and transit daes. 

Question to he reconsidered after 20 years. 

The Powers reserve to themselves to determine after the 
lapse of 20 years whether this freedom of import shall be re- 
tained or not.* 

No Monopolies or Favours to he granted. 

Art. V. No Power which exercises or shall exercise sove- 
reign rights in the above-mentioned regions shall be allowed to 
grant therein a monopoly or favour of any kind in matters of 
trade. 

* See also Brussels Act of 2nd July, 1890, p. 48, and Agreement between 
Great Britain, aermany, and Italy of 22nd December, 1890, p. 90. 

26 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 17] AFRICA (aENER AL). [26 Feb., 1 885 . 

[Berlin Act. Freedom of Trade. Basin of the Oon^o, fto.] 

Protection of Persons and Property^ movable and immovable 
Possessions ; Professions. 

Foreigners, without distinction, shall enjoy protection of 
their persons and property, as well as the right of acquiring 
and transferring movable and immovable possessions ; and 
national rights and treatment in the exercise of their pro- 
fessions. 

Akt. VI. — Provisions relative to Protection of the Natives^ of 
Missionaries and Travellers^ as well as relative to Eeligious 
Liberty, 

Preservation and Improvement of Native Tribes; Slavery, and the 

Slave Trade. 

All the Powers exercising sovereign rights or influence in 
the aforesaid territories bind themselves to watch over the 
preservation of the native tribes, and to care for the improve- 
ment of the conditions of their moral and material well-being, 
and to help in suppressing slavery, and especially the slave 
trade. 

'Religious and other Institutions, Civilization of Natives. 

They shall, without distinction of creed or nation, protect 
and favour all religions, scientific, or charitable institutions, 
and undertakings created and organized for the above ends, or 
which aim at instructing the natives and bringing home to 
them the blessings of civilization. 

Protection of Missionaries, Scientists, and Explorers, 

Christian missionaries, scientists, and explorers, with their 
followers, property, and coPecticms, shall likewise be the objects 
of especial protection. 

Beligious Toleration, 

Freedom of conscience and religious toleration are expressly 
guaranteed to the natives, no less than to subjects and to 
foreigners. 

27 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 Feb,, 1885.] AFRICA (GENERAL). [Mo. 17 

[Berlin Aot. Freedom of Trade. Basin of the Conero, 4^0.] 

Piiblic Worship. 

The free and public exercise of all forms of Divine 
worship, and the right to bnild edifices for religions purposes, 
and to organize religions missions belonging to all creeds, shall 
not be limited or fettered in any way whatsoever. 

Art. VII. — Postal Regime. 

Postal Union. 

The Convention of the Universal Postal Union, as revised 
at Paris the 1st June, 1878,* shall be applied to the Conventional 
basin of the Congo. 

The Powers who therein do or shall exercise rights of 
sovereignty or Protectorate engage, as soon as circumstances 
permit them, to take the measures necessary for the carrying 
out of the preceding provision. 

Abt, VIII. — Bight of SvrveiUance vested in the International 
Navigation Ooynmission of the O&ngo. 

Surveillance of International Navigation Commission of the Congo 
in territories where no Power shall exercise rights of 
Sovereignty or Protectorate, 

In all parts of the territory had in view by the present 
Declaration, where no Power shall exercise rights of sovereignty 
or Protectorate, the International Navigation Commission of 
the Congo, instituted in virtue of Article XVII, shall be charged 
with supervising the application of the principles proclaimed 
and perpetuated (** consacres ") by this Declaration. 

In all cases of difference arising relative to the application 
of the principles established by the present Declaration, the 
Governments concerned may agree to appeal to the good ofBces 
of the International Commission, by submitting to it an exam- 
ination of the facts which shall have occasioned ihesu 
differences. 

• S.P., Tol. Ixix, p. 210. H.T., Tol. xiv, p. 1007. 
28 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 17] AFRICA (GENERAL). [26 Feb., 1885. 

[Berlin Act. fiOaye Trade. Neutrality. Baein of the Conffo, fto.] 

Chap. II. — Declaration relative to the Slave Trade. 

Suppression of the Slave Trade by Land and Sea ; and of Slave 

Markets. 

Art. IX. Seeing that trading in slaves is forbidden in con- 
formity with the principles of international law as recognized 
by the Signatory Powers, and seeing also tbat the operations, 
which, by sea or land, furnish slaves to trade, ought likewise 
to be regarded as forbidden, the Powers which do or shall 
exercise sovereign rights or influence in the territori«B forming 
the Conventional basin of the Congo declare that these terri- 
tories may not serve as a market or means of transit for the 
trade in slaves, of whatever race they may be. Each of the 
Powers binds itself to employ all the means at its disposal for 
putting an end to this trade and for punishing those who 
engage in it. 

Chap. III. — Declaration Relative to the Neutrality of the 
Territories comprised in the Conventional Basin of the 
Congo. 

Neutrality of Territories and Territorial Waters. 

Art. X. In order to give a new guarantee of security to 
trade and industry, and to encourage, by the maintenance of 
peace, the development of civilization in the countries mentioned 
in Article I, and placed under the free trade system, the High 
Signatory Parties to the present Act, and those who shall here- 
after adopt it, bind themselves to respect the neutrality of the 
territories, or portions of territories, belonging to the said 
countries, comprising therein the territorial waters, so long as 
the Powers which exercise or shall exercise the rights of 
sovereignty or Protectorate over those territories, using their 
option of proclaiming themselves neutral, shall fulfil the duties 
which neutralitj requires. 

Hostilities not to extend to Neutralized States. 
Art. XI. In case a Power exercising rights of sovereignty 
or Protectorate in the countries mentioned in Article I, and 

29 D 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 Feb., 1885.] AFRICA (aENERAL). [Ho. 17 

[Berlin Act. Naviflration of the Congo.] 

placed under the free trade system, shall be involved in a war, 
then the High Signatory Parties to the present Act, and those 
who shall hereafter adopt it, bind themselves to lend their 
good offices in order that the territories belonging to this Power 
and comprised in the Conventional free trade zone shall, by the 
common consent of this Power and of the other belligerent or 
belligerents, be placed during the war under the rule of neu- 
trality, and considered as belonging to a non-belligerent State, 
the belligerents thenceforth abstaining from extending hostili- 
ties to the territories thus neutralized, and from using them as 
a base for warlike operations. 

Serious Disagreements "between Signatory Powers to he referred to 

Mediation. 

Abt. XII. In case a serious disagreement originating on the 
subject of, or in the limits of, the territories mentioned in 
Article I, and placed under the free trade system, shall arise 
between any Signatory Powers of the present Act, or the 
Powers which may become parties to it, these Powers bind 
themselves, before appealing to arms, to have recourse to the 
mediation of one or more of the friendly Powers. 

Or to Arbitration. 

In a similar case the same Powers reserve to themselves the 
option of having recourse to arbitration. 

Chap. IY.— Act of Navigation fok the Congo. 

The Congo and its Branches open to the Merchant Vessels of all 

Nations. 

XIII. The navigation of the Congo, without excepting any 
of its bi^anches or outlets, is, and shall remain, free for the 
merchant ships of all nations equally, whether carrying cargo 
or ballast, for the transport of goods or passengers. It shall be 
regulated by the provisions of this Act of Navigation, and by 
tiie Rules to be made in pursuance thereof. 

30 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 17] AFRICA (aENEBAL). [20 Feb, 1S85. 

[B«rlin Aot. NavUration of the Oongo.] 

Congo, Equality of Treatment to all Nations ; Coasting Trade ; 

Boat Traffic, 

In the exercise of this navigatioa the subjects and flags of 
all nations shall in all respects be treated on a footing of per- 
fect equality, not only for the direct navigation from the open 
sea to the inland ports of the Congo and vice versa, but also for 
the great and small coasting trade, and for boat traffic on the 
course of the river. 

Congo. Privileges: Biverain and non-Biverain States ; Companies^ 
Corporations^ and Private Persons, 

Consequently, on all the course and mouths of the Congo 
there will be no distinction made between the subjects of 
Riverain States and those of non-Biverain States, and no 
exclusive privilege of navigation will be conceded to Com- 
panies, Corporations, or private persons whatsoever. 

Congo, International Law, 

These provisions are recognized by the Signatory Powers as 
becoming henceforth a part of international law. 

Congo. No Bestrictions or OhligaUons to be imposed, 

Aet. XIY. The navigation of the Congo shall not be subject 
to any restriction or obligation which is not expressly stipu- 
lated by the present Act. 

Congo, No Landing or other Dues, 

It shall not be exposed to any landing dues, to any station 
or dep6t tax, or to any charge for breaking bulk, or for com- 
pulsory entry into port. 

Congo, No Transit Dues on Ships or Goods, 

In all the extent of the Congo the ships and goods in process 
of transit on the the river shall be submitted to no transit dues, 
whatever their starting- place or destination. 

31 D 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



2^ Feb., 1885.] AFRICA (aENERAL). [No. 17 

[Berlin Aot. Navigation of the Oonffo.] 

Congo. No Maritime or River Tolls to he levied (with certain 
exceptions). 
There shall be levied no maritime or river toll based on the 
mere fact of navigation, nor any tax on goods aboard of ships. 
There shall only be levied taxes or duties having the character 
of an equivalent for services rendered to navigation itself, to 
wit : — 

Congo. Harbour Dues on Wharves, Sfc. 

1. Harbour dues on certain local establishments, such as 
wharves, warehouses, <&c., if actually used. 

The Tariff of such dues shall be framed according to the 
cost of constructing and maintaining the said local establish- 
ments ; and it will be applied without regard to whence vessels 
come or what they are loaded with. 

Congo. PUot Dues. 

2. Pilot dues for those stretches of the river where it may 
be necessary to establish properly-qualified pilots. 

The Tariff of these dues shall be fixed and calculated in pro- 
portion to the service rendered. 

Congo. Lighthouse and such like Dues. 

3. Charges raised to cover technical and administrative 
expenses incurred in the general interest of navigation, in- 
cluding lighthouse, beacon, and buoy duties. 

The last-mentioned dues shall be based on the tonnage of 
vessels as shown by the ship's papers, and in accordance with 
the Rules adopted on the Lower Danube. 

No Differential Duties to he levied. 

The Tariffs by which the various dues and taxes enumei*ated 
in the three preceding paragraphs shall be levied, shall not 
involve any differential treatment and shall be officially pub- 
lished at each port. 

Congo. Power reserved of revising Tariffs after 5 years. 

The Powers reserve to tlieraselves to consider, after the lapse 

32 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 17] AFRICA (aENEBAL). [26 Feb., 1886* 

[B«rlin Act. Navigation of the Oonffo.] 

of 5 years,* wbether it may be necesary to revise, by common 
accord, tbe aboye-mentioned Tariffs. 

Congo. Affluents of the Congo, 

Art. XV. Tbe afflaents of tbe Congo sball in all respects be 
sabject to tbe same rules as tbe river of wbicb tbey are tribn* 
taries. 

Congo, Streams, Lakes, and Canals. 

And tbe same rules sball apply to tbe streams and rivers ad 
well as tbe lakes and canals in tbe territories defined in para- 
grapbs 2 and 3 of Article I (pp. 24, 25). 

At tbe same time tbe powers of tbe International Commis- 
sion of tbe Congo will not extend to tbe said rivers, streams, 
lakes, and canals, unless witb tbe assent of tbe States under 
wbose sovereignty tbey are placed. It is well understood, also, 
tbat witb regard to tbe territories mentioned in paragrapb 3 of 
Article I (p. 25), tbe consent of tbe Sovereign States owning 
tbese territories is reserved. 

Congo. BoadSf "Railways, or lateral Canals open to all Natwns* 

Art. XVI. Tbe roads, railways, or lateral canals wbicb may 
be constructed witb tbe special object of obviating tbe innavi- 
•gability or correcting tbe imperfection of tbe river route on 
certain sections of tbe course of tbe Congo, its affluents, and 
otber water-ways placed under a similar system, as laid down 
in Article XY, sball be considered in tbeir quality of means of 
communication as dependencies of tbis river, and as equally 
open to tbe traffic of all nations. 

Congo. ToUs. 

And, as on ibe river itself, so tbere sball be collected on 
tbese roads, railways, and canals only tolls calculated on tbe 
cost of construction, maintenance, and management, and on tbe 
profits due to tbe promoters. 

As regards tbe* Tariff of tbese tolls, strangers and tbe 

• See Tariff, 22nd December, 1890, p. 90. 
33 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 Feb., 1885.] AFRICI (GENERAL). [No. 17 

[Berlin Act. Navigation of the Oonco.] 

natiyes of the respective territories shall be treated on a footing 
of perfect equality. 

Congo, International Navigation Commission of the Congo. 

AsT. XVII. There is instituted an International Commis- 
sion, charged with the execution of the provisions of the present 
Act of Navigation. 

Congo. Ea^h Power to be Bepresenied by One Delegate with One 

Vote only. 

The Signatory Powers of this Act, as well as those who may 
subsequently adhere to it, may always be represented on the 
said Commission, each by one Delegate. But no Delegate shall 
have more than one vote at his disposal, even in the case of his 
representing several Governments. 

Congo. Payment of Delegates^ Agents, and Employ Ss. 

This Delegate will be directly paid by his Government. As 
for the various agents and employes of the International Com- 
mission, their remuneration shall be charged to the amount of 
the dues collected in conformity with paragraphs 2 and 3 of 
Article XIV. 

The particulars of the said remuneration, as well as the' 
number, grade, and powers of the agents and employes, shall 
be entered in the Returns to be sent yearly to the Governments 
represented on the International Commission. 

Congo. Inviolability of Members and Agents^ their Offices and 
Archives. 

Aet. XVIII. The members of the international Commission, 
as well as its appointed agents, are invested with the privilege 
of inviolability in the exercise of their functions. The same 
gu.'irantee shall apply to the offices and archives of the Com- 
mission. 

Congo. Constitution of the Commission. 

Art. XIX. The lutemational Commission for the Naviga- 

84 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 17] AFRICA (aENSRAL). [26 Feb.^ 1885. 

[Berlin Act. NaTieation of the Oonffo.] 

tion of the Congo shall be constituted as soon as five of the 
Signatory Powers of the present General Act shall have ap- 
pointed their Delegates. 

Congo. Nomination of Delegates to he notified to Oerman 

Qovemment, 
And pending the constitntion of the Commission the nomi- 
nation of these Delegates shall be notified to the Imperial 
Government of Germany, which wUl see to it that the necessary 
steps are taken to summon the meeting of the Commission. 

Congo. Navigation^ River Police^ Pilot, and QtcarafUine Rules, 
The Commission will at once draw np navigation, river 
police, pilot, and quarantine Rules. 

These Rules, as well as the Tariffs to be framed by the 
Commission, shall, before coming into force, be submitted for 
approval to the Powers represented on the Commission. The 
Powers interested will have to communicate their views with 
as little delay as possible. 

Congo. Infringement of Rules ^ 

Any infringements of these Rules will be checked by the 
agents of the International Commission wherever it exercises 
direct authority, and elsewhere by the Riverain Power. 

In the case of an abuse of power, or of an act of injustice, 
on the part of any agent or employ^ of the International Com- 
mission, the individual who considers himself to be aggrieved 
in his person or rights may apply to the Consular Agent of his 
country. The latter will examine his complaint, and if he finds 
it primd fade reasonable, he will then be entitled to bring it 
before the Commission. At his instance then, the Commission, 
represented by at least three of its members, shall, in conjunc- 
tion with him, inquire into the conduct of its agent or emploj6. 
Should the Consular Agent look upon the decision of the Com- 
mission as raising questions of law (" objections de droit **), he 
will report on the subject to his Government, which may then 
bave recourse to the Powers represented on the Commissipn, 
and invite them to agree as to the instructions to be given to 
the Commission. 

36 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 Feb., 1885 J AFRICA (QENKRAL). [Ho. 17 

[Berlin Act. Navigation of tlie Oonso.] 

Art. XX. The International Commission of the Congo, 
charged in terms of Article XVII with the execntion of the 
present Act of Navigation, shall in particular have power — 

Congo. Works necessary to assure Navigability of the Congo, 

1. To decide what works are necessary to assure the navi- 
gahilitj of the Congo in accordance with the needs of inter- 
national trade. 

On those sections of the river where no Power exercises 
sovereign rights, the IntematioBal Commission will itself take 
the necessary measures for assnring the navigahility of the 
river. 

On those sections of the river held by a Sovereign Power the 
International Commission will concert its action (" s^entendra '*) 
with the riparian authorities. 

Congo. Pilot Tariff and Navigation Dues. 

2. To fix the pilot tariff and that of the general navigation 
does as provided for by paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article XIV. 

The Tariffs mentioned in the first paragraph of Article XIV 
shall be framed by the territorial authorities within the limits 
prescribed in the said Article. 

The levying of the vanous dues shall be seen to by the 
international or territorial authorities on whose behalf they are 
established. 

Congo. Administration of Revenue. 

3. To administer the i-e venue arising from the application 
of the preceding paragraph (2). 

Congo. Quarantine Establishment. 

4. To superintend the quarantine establishment created in 
virtue of Article XXIV. 

Congo. Appointment of Officials and Employes. 

5. To appoint officials for the general service of navigntioi), 
and also its onn proper employes. 

86 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 17] AFBICA (aENERAL). [26 Feb., 1885. 

[Berlin Aot. Naviffaiion of the Conffo.] 

Congo. Sub-Inspectors. 

It will be for the territorial authorities to appoint Sub- 
Inspectors on sections of the river occupied bj a Power, and 
for the International Commission to do so on the other 
sections. 

The Riverain Power will notify to the International Com- 
mission the appointment of Sub -Inspectors, and this Power 
will undertake the payment of their salaries. 

In the exercise of its functions, as above defined and limited, 
the International Commission will bo independent of the terri- 
torial authorities. 

Congo. Employ Tnent of War Vessels by Navigation Commission. 

Art. XXI. In the accomplishment of its task the Inter- 
national Commission may, if need be, have recourse to the 
war vessels of the Signatory Powers of this Act, and of those 
who may in future accede to it, under reserve, however, of the 
instructions which may be given to the Commanders of these 
vessels by their respective Governments. 

Congo, War Vessels so employed Exempt from Navigation Dues. 

Art. XXII. The war vessels of the Signatory Powers of 
this Act that may enter the Congo are exempt from payment, 
of the navigation dues provided for in paragraph 3 of Article 
XIV. 

Congo. Otherwise liable to Payment of Pilot and Harbour Dues. 

Bat unless their intervention has been called for by the 
Intei-national Commission or its agents, in terms of the pre- 
ceding -Article, they shall be liable to the payment of the pilot 
or harbour dues which may eventually be established. 

Congo. Loans for Technical and Administrative Expenses. 

Art. XXIII. With the view of providing for the technica 1 
and administrative expenses which it may incur, the Inter- 
national Commission created by Article XVII may, in its own 

37 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 Feb., 188W AFRICA (GENEBAL). [No. 17 

[Berlin Aot. Naviffation of the Congo.] 

name, negotiate loans to be exclusively gnaranteed by the 
revenues raised by the said Commission. 

The decisions of the Commission dealing with the conclu- 
sion of a loan must be come to by a majority of two-thirds. It 
is understood that the Governments represented on the Com- 
mission shall not in any case be held as assuming any 
guarantee, or as contracting any engagement or joint liability 
(*' solidarity ") with respect to the said loans, unless under 
special Conventions concluded by them to this effect. 

The revenue yielded by the dues specified in paragraph 3 of 
Article XIY shall bear, as a first charge, the payment of the 
interest and sinking fund of the said loans, according to agree- 
ment with the lenders. 

Congo, Quarantine Entahlishment at Mouth of the Congo, 

Abt. XX IY. At the mouth of the Congo there shall be 
founded, either on the initiative of the Riverain Powers, or by 
the intervention of the International Commission, a quarantine 
establishment for the control of vessels passing out of as well 
as into the river. 

Congo, Banita/ry Control over Vessels, 

Later on the Powers will decide whether and on what 
conditions a sanitary control shall be exercised over vessels 
engaged in the navigation of the liver itself. 

Congo, Freedom of Navigation of the Congo and Territorial 
Waters during War, 

Art. XXV. The provisions of the present Act of Navigation 
shall remain in force in time of war. Consequently all nations, 
whether neutral or belligerent, shall be always free, ior the 
purposes oE trade, to navigate the Congo, its branches, affluents, 
and mouths, as well as the territorial waters fronting the 
embouchure of the river. 

Congo, Boads, Bailways, Lakes, and Canals included. 

Traffic will similarly remain free, despite a state of war, on 

38 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 17] AFRICA (aENERAL). [26 Feb., 188fi. 

[B«rllu Act. Havlffation of tlie Nigrer.] 

the roads, railways, lakes, and canals mentioned in Articles 
XV and XVI. 

Congo, Transport of Contraband of War excepted. 

There will be no exception to this principle, except in so far 
as concerns the transport of articles intended for a belligerent, 
and in yirtne of the law of nations regarded as contraband of 
war. 

Congo. Neutrality of WorJcs and Estahlishments. 

All the works and establishments created in pursuance of 
the present Act, especially the tax-collecting offices and their 
treasuries, as well as the permanent service staff of these 
establishments, shall enjoy the benefits of neutrality ('' places 
sous le regime de la neutrality"), and shall, therefore, be 
respected and protected by belligerents. 

Chap. V. — ^Act or Navigation tor the Niger. 

Niger. The Niger and its Branches open h the Merchant Vessels 
of all Nations, 

Art. XXVI.* The navigation of the Niger, without excepting 
any of its branches and outlets, is and shall remain entirely free 
for the merchant ships of all nations equally, whether with cargo 
or in ballast, for the transportation of goods and passengers. It 
shall be regulated by the provision of this Act of Navigation, aud 
by the Rules to be made in pursuance of this Act. 

Niger. Equality of Treatment to aU Nations ; Coasting Trade ; 
Boat Traffic. 

In the exercise of this navigation the subjects and flags of 
all nations shall be treated, in all circumstances, on a footing of 
perfect equality, not only for the direct navigation from the 
open sea to the inland ports of the Niger, and vice versd, but for 
the great and small coasting trade, and for boat trade on the 
course of the river. 

* Bee Agreement;, Great Britain and Germany, 15th Noyember, 1893, 
Art. 6, p. 661. 

39 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 Feb., 1885.] AFRICA (aENERAL). [No. 17 

[Berlin Act. Naviffation of the Kig«r.} 

Niger. Privileges: Biverain and non-Eivej'ain States ; Companies, 
Corporations, and Piivate Persons. 

Consequently, on all the course and mouths of the Niger 
there 'will be no distinction made between the subjects of the 
Riverain States and those of non- Riverain States ; and no ex- 
clusive privilege of navigation will be conceded to companies, 
corporations, or private persons. 

Niger. International Law. 

These provisions are recognized by the Signatory Powers as 
forming henceforth a part of international law. 

Niger. No Restrictions or Obligations to he imposed on Navigation, 

Art. XXVII.* The navigation of the Niger shall not be sub- 
ject to any restriction or obligation based merely on the fact of 
navigation. 

Niger, No Landing or other Dues to he im,posed. 

It shall not be exposed to any obligation in regard to 
landing-station or depdt, or for breaking bulk, or for compulsory 
entry into port. 

Niger. No Transit Dues on Ships or Goods to he levied. 
In all the extent of the Niger the ships and goods in process 
of transit on the river shall be submitted to no transit dues, 
whatever their starting place or destination. 

Niger. No Maritime or River Tolls to he levied (with certain 

exceptions). 

No maritime or nver toll shall be levied or based on the sole 

fact of navigation, nor any tax on goods on board of ships. 

There shall only be collected taxes or duties which shall be an 

equivalent for services rendered to navigation itself. 

Niger. No Differential Duties to he levied. 

The Tariff of these taxes or duties shall not warrant any 
differential treatment. 

* See Agreement, Great Britain and Germany, 16th I^^ovember, 1808, 
Art. 6, p. 661. 

40 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 17] AFRICA (afi^^ERAL). [26 Feb., 1885. 

[Berlin Act. Navleratlon of the Ki^er.] 

Niger, Affluents of the Niger. 

Akt. XXVIII.* The affluents of the Niger shall be in all 
respects subject to the same rules as the river of which they are 
tributaries. 

Niger, Roads, Railway. % or lateral Canals open to all Nations, 

Art. XXIX.* The roads, railways, or lateral canals which 
may be constructed with the special object of obviating the in- 
navigability or correcting the imperfections of the river route on 
certain sections of the Niger, its affluents, branches, and outlets, 
shall be considered, in their quality of means of communication, 
as dependencies of this river, and as equally open to the traffic 
of all nations. 

Niger. Tolls, 

And, as on the river itself, so there shall be collected on 
these roads, railways, and canals only tolls calculated oq the 
cost of construction, maintenance, and management, and on the 
profits due to the promoters. 

As regards the Tariff of these tolls, strangers and the natives 
of the respective territories shall be treated on a footing of 
perfect equality. 

Niger, British Engagements. Waters of the Niger and its 
Affluents, Sfc, under British Sovereignty or Protection, to he 
subject to the principles above described. 

Art. XXX.* Great Britain undertakes to apply the principles 
of freedom of navigation enunciated in Articles XXVI, XXVII, 
XXVIII, and XXIX on so much of the waters of the Niger, 
its affluents, branches, and outlets, as are or may be under her 
sovereignty or protection: 

Niger, Rules of Navigation to be established. 

The rules which she may establish for the safety and control 
of navigation shall be drawn up in a way to facilitate, as far as 
possible, the circulation of merchant ships. 

• See Agreement, Great Britain and Germany, 16th November, 1893, 
Art. 6, p. 661. 

41 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 6 Feb., 18860 AFRICA (GENERAL). [Ho. 17 

[Berlin Aot. Kavlffatlon of the Niger.] 

Niger, Oreat Britain not restricted from making any BtUes not 
contrary to above Engagements, 

It is understood that nothing in these obligations shall be 
interpreted as hindering Great Britain from making any Boles 
of navigation whatever which shall not be contrary to the spirit 
of these engagements. 

Niger. Foreign Merchants a/nd all Trading NationaMties to he prO" 
tested the same as British Subjects. 

Oreat Britain undertakes to protect foreign merchants and 
all the trading nationalities on all those portions of the Niger 
which are or may be nnder her sovereignty or protection as if 
they were her own subjects : provided always that such mer- 
chants conform to the rales which are or shall be made in virtue 
of the foregoing. 

Niger. French Engagements, with regard to Waters of the 
Biver, ^c, under her Sovereignty or Protection, 

Aet. XXXI. France accepts, under the same reservations, and 
in identical terms, the obligations undertaken in the preceding 
articles in respect of so much of the waters of the Niger, its 
affluents, branches, and outlets, as are or may be under her 
sovereignty or protection. 

Niger, Engagements of the other Signatory Powers^ 

Art. XXXII.* Each of the other Signatory Powers binds 
itself in the same way in case it should ever exercise in the future 
rights of sovereignty or protection over any portion of the waters 
of the Niger, branches, or outlets. 

Niger, Freedom of Navigation of th^ Niger and Territorial Waters 

during War, 

Art. XXXIII.* The arrangements of the present Act of Navi- 
gation will remain in force in time of war. Consequently, the 
navigation of all neutral or belligerent nations will be in all time 

* See Agreement, Great Britain and Germany, 15th November, 1893, 
Art. 6, p. 661. 

42 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 17] AFRICA (aENERAL). [26 Feb., 1886. 

[Berlin Act. Naviffation of the Niffer.] 

free for the usafi^es of commerce on the Niger, its branches, its 
afflaents, its months, and outlets, as well as on the territorial 
waters opposite the mouths and outlets of that river. 

Niger. Boads^ RailtvaySf and GanaU included. 

The traffic will remain equally free in spite of a state of war 
n the roads, railways, and canals mentioned in Article XXIX. 

Niger, Transport of Oontrahand of War excepted. 

There will be an exception to this principle only in that 
which relates to the transport of articles destined for a belli- 
gerent, and considered, in virtue of the law of nations, as articles 
contraband of war. 

Chap. VI. — Dbclaration relative to the essentul Conditions 

TO BE OBSERVED IN ORDER THAT NEW OCCUPATIONS ON THE 

Coasts or the African Continent mat be held to be 

EFFECTIVE. 

Notification of Acquisitions and Frotectorates on Coasts of African 

Continent, 

J Art. XXXrV.* Any Power which henceforth takes posses- 

sion of a tract of land on the coasts of the African Continent out- 
side of its present possessions, or which, being hitherto without 
such possessions, shall acquire them, as well as the Power which 
assumes a Protectorate there, shall accompany the respective 
act with a notification thereof, addressed to the other Signatory 
Powers of the present Act, in order to enable them, if need be, 
to make good any claims of their own. 

Establishment of authority in Territories occupied on Coasts, 
Protection of existing lUghts, Freedom of Trade and Transit, 

Art. XXXV. The Signatory Powers of the present Act re- 
cognize the obligation to insure the establishment of authority in 
regions occupied by them on the coasts of the African Continent 
sufficient to protect existing rights, and, as the case may be, free- 
dom of trade and of transit under the conditions agreed upon. 

• See Return, p. 47. 
43 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 Feb., 1885.] AFRICA (aENERAL). [No. 17 

[Berlin Act.] 

Chap. VII. — General Dispositions. 

Eeservafion as to Modificationi. 
Abt. XXXVI. The Signatory Powers of the present General 
Act reserve to themselves to introduce into it subsequently, and 
by common accord, such modifications and improvements as 
experience may show to be expedient.* 

Liberty of other Powers to adhere to Act. 
Art. XXXVII. The Powers who have not signed the present 
General Act shall be free to adhere to its provisions by a sepa- 
rate instrument.f 

Adhesions to he notified to all the Powers, 
The adhesion of each power shall be notified in diplomatic 
form to the Government of the German Empire, and by it in 
turn to all the other Signatory or adhering Powers. 

Acceptance of all Obligations and Admission to all Advantages, 
Such adhesion shall carry with it full acceptance of all the 
obligations, as well as admission to all the advantages, stipulated 
for by the present General Act. 

General Act to be Ratified, 

Art. XXXVIII. The present General Act shall be ratified 
with as little delay as possible, the same in no case to exceed a 
year. J 

It will come into force for each Power from the date of its 
ratification by that Power. 

Meanwhile, the Signatory Powers of the present General 
Act bind themselves not to take any steps contrary to its 
provisions. 

Each Power will address its ratification to the Government 
of the German Empire, by which notice of the fact will be 
given to all the other Signatory Powers of the present Act. 

* Zanzibar acceded, with a reservation, on the 8tb Noyember, 1886. 
(See Zanzibar, p. 925; but see circular to Powers of 22nd June, 1892, 
Appendix.) 

t See Brussels Act of 2nd July, 1890, p. 48. 

X Ratifications excbanged between all the Signatory Powers (except the 
United Stotes) at Berlin, 19th April, 1886. See page 45. 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 17J AFRICA (aENERATO. [26 Feb., 1885. 

[;Berlin Act. Batlftcatlons.] 

Where Ratifications are to he deposited. 

The ratifications of all the Powers will be deposited in the 
archives of the Government of the German Empire. When all 
the ratifications shall have been sent in, there will be drawn up 
a Deposit Act, in the shape of a Protocol, to be signed by the 
Representatives of all the Powers which have taken part in the 
Conference of Berlin, and of which a certified copy will be 
sent to each of those Powers. 

In testimony whereof the several Plenipotentiaries have 
signed the present General Act and have affixed thereto their 
seals. 

Done at Berlin, the 26fch day of February, 1885. 

[Here follow the signatures.] 



PROTOCOL, Ratifications of General Act of Berlin Conference 
of 26^A February, 1885. Berlin, I9th April, 1886. 

Ratifications (with the exception of the United States of America) 
deposited at the Berlin Foreign Office. 

(Translation.) 

All the Powers who took part in the Conference of Berlin 
having, with the exception of the United States of America,* 
ratified the General Act of that Conference, signed at Berlin 
on the 26th February, 1885, and having delivered their ratifica- 
tions to the Gt>vemment o£ the German Empire, which has 
deposited them in the Imperial archives, and has so informed 
the other Signatory Powers, the Undersigned, authorized to this 
effect by their respective Governments, have met together at the 
Berlin Foreign Office to draw up the Act of Deposit of these 
ratifications, in the manner agreed upon by Article XXXVIII 
of the said General Act. 

• See United States Ralification of the General Act of tlie Brussels Con- 
ference of 2nd July, 1890, p. 102. 

45 E 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 Feb., 1885.] AFRICA (aENERAL). [No. 17 

[Berlin Aot. Batiflcationa.] 

Count Bismarck explained in a few words the object of the 
meeting to which ho had invited the Representatives of the Powers 
who had ratified the General A ct of the 26th February, 1885. 
He read Article XXXVIII of the General Act, and observed 
that the delay provided for by the first paragraph of the said 
Article had been prolonged, by common consent, at the request 
of the Government of Austria- Hungary. 

Count Bismarck having then formally declared that the 
General Act had not been ratified by the Government of 
the United States of America, recalled to mind that this 
eventuality had been foreseen at the time of the deliberations of 
the Conference of Berlin, as shown in Annex No. 3 to the Pro- 
tocol No. 9, and particularly in the extract of the Protocol of 
the sitting of the Conference of the SIst January, 1885, which 
forms Annex No. 6 to the said Annex No. 3. He consequently 
expressed the opinion that the United States of America enter 
into the category of Powers who may adhere later to the stipu- 
lations of the General Act, in the manner and to tlie effect 
determined by Article XXXVII of that Act ; all the stipula- 
tions contained in the General Act would, however, remain in 
full force and vigour among all the other Signatory Powers of 
the said Act, and would bind them reciprocally by virtue of 
their respective ratifications. 

The Representatives of Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, 
Spain, France, Great Britain, Italy, Holland, Portugal, Russia, 
Sweden and Norway, and Turkey having declared that they 
concurred in this view, and that they were authorized to com- 
plete, under the conditions explained by Coant Bismarck, the 
formality provided for in Article XXXVIII of the General Act, 
the ratifications were produced, and after being examined and 
found in good and due form, Count Bismarck declared that the 
documents would, in conformity with the conditions of Article 
XXXVII I, remain deposited in the archives of the Government 
of the German Empire. 

The other members of the meeting took formal note of this 
deposit. 

In witness whereof the present Protocol has been drawn up, 
a certified copy of which shall be communicated by the Govern' 

46 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 17] 



AFRICA (GENERAL). 
[Berlin Act. Batlilcationa.] 



[26 Feb., 1885- 



mcnt of fche German Empire to each of the other Powers who 
have ratified the General Act of the 26th February, 1885. 

Done at Berlin, read, and approved on the 19th April, 1886. 

[Here follow the signatures.] 



Return to an Address of the Honourable the House of Commons^ 
dated llth June, 18SS* for:— 

" Betarn showing what Notifications haTO been addressed to the Signatory 
Powers of the General Act of the Berlin Conference, as provided by 
Article XXXTV, since the signing of the Act in February, 1885 ; what are the 
Territories to which those Notifications relate ; and in how many instances 
possession has been taken, or a Protectorate assumed, without objection being 
made by any of the Signatory Powers." 



Kame of Territory. 


DatoofNoUfl- 
cation. 


By what Power 
notified. 


Date of taking 

pot session or of 

establidhing 

Protectorate. 


If any 

objec- 

Uon 

offered. 


Niger Districts and Oil Riveni 

Ouacchis (between Qrand 
Popo and Dahomey) 

DahomoT (sea^coaat)t 


11 Jane, 1885 

20 Aiwr., 1686 

21 Jan., 1886 
8 July. 1887 

20 Jaty, 1887 


Great Britain 

Prance 


5 June, J 885 

(NoaflGMtion in 

" London 

Gazette*') 

10 June, 1886 


No. 
No. 


Portugal . ... 


(Treaty) | 
6 Aug., 1885 ! No. 


Zululand (bounded on tbe 
south and south -wefit by 
the Colony of Natal, on the 
west and north-west by the 
New Republic, on the 
north by Amacongaland, 
and on the east by the 
Indian Ocean) 

Somali Coast 


Great Britain 

Great Britain 


(Treaty) 
U May, 1887 

At Tarlous dates 
between July 
1884 and Jan- 
uary , IHS6 


No. 
No. 



» See also Appendix. 

t Portugal withdrew her Protectorate over the sea-cosst of Dahomey on the 22ad Do- 
cember, 1837. 



4,7 



E 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 18^.] AFRICA (G-ENERAL). [No. 18 

[BrxLssels Act. African Slave Trade, dkc] 

No. IS.— GENERAL ACT of the Brussels Conference rela- 
tive to the African Slave Trade, &c. Signed at Brussels^ 
2nd July, 1890.* 

[See also General Act, signed at Berlin, 26fcli Febraarj, 1885, 

(No. 17)]. 

(Translation.) 

General Act of the Brv^seU Conference. 2nd July, 1890. 

In the name of God Almighty. 

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, Empress of India ; 

His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia, in the 
name of the German Empire ; 

His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, &c., 
and Apostolic King of Hungary ; 

His Majesty the King of the Belgians ; 

His Majesty the King of Denmark ; 

His Majesty the King of Spain, and in his name Her Majesty 
the Queen Regent of the Kingdom ; 

His Majesty the King- Sovereign of the Independent State 
of the Congo ; 

The President of the United States of America ; 

The President of the French Republic ; 

His Majesty the King of Italy ; 

His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of 
Luxemburg, &c. ; 

His Majesty the Shahl)f Persia ;t 

His Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves, <fcc. 

His Majesty the Emperor of All the Rnssias ; 

His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, &c. ; 

His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans ; and 

His Highness the Sultan of Zanzibar ; 

• Signed in the French language. For Protocols of Conferences, see Par. 
Pap., "Africa, No. 8 (1890)." 

t Liberia acceded, 7th— 25th August, 1892. Persia acceded, 3rd July, 
189a Ethiopia acceded, 16th September, 1890. 

48 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (GENERAL). [2 July, 1890 

[BruMela Act. African Slave Trade, Ac] 

Equally animated by the firm intention of patting an end 
to the Climes and devastations engendered by the traffic in 
African slaves, of effectively protecting the aboriginal popula- 
tions of Africa, and of assuring to that vast continent the 
benefits of peace and civilization ; 

Wishing to give a fresh sanction to the decisions already 
taken in the same sense and at different periods by the Powers ; 
to complete the- results obtained by them; and to draw up a 
collection of measures guaranteeing the accomplishment of the 
work which is the object of their common solicitude ; 

Have resolved, on the invitation addressed to them by the 
Government of His Majesty the King of the Belgians, in agree- 
ment with the Government of Her Majesty the Queen of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of 
India, to assemble with this object a Conference at Brussels, 
and have named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say : 

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, Lord Vivian, Peer of 
the United Kingdom, her Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary to His Majesty the King of the Belgians ; and 
Sir John Kirk ; 

His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia, in the 
name of the German Empire, M, Frederic- Jean, Comte d*Alvens- 
leben, his Chamberlain and Privy Councillor, his Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to His Majesty the 
King of the Belgians ; and M. Guillaume Gohring, his Privy 
Councillor of Legation, Consul- General of the Empire of 
Germany at Amsterdam ; 

His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, and 
Apostolic King of Hungary, Bodolphe, Count KhevenhuUer- 
Metsch, his Chamberlain, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary to His Majesty the King of the Belgians ; 

His Majesty the King of the> Belgians, Auguste, Baron 
Lambermont, his Minister of State, his Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary ; and M. fimile Banning, Dii'ector- 
General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belgium ; 

His Majesty the King of Denmark, M. Frederic- George 
Schack de Brockdoi-ff, Consul- General of Denmark at Antwerp ; 

49 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1800J AFRICA (GENERAL). [No. 18 

[Brassela Act. Afrioan Slave Trade, fto.l 

His Majesty the King of Spain, and in his name Her 
Majesty the Queen-Regent of the Kingdom, Don Jos^ Gutierrez 
de Aguera, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to His Majesty the King of the Belgians ; 

His Majesty the Sovereign- King of the Congo Free State, 
M. Edmond van Eetvelde, Administrator-General of the 
Department of Foreign Affairs of the Congo Free State ; and 
M. Anguste van Maldeghem, Councillor of the Court of Cassa- 
tion of Belgium ; 

The President of the United States of America, Mr. Edwin 
H. Terrell, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
of the United States of America to His Majesty the King of 
the Belgians ; and Mr. Henry Shelton Sanford ; 

The President of the French Republic, M. Albert Bouree, 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the 
French Republic to His Majesty the King of the Belgians ; and 
M. Gecrge Cogordan, Minister Plenipotentiary, Chief of the 
Cabinet of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France ; 

His Majesty the King of Italy, M. Fran9oi8 de Renzis, 
Baron de Montanaro, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary to His Majesty the King of the Belgians ; and 
M. Thomas Catalani, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary ; 

His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of 
Luxemburg, Louis, Baron Gericke de Herwynen, his Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to His Majesty the 
King of the Belgians ; 

His Imperial Majesty the Shah of Persia, General Nazare 
Aga, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to 
His Majesty the King of the Belgians ; 

His Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves, 
M. Henrique de Macedo Pereira Coutinho, Member of his 
Council, Peer of the Realm, Minister and Honorary Secretary 
of State, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
to His Majesty the King of the Belgians ; 

His Majesty the Emperor of All the Rnssias, L^on, Prince 
OnroussofF, Master of his Court, his Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary to His Majesty the King of the 

60 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (aENERAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[Bnuwels Aot. AiHoan Slaye Trade, Ac] 

Belgians ; and M. FrM^ric de Martens, his Councillor of State, 
Permanent Member of the Council of the Ministry of Foreign 
AfEairs of Russia ; 

His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, M. Charles 
de Burenstam, his Chamberlain, his Minister Plenipotentiary 
to His Majesty the King of the Belgians, and to His Majesty 
the King of the Netherlands ; 

His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans, Ctienne Cara- 
th^dory Efendi, High Dignitary of his Empire, his Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentieury to His Majesty the 
King, of the Belgians. 

His Highness the Sultan of Zanzibar, Sir John Kirk ; and 
M. Guillanme Gohring, 

Who, furnished with full powers which have been found in 
good and due form, have adopted the following provisions : — 

Chap. L— Slave Trade Countries. Measures to be taken in 
Places of Origin. 

Art. I. The Powers declare that the most effective means 
for counteracting the Slave Trade in the interior of Africa are 
the following : — 

Organigation of Administrative, Judicial^ BeUgumSf and Military 

Services, 

1. Progressive organization of the administrative, judicial, 
religious, and military services in the African territories placed 
under the sovereignty or protectorate of civilized nations. 

Fortified Stations in the Interior. Man-hunts. 

2. The gradual establishment in the interior, by the re- 
sponsible Power in each territory, of strongly occupied stations, 
in such a way as to make their protective or repressive action 
effectively felt in the territories devastated by man-hunts. 

Roads and Railways, 

3. The construction of roads, and in particular of railways, 
connecting the advanced stations with the coast, and permitting 

61 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890.] AFRICA (GENERAL). [No. 18 

[BrusBels Act. African Slave Trade, &o.] 

easy access to the inland waters, and to the upper reaches of 
streams and rivers which are broken by rapids and cataracts, 
BO as to substitute economical and speedy means of transport 
for the present means of portage by men. 

Steam-hoats on ifiland Waters and on Lakes. Fortified Posts on 

Banks. 

4. Establishment of steam-boats on the inland navigable 
waters and on the lakes, supported by fortified posts established 
on the banks. 

Telegraph Lines* 

5. Establishment of telegraphic lines assuring the commu- 
nication of the posts and stations with the coast and with the 
administrative centres. 

Expeditions and Flying Columns, 

6. Organization of expeditions and flying columns to keep 
up the communication of the stations with each other and with 
the coast, to support repressive action, and to assure the 
security of roadways. 

Fire Arms and Ammunition. 

7. Restriction of the importation of fire-arms, at least of 
modern pattern, and of ammunition, throughout the entire 
extent of the territories infected by the slave trade. 

FostSy Stations, and Cruizers, tn Inland Waters. 

Ar'i. II. The stations, the craizers organized by each 
Power in its inland waters, and the posts which serve as ports 
for them shall, independently of their principal task, which is 
to prevent the capture of slaves and intercept the routes of 
the Slave Trade, have the following subsidiary duties : — 

Protection to Natives. 

1. To serve as a base and, if necessary, as a place of refuge 
for the native popnlations placed under the sovereignty or the 
protectorate of the State to which the station belongs, for the 

52 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFKICA (GENERAL). [2 July, 1890, 

[Brussels Act. African Slaye Trade, Ac.] 

independent populations, and temporarily for all others in case 
of imminent danger ; to place the populations of the first of 
these categories in a position to co-operate for their own 
defence ; 

Arbitration in Intestine Wars. 

To diminish intestine wars between tribes by means of arbi- 
tration ; 

Agricultural Works and Industrial Arts, 

To initiate them in agricultural works and in the industrial 
arts so as to increase their welfare ; 

Barbarous Gustoms. Cannibalism, Human Sacrifices. 

To raise them to civilization and bring about the extinction 
of barbarous customs, such as cannibalism and human sacri- 



Commercial Undertakings. 

2. To give aid and protection to commercial undertakings ; 

Contracts of Service with, Natives. 

To watch over their legality, especially by controlling contracts 
of service with natives ; 

Permanent Centres. Commercial Ustablishm^ents, 8fc. 

And to lead up to the foundation of permanent centres of culti- 
vation and of commercial establishments. 

Protection of Mission. 

3. To protect, without distinction of creed, the missions 
which are already or may hereafter be established. 

Sanitary Service. Assistance, ^c, to JSxplorers. 

4. To provide for the sanitary service, and to grant hospi- 
tality and help to explorers and to a]l who take part in Africa 
in the work of repressing the Slave Trade. 

53 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890.] AFBICA (GENEKAL). [Ho. 18 

[Brussels Aot. Afrloan Slaye Tradie, fto.] 

depression of the Slave Trade. Engagement of each Power. 

Art. III. The Powers exercising sovereignty or protectorate 
in Africa, in order to confirm and give greater precision to 
their former declarations, undertake to proceed gradoally, as 
circumstances permit, either by the means above indicated, or 
by any other means which they may consider suitable, with the 
repression of the Slave Trade ; each State in its respective 
Possessions and under its own direction. Whenever they con- 
sider it possible they will lend their good offices to the Powers 
which, with a purely hamanitarian object, may be engaged in 
Africa upon a similar mission. 

Engagements of Powers may he delegated to Chartered Companiesy 
hut Powers remain responsible. 

Art. rV. The Powers exercising sovereignty or protectorate 
in Africa may, however, delegate to Chartered Companies all or 
a portion of the engagements which they assume in virtue of 
Article III. They remain, nevertheless, directly responsible 
for the engagements which they contract by the present 
General Act, and guarantee the execution thereof. 

National Associations and Private Enterprises. 

The Powers promise to receive, aid, and protect national 
associations and enterprises due to private initiative, which 
may wish to co-operate in their Possessions in the repression of 
the Slave Trade, subject to their receiving previous authoriza- 
. tioD, which is revocable at any time i subject also to their being 
directed and controlled, and to the exclusion of any exercise of 
rights of sovereignty. 

Penal Laws to he enacted : — against Offences against the Person, 
Man-huntSy Mutilation of Adults and Male Infants, Capture 
of Slaves by Violence. 

Art. V. The Contracting Powers undertake, unless this has 
already been provided for by laws in accordance with the spirit of 
the present Article, to enactor propose to their respective Legis- 
tures, in the course of one year at latest from the date of the 
signature of the present General Act, a Law applying, on the 

54 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (QENERAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[BrasaelB Act. African Slave Trade, &0.I 

one band, the provisions of their penal laws concerning grave 
offences against the person, to the organizers and abettoi*s of 
man -h ants, to perpetrators of the mutilation of adults land male 
infants, and to all persons who may take part in the capture of 
slaves by violence ; 

Also agaiiist Offences against Individual Liberty^ to OarrierSy 
Transporters, and Dealers in Slaves. 

And, on the other hand, the provisions relating to offences against 
individnai liberty, to carriers, transporters, and dealers in slaves. 

Accomplices and Accessories. 

Accomplices and accessories of the different categories of 
slave captors and dealers above specified shall be punished with 
penalties proportionate to those incurred by the principals. 

Arrest and Trial of Quilty Persons. 

Guilty persons who may have escaped from the jurisdiction 
of the authorities of the country where the crimes or offences 
have been committed, shall be arrested either on communica- 
tion of the incriminatory evidence by the authorities who have 
ascertained the violation of the law, or on production of any 
other proof of guilt by the Power on whose territory they may 
have been discovered, and shall, without other formality, be 
held at the disposal of the tribunals competent to try them. 

Laws, 8fc., of each Country to he communicated to the Towers. 

The Powers will communicate to each other with the least 
possible delay the Laws or Decrees already in existence or 
promulgated in execution of the present Article. (See also 
Article XIX, p. 62.) 

Liberated Slaves, 

Abt. VI. Slaves liberated in consequence of the stoppage 

or dispersal of a convoy in the interior of the continent, shall 

be sent back, if circumstances peimit, to their country of 

origin ; if not, the local authorities shall help them as much as 

possible to obtain means of subsistence, and, if they desire it, 

to settle on the spot. 

66 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890.] AFRICA (aBNERAL) [No. 18 

[Brussels Act. Afrioan Slave Trade, &o.] 

Fugitive Slaves. Reception in Official Camps and Stations, or on 
Oovemment Vessels on Lakes and Rivers, 

Abt. VII. Any fugitive slave claiming on the continent 
the protection of the Signatory Powers shall obtain it, and 
shall be received in the camps and stations officially established 
by them, or on board Government vessels plying on the lakes 
and rivers. 

Private Stations or Vessels not to grant Asylum without permission^ 

Private stations and vessels are only permitted to exercise 
the right of asylum subject to the previous sanction of the 

State. 

Importation of Fire-arms and Ammunition prohibited vnthin de- 
fined Zone, except in certain Oases, and v/nder certain Conditions, 

Art. YIII. The experience of all nations who have inter- 
coarse with Africa having shown the pernicious and pre- 
ponderating part played by fire-arms in Slave Trade operations, 
as well as in intestine wars between native tribes; and this 
same experience having clearly proved that the preservation of 
the African populations, whose existence it is the express wish 
of the Powers to safeguard, is a radical impossibility if restric- 
tive measnresL against the trade in fire-arms and ammunition 
are not established ; the Powers decide, in so far as the present 
state of their frontiers permits, that the importation of fire* 
arms, and especially of rifles and improved weapons, as well as 
of powder, balls, and cartridges, is, except in the cases and 
under the conditions provided for in the following Article, 
prohibited in the territories comprised between the 20th 
parallel of north latitude and the 22nd parallel of south lati 
tade, and extending westward to the Atlantic Ocean, and east- 
ward to the Indian Ocean and its dependencies, comprising the 
islands adjacent to the coast as far as 100 nautical miles from 
the shore.* (See also Article XC, p. 84 (Spirituous Liquors).) 

* See Maps facing pp. 104 and 246. 
5G 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (GENERAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[BruMels Act. African Slave Irade, Ac] 

Fire-arms and Ammunition, Exertional Cases in which they may 
he imported, and under what Conditions. 

Art. IX. The introduction of fire-arms and ammnnition, 
when there shall be occaAion to authorize it in the Possessious 
of the Signatory Powers which exercise rights of sovereignty 
or of protectorate in Africa, shall be regulated in the following 
manner in the zone laid down in Article YIII, unless identical 
or more rigorous regalations have been already applied : — 

Deposit of Arms (and Gunpowder^ see next pa^e) in Warehouses. 

All imported fire-arms shall be deposited, at the cost, risk, 
and peril of the importers, in a public warehouse placed under 
the control of the Administration of the State. 

As to their Withdrawal. 

No withdrawal of fire-arms or imported ammunition shall 
take place from such warehouses without the previous authori- 
zation of the Administration. This authorization shall, except 
in cases hereinafter specified, be refused for the withdrawal of 
all arms of precision, such as rifles, magazine-guns, or breech- 
loaders, whether whole or in detached pieces, their cartridges, 
caps, or other ammunition intended for them. 

Private Warehouses under needful Guarantees, 

At the seaports the respective Governments may permit 
the establishment of private warehouses, under conditions 
affording the needful guarantees ; but only for ordinary powder 
and flint-lock guns, and to the exclusion of improved arms and 
their ammunition. 

Individual Exceptions. Weapons carried hy Travellers for 
Personal Defence, 

Besides the measures directly taken by €k)vemment8 for 
the arming of the public force and the organization of their 
defence, individual exceptions shall be admitted for persons 
affording sufficient guarantees that the arm and ammunition 
delivered to them will not be given, assigned, or sold to third 

57 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890,] AFRICA (aENERAL). [No. 18 

[Brussels Aet. African Slave Trade, fto.] 

persons, and for travellers provided with a declaration of their 
GovemTDent statiiig that the weapon and ammunition are 
destined exclusivelj for their personal defence. 

Licences to hear Arms. 

In the cases provided for in the preceding paragraph, all 
arms shall be registered and marked by the Authorities ap- 
pointed for the control, who shall deliver to the persons 'in 
question licences to bear arms, indicating the name of the 
bearer and showing the stamp with which the arm is marked. 
These licences are revocable in case of proved abuse, and will 
be issued for five years only, but may be renewed. 

Oiinj^wder. 

The rule above set forth as to warehousing shall also apply 
to gunpowder. 

Withdrawal of Flint-loch Unrifled Guns and Trade Fowder, 

Only flint-lock unrifled guns and common gunpowder, 
called trade powder ("poudres de traite"), can be withdrawn 
from the warehouses for purposes of sale. At each withdrawal 
of arms and ammunition of this kind for sale, the local authori- 
ties shall determine the regions in which these arms and 
ammunition may be sold. 

Slave Trade Regions excepted, 

' The regions infected by the Slave Trade shall always be 
excluded. 

Lists to he kept of Arms and Ammunition withdraumy and how 
disposed of 

Persons authorized to take arms or powder out of the ware- 
houses shall present to the Administration every six months 
detailed lists indicating the destinations of the said fire-arms 
and powder sold, as well as the quantities still remaining in 
store. 

58 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (GENERAL). [2 July, 1690. 

[BruBsels Aot. African Slaye Trade, Ac] 

Importation, SaUj and Transport of Fire-arms and Ammunition 
required hy Authorities of an Inland State. 

Art. X. The Governments shall take all measures they may 
deem necessary to ensare as complete a fulfilment as possible of 
the provisions respecting the importation, sale, and transport of 
fire-arms and ammunition, as well as to prevent either the 
entry or exit thereof by their inland frontiers, or the convey- 
ance thereof to regions where the Slave Trade exists. 

The authorization of transit within the limits of the zone 
specified by Article VIII cannot be withheld when the arms 
and ammunition are to pass across the territory of a Signatory 
or adherent Power in the occupation of the coast, towards 
inland territories placed under the sovereignty or protectorate 
of another Signatory or adherent Power, unless this latter 
Power have direct access to the sea throagh its own territory. 
Nor, if this access be completely interrupted, can the authori- 
zation of transit be withheld. 

Declaration to he made. 
Any demand for transit must be accompanied by a declara- 
tion emanating from the Government of the Power having the 
inland Possessions, and certifying that the said arms and 
ammunition are not destined for sale, but are for the use of the 
authorities of such Power, or of the military forces necessary 
for the protection of the missionary or commercial stations, or 
of persons mentioned by name in the declaration. 

Eights reserved of Territorial Power on the Coast. 
Nevertheless, the territorial Power of the coast retains the 
right to stop, exceptionally and provisionally, the transit of 
arms of precision and ammunition across its territory, if, in 
consequence of inland disturbances or other serious danger, 
there is ground for fearing that the dispatch of arms and am- 
munition might compromise its own safety. 

Information as to Traffic in Fire-arms and Ammunition to he com- 
Tnunieated hy the Powers to each other. 
Art. XI. The Powers shall communicate to each other in- 
formation relating to the traffic in fire-arms and ammunition, 

59 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890.] AFRICA (GENERAL). [No. 18 

[Brossels Act. Afirican Slave Trade, Ac] 

the licences granted, and the measures of repression in force in 
their respective territories. 

Arms and Ammunition, Penal Laws to he passed on the Subject. 

Art. XII. The Powers undertake to adopt or to propose to 
their respective Legislatures the measures necessary to insure 
that those who infringe the prohibitions laid down in Articles 
YIII and IX, and their accomplices, shall, besides the seizure 
and confiscation of the prohibited arms and ammunition, be 
punished either by fine or by imprisonment, or by both penal- 
ties together, in proportion to the importance of the offence, 
and in accordance with the gravity of each case. 

Fire-arms and Ammunition to be prevented from crossing Inland 
Frontiers of European Possessions into Regions of the Zone,* 

Art. XIII. The Signatory Powers who have Possessions in 
Africa in contact with the zone specified in Article YIII, bind 
themselves to take the necessary measures for preventing the 
introduction of fire-arms and ammunition across their inland 
frontiers into the regions of the said zone, at least that of im- 
proved arms and cartridges. 

Duration of System for 12 years, and afterwards from two 
years to two yearsy unless revised. 

Art. XIV. The system established under Articles VIII to 
XIII inclusive shall remain in force for twelve years.f In case 
none of the Contracting Parties shall have notified, twelve 
months before the expiration of this period, their intention of 
putting an end to it, nor shall have demanded its revision, it 
shall continue to remain obligatory for two more years, and 
shall thus continue in force from two years to two years. 

Chap. II. — Caravan Routes and Land Transport or Slaves. 

Watching Routes of Slave-dealers ; Stopping and Pursuit of 

Oonvoys on the March, 
Art. XV. Independently of the repressive or protective 

* See Maps facing pp. 104 and 246. 
t 2nd July, 1902. 
60 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 18] AFRICA ((GENERAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[BnuHiels Aot. AMcan Slaye Trade, &o.] 

action whicli they exercise in the centres of the Slave Trade, 
the stations, cruizers, and posts, the establishment of which is 
provided for in Article II, and all other stations established or 
recognized according to the terms of Article IV by each 
Grovemment in its possession^, will furthermore have the 
mission of watching, so far as circumstances permit, and in 
proportion to fhe progress of their administrative organization, 
the routes on their territory followed by the slave-dealers, of 
stopping the convoys on the march, and of pursuing them 
wherever they can legally take action. 

Establishment of Posts near Passage or TemdnaL Points on the 
Ooasi^ and at Points of Intersection of Priricipal Caravan 
J^otUes crossing Zone, 

Akt. XVI. In the regions of the coast known to serve 
habitually as places of passage Qr terminal points for Slave 
Traffic coming from the interior, as well as at the points of 
intersection of the principal caravan routes crossing iha zone 
contiguous to the coast already subject to the influence of the 
Sovereign or Protecting Powers, posts shall be established, 
under the conditions and with the reservations mentioned in 
Article III, by the authorities responsible for such territories, 
with the purpose of intercepting the convoys and liberating thiS 
slaves. 

Preverdion of Sale or Shipment of Slaves^ and Stoppage of Man- 
hunters and Slave-dealers, 

Art. XVII. A strict supervision shall be organized by the 
local authorities at the ports and in the countries adjacent to 
the coast, with the view of preventing the sale and shipment of 
slaves brought from the interior, as well as the formation and 
departui-e for the interior of bands of man-hunters and slave- 
dealers. 

Inspection of Caravans, 
Caravans arriving at the coast or its vicinity, as well as 
those arriving in the interior at a locality occupied by the 

61 F 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890.] AFRICA (GENERAL). [No. 18 

CBruBsels Act. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

authorities of the territorial Power, shall, on arrival, bo sub- 
mitted to a minute inspection as to the persons composing 
them. 

Individuals may he liberated on certain Conditions. 

Any individual ascertained to have been captured or carried 
off by force or mutilated, either in his native country or on the 
way, shall be liberated. 

Liberated Slaves. 

Art. XVIII. In the Possessions of each of the Contracting 
Powers the Administration shall have the duty of protecting 
liberated slaves, of repatriating them if possible, of procuring 
for them means of subsistence, and of particular in providing 
for the education and support of abandoned children. 

Application of Tenal Arrangements. 

Art. XIX. The penal arrangements provided for in Article V 
(p. 55) shall be made applicable to all crimes or offences com- 
mitted in the course of operations for the transport of and traffic 
in slaves on land, whenever proved. 

Any person having incurred a penalty in consequence of an 
offence provided for by the present General Act, shall be nnder 
the obligation of providing security before he is allowed to 
undertake any commercial operation in countries where the 
Slave Trade is carried on. 

Chap. III. — Repression of the Slave Trade by Sea. 

§ 1. General Provisions. 

Repression of the Slave Trade in the Maritime Zone. 
Art. XX. The Signatory Powers acknowledge the oppor- 
tuneness of taking steps in common for the more effective 
repression of the Slave Trade in the maritime zone in which it 
still exists. 



62 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (GENERAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[Bmssels Act. Slave Trade by Sea*] 

Definition of Maritime Zone.* 
Art. XXI.f This zone extends, on the one hand, between the 
coasts of the Indian Ocean (those of the Persian Gulf and of 
the Bed Sea included) from Boloochistan to Point Tangalane 
(Quilimane), and, on the other haud, a conventional line which 
first follows the meridian of Tangalane till it meets the 26th 
degree of south latitude ; is then merged in this parallel, then 
passes round the Island of Madagascar bj the east, keeping 
20 miles off the east and north shore, till it crosses the meridian 
of Cape Amber. From this point the limit of the zone is 
determined by an oblique line which extends to the coast of 
Boloochistan, passing 20 miles ofE Cape Ras-el-Had. 

Bight of Search, Yiait^ and Detention of Vessels at Sea. 
Art. XXII.f The Signatory Powers of the present Geneml 
Act, between whom there are special Conventions for the sup- 
pression of the Slave Trade, have agreed to restrict to ♦he 
above-mentioned zone the clauses of these Conventions concern- 
ing the reciprocal right of visit, search, and detention (" droit 
de visite, de recherche, et de saisie ") of vessels at sea. (See 
also Article XXIII.) 

BdgJU Limited to Vessels of less than 500 tons burthen. 
Art. XXIII. t The same Powers have also agreed to limit 
the above-mentioned right to vessels of less than 500 tons 
burthen. 

Stipuhiion may he Bevised.] 
This stipulation shall be revised as soon as experience shall 
have shown the necessity of such revision. 

Confirmation of Slave Trade Treaties between Contracting Powers 
to General Act. 
Art. XXIV. All other provisions of the Conventions con- 
cluded between the aforesaid Powers, for the suppression of 

* See also Berlin Act, 26th February, 1885, Art. i; p. 24 (Congo Ba«in). 

t See Protocols. Ratifications, 2nd Julj, 1891, 2nd January, 1892, 
2nd February, 1892, and 30th March, 1892, pp. 92, 97, 102, 104. French 
Boserrations, p. 98. 

t See Mapft facing pp. 104, 246. 

63 P 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890.] AFRIC4 (GENERAL). [Ho. 18 

[Brussels Aot. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

Slave Trade, remain in force in so far as tbej are not modified 
bj the present General Act. (See also Article XCVI, p. 86.) 

Fraudulent Use of Flag, Stoppage hy Powers of Transport of 
Slaves on Vessels authorized to use their Flag. 

Art. XXV. The Signatory Powers nndertake to adopt 
effective measures for preventing the nsurpation of their flag, 
and putting a stop to the transport of slaves on vessels autho- 
rized to fly their colours. 

Rapid Exchange of Information respecting Slave Trade 
Operations. 

Art. XXYI. The Signatory Powers undertake to adopt all 
measures necessary for facilitating the rapid exchange of 
information calculated to bring about the discovery of persons 
taking part in Slave Trade operations. (See also Article 
LXXIII, p. 79.) 

International Bureau to be established at Zanzibar. 

Art. XXVII. At least one International Bureau shall be 
created ; it shall be established at Zanzibar. The High Con- 
tracting Parties undertake to forward to it all the documents 
specified in Article XLI (p. 69), as well as information of all 
kinds likely to assist in the suppression of the Slave Trade. 

Freedom of Fugitive Slaves on board Ships of War. 

Art. XXVIJI. Any slave who may have taken refuge on 
board a ship of war flying the flag of one of the Signatory 
Powers, shall be immediately and definitively freed; such 
freedom, however, shall not withdraw him from the com- 
petent jurisdiction, if he has committed a crime or offence at 
common law. 

Bight of Slaves detained against their will on board a Native 
Vessel to claim their Liberty. 

Art. XXIX. Every slave detained against his wish on 
loaixl a native vessel shall have the right to claim his liberty. 

64 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (aENERAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[Broasela Act. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

His freedom may be declared by any Agent of one of the 
Signatory Powers on whom the General Act confers the 
right of ascertaining the statas of persons on board such 
vessels ; such freedom, however, shall not withdraw him from 
the competent jurisdiction if he has committed a crime or 
offence at common law* 

§ II. Eegfdatum concerning the Use of the Flag and Supervision 
hy Gruizers^ 

1. Bides respecting the Orant of the Flag to Native Vessels ; and 
respecting Grew Lists and Manifests of Black Passengers. 



Supervision over Native Vessels, 
Art. XXX.* The Signatory Powers undertake to exercise 
a strict supervision over the native vessels authorized to fly 
their flag in the zone indicated in Article XXI^ and over the 
commercial operations carried on by such vessels. 

Meaning of term " Native Vessel.^* 
AftT. XXXI. The term " native vessel ** applies to vessels 
fulfilling one of the two following conditions : — 

1. It must present the outward appearance of native build 
or rig. 

2. It must be manned by a crew of whom the captain and 
the majority of the seamen belong by origin to a country 
having a sea-coast on the Indian Ocean, the Bed Sea, or the 
Persian Gulf. 

Gonditions on which cmy of the Treaty Powers shall authorize 

Native Vessels to fly their Flag, 
Art. XXXII. Authority to fly the flag of one of the said 
Powers shall in future only be granted to such native vessels as 
shall satisfy all the three following conditions : — 

1. Their fitters-out or owners must be either subjects 
of or persons protected by the Power whose flag they claim to 
fly. 

2. They must furnish proof that they possess real estate 

• See also Article XLI, p. 69. 
65 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890.] AFRICA (aKNERAL). [No. 18 

[BnuuBalB Act. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

fiitnated in the district of the authority to whom their applica- 
tion is addressed, or to supply a solvent security as a guarantee 
for any fines to which they may eventually become liable. 

3. Sach fitters-out or owners, as well as the captain of the 
vessel, must famish proof that they enjoy a good reputation, 
and especially that they have never been condemned for acts of 
Slave Trade. 

Authority to be renewed yearly, and may he suspended or 
withdrawn. 

Art. XXXIII. The authorization, when granted, shall be 
renewed every year. It can at any time be suspended or with- 
drawn by the authorities of the Power whose colours the vessel 
flies. 

Other Precautions to he taken. 

Art. XXXIV. The deed of authorization shall bear the indi- 
cations necessary to establish the identity of the vessel. The 
captain shall have the custody of it. The name of the native 
vessel and the indication of its tonnage shall be inlaid and 
painted in Latin characters an the stern ; and the initial or 
initials of the name of the port of registry, as well as the regis- 
tration number in the series of numbers of that port, shall be 
printed in black on the sails. 

Grew List. Provisions. 

Art. XXXV. A crew list shall be issued to the captain of 
the vessel at the port of departure by the authorities of the 
Power whose colours it flies. It shall be renewed each time 
the vessel is fitted out, or, at latest, at the end of a year, and in 
conformity with the following provisions : — 

1. The list shall be vise at the moment of departure by the 
authority who has issued it. 

2. No negro can be engaged as a seaman on a vessel with- 
out having been previously questioned by the authority of 
the Power whose colours it flies, or, failing such authority, 
by the territorial authority, with a view to establish that he has 
contracted a free engagement. 

66 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (aENERAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[BruBsela Aot. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

3. Such authority shall see that the proportion of seamen 
and boys is not out of proportion to the tonnage or rig of the 
vessels. 

4. The authority who shall have interrogated the men 
before their departure shall inscribe them on the crew list, in 
which they shall be mentioned with a short description of each 
of them against his name. 

5. In order the more effectively to prevent any substifution, 
the seamen may, moreover, be provided with a distinctive mark. 
(See also Article XXXIX, p. 68.) 

Embarkation of Negro Faasengers, 

Art. XXXVI. If the captain of a vessel should desire to 
embark negro passengers, he shall make declaration thereof to 
the authority of the Power whose colours he flies, or, failing 
such authority, to the territorial authority. The passengers 
shall be interrogated, and after it has been ascertained that 
they embark of their own free will, they shall be inscribed in a 
special manifest, beai*ing the description of each of them 
against the name, and indicating especially sex and height. 
Negro children shall not be admitted as passengers unless thoy 
are accompanied by their relations, or by persons whose 
respectability is well known. On departure the passenger 
manifest shall be vise by the aforesaid authority after it has 
been called over. If there are no passengers on board, this 
shall be specially mentioned on the crew list. (See also 
Article XXXIX, p. 68.) 

Negro Passevgers, Forms to he observed by the Oapiain of a 
Vessel on arrival at any Fort of Call or Destination, 

Art. XXXVII. On arrival at any port of call or of destina- 
tion, the captain of the vessel shall show to the authority of 
the Power whose flag he flies, or, failing such authority, to the 
territorial authority, the crew list, and, if need be, the pas- 
senger manifests previously delivered. Such authority shall 
check the passengers arrived at their destination or stopping at 
a port of call, and shall mention their landing in the manifest. 

67 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890.] AFRICA (OENERAL). [No. 18 

[BruBselB Act. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

On departure the said authority sliall affix a fresh visa to the 
list and to the manifest, and shall call oyer the passengers. 
(See also Article XXXIX.) 

Landing of Negro Passengers, 

Art. XXXVIII. On the African coast and on the adjacent 
islands no negro passenger shall be shipped on board a native 
vessel, except in localities where there is & resident authority 
belonging to one of the Signatory Powers. 

Throughout the zone mentioned in Article XXt no negro 
passenger shall be landed from a native vessel, except at a 
place in which there is a resident authority belonging to one of 
the High Contracting Powers, and unless such authdiity is 
present iLt the landing. 

Gases of forc^ majeure which tnay hate caused an infraction 
of these provisions shall be examined by the authority of the 
Power whose colours the vessel flies, or^ failing such authority, 
by the territorial authority of the port at which the inculpated 
vessel puts in. (See also Article XXXIX.) 

Bxceptions io the above ;-^ 

Partialty decked Vessels with not more than 10 Mefi, 

Art. XXXIX. The provisions of Articles XXXV, XXXVI, 
XXXVII, and XXXVIII are not applicable to vessels only 
partially decked, having a maximum crew of lO men, and 
satisfying one of the two following conditions : — 

Fishing Vessels, Territorial Waters, 

1. That it is exclusively employed in fishing within terri- 
torial waters. 

Small Coasting Traders. 

2. That it is occupied in the small coasting trade between 
different ports of the same territorial Powers and never goes 
further than 5 miles from the coast. 

Special Licences to he granted. 
These different boats shall receive, according to circum- 

68 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFBIOA (GENSBAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[Bnunelji Act. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

stances, from the territorial or Consular authoritj, a special 
licence, renewable every year, and revocable under the condi- 
tions provided for in Article XL, and the uniform model of 
which, annexed to the present Greneral Act, shall be communi- 
cated to the International Information Office. 

Licences to he withdrawn in certain Cases,* 

AsT. XL. All acts or attempted acts of slave trade legally 
brought home to the captain, fitter-out, or owner of a vessel 
authorized to fly the flag of oHe of the Signatory Powers, or 
holding the licence provided for in Article XXXIX, shall en- 
tail the immediate withdrawal df the said authorizajbion or 
licence. 

Penalties for Offences^ 

All ofEences against the provisions of Section 2 of Chapter III 
shall in addition be punished by the penalties enacted by 
special Laws and Ordinances of each of the Contracting 
Powers. 

Forms of Documents to he deposited ai International Information 

Office. 
AsT. XLI; The Signatory Powers undertake to deposit at 
the International Information Office speciizien forms of the 
following documents : — 

1 . Licences to fly the flag \ 

2. Crew list ; 

3. Manifest of n^gro passengers. 

These documents, the tenoui* of which may vary according 
to the different Regulations of each country, shall compulsorily 
contain the following particulars, drawn up in a European 
language : — 

Authorization to fly the Flag. 

J^ \. Aa regards the authorization to fly the flag : 

(a.) The name, tonnage, rig, and principal dimensions of the 

• See p. 87. 

6y 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890.] AFRICA (GENERAL). [No. 18 

XBnuweU Aot. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

(b,) The register number and the signal letter of the port 
of registry ; 

(c.) The date of obtaining the licence, and the office held 
by the person who has issued it. 

The Crew List. 

2. As regards the crew list : 

- (a.) The name of the vessel, of the captain, and of the 
fitter. out or owner ; 

(6.) The tonnage of the vessel ; 

(c.) The register number and the port of registry of the 
vessel, its destination, and the particulars specified in Article 
XXV. 

Manifest of Negro Passengers. 

3. As regards the manifest of negro passengers : 

The name of the vessel which conveys them, and the 
particulars indicated in Article XXXVI for the proper identifi- 
cation of the passengers. 

The Signatory Powers shall take the necessary measures in 
order that the territorial authorities or their Consuls may send 
to the said office certified copies of all authorizations to fly their 
flag, as soon as such authorizations shall have been granted, as 
well as notice of the withdrawal of any such authorization. 

The provisions of the present Article only concern the 
papers intended for native vessels. 

2. Detention of Suspected Vessels. 

Verification of Ship^s Tapers of Suspected Vessels, 

Art. XLII.* When the officers in command of vessels of war 
of any of the Signatory Powers have reason to believe that a 
vessel of less than 500 tons burthen, foand in the above-men. 
tioned zone, is engaged in the Slave Trade, or is guilty of the 
fraudulent use of a flag, they may proceed to the verification of 
the ship's papers. 

• 8oe Protocols. Ratification*, 2nd July, 1891, 2nd January, 1892, 
2nd February, 1892, and 30th March, 1892, pp. 92, 97, 102, 104. French 
BoserrationB, p. 98. 

70 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (aENjERAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[BnuselB Aot. SlftTe Trade by Sea.] 

Jurisdiction in Territorial Waters. 

The present Article does not implj anj change in the 
present state of things as regards jarisdiction in territorial 
waterA. 

Conduct of Naval Officer on hoard Suspected Vessel. 

Art. XLIII.* With this object, a boat, commanded by a 
naval officer in uniform, may be sent on board the suspected 
vessel after it has been hailed to give notice of such intention. 

The officer sent on board the vessel detained shall act with 
all possible consideration and moderation. 

Verification of 8hip*8 Papers, Examination of Documents. 

Art. XLIV.* The verification of the ship's papers shall con- 
sist in the examination of the following docnments : — 

1. As regards native vessels, the papers mentioned in 
Article XLI. 

2. As regards other vessels, the documents required by the 
different Treaties or Conventions remaining in force. 

The verification of the ship^s papers only authorizes the 
muster of the crew and passengers in the cases and under the 
conditions provided for in the following Article. 

Investigation of the Cargo or Search. 
Aet. XLV.* Investigation of the cargo or search can only 
take place with respect to a vessel navigating under the 
flag of one of the Powers which have concluded, or may 
conclude, special Conventions as mentioned in Article XXII, 
and in accordance with the provisions of such Conven- 
tions. 

Detained Vessels, Forms to be observed. 

Art. XL VI.* Before quitting the detained vessel, the officer 
shall draw up a Minute according to the forms and in the 
language of the country to which he belongs. 

This Minute shall be dated and signed by the officer, and 
shall relate the facts. 

* See Protocols. RatificatioiiB, 2nd July, 1891, 2nd January, 1892, 
2nd February, 1892, and 80th March, 1893, pp. 92, 97, 102, 104. Frer'>' 
Reaerrations, p. 98. 

71 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890.] AFRICA (aENEBAL). [No. 18 

[Bnusels Act. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

The captain of the detained vessel, as well as tlie witneRses, 
sball have the right to cause to be added to the Minute any 
explanations they may think expedient. 

Detained Vessels. Report to he made to Oovernment, 
Art. XLVIT.* The Commander of a man-of-war who may 
have detained a vessel under a foreign flag shall in all cases 
make a Report thereon to his own Government, and state the 
grounds upon which he acted. 

Detained Vessels. Copy of Report to he sent to International 

Information Office. 
Art. XLVIII.* A summary of this Report, as well as a copy 
of the Minute drawn up by the officer sent on board the de- 
tained vessel, shall be sent as soon as possible to the Inter- 
national Information Office, which shall communicate the same 
to the nearest Consular or territorial authority of the Power 
whose flag was used by the vessel in question. Duplicates 
of these documents shall be kept in the archives of the office. 

Vessels detained on Suspicion. Where to he taken to. 
Art. XLIX.* If, in carrying out the supervision provided 
for in the preceding Articles, the officer in command of the 
cruizer is convinced that an act of Slave Trade has been com- 
mitted on board during the passage, or that irrefutable proofs 
exist against the captain, or fitter-out, to justify a charge of 
fraudulent use of the flag, of fraud, or of participation in the 
Slave Trade, he shall take the detained vessel to the nearest 
port of the zone where there is a competent authority of the 
Power whose flag has been uued. 

Appointment in Zone of territorial or Consular Authorities or 

Delegates. 
Each Signatory Power undertakes to appoint in the zone 
territorial or Consular authorities, or Special Delegates com- 
petent to act in the above-mentioned cases ; and to notify such 
appointments to the International Information Office. 

• See Protocols. Ratificstions, 2nd July, 1891, 2nd January, 189?, 
2nd February, 1892, and 30th March, 1892, pp. 92, 97, 102, 104. French 
Be«ervation9, p. 98. 

72 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (aEKEBAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[BnuMels Act. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

Suspected Vessels to he handed over to Gruizer of their own Nation. 

The suspected vessel can also be banded over to a cmizer 
of its own nation, if the latter consents to take charge of it. 

3. Examination and Trial of Vessels seized. 
Investigation by Competent Authority. 
Art. L.* The authority referred to in the preceding Article, 
to whom the detained vessel has heen handed over, shall pro- 
ceed to make a full investigation, according to the laws and 
rules of his country, in the presence of an officer belonging to 
the foreign cruizer. 

Fraudulent Use of Fkbg. 
Art. LI.* If it is proved by the inquiry that the flag has been 
fraudulently used, the detained vessel shall remain at the dis- 
posal of its captor. 

Slaves on hoaardfor Sale or other Slave Trade Offence. 
Art. LII.* If the examination shows an act of Slave Trade, 
made clear by the presence on board of slaves destined for sale, 
or by any other Slave Trade offence provided for by special 
Convention, the vessel and cargo shall remain sequestrated in 
charge of the authority who has directed the inquiry. 

Disposal of Captain^ Grew^ and Slaves. 

The captain and crew shall be handed over to the Tribunals 
fixed by Articles LIV and LVI. The slaves shall be set at 
liberty as soon as judgment has been delivered. 

Liberated Slaves. 

In the cases provided for by this Article, liberated slaves 

shall be disposed of in accordance with the special Conventions 

concluded, or which may be concluded, between the Signatory 

Powers. In default of such Conventions, the said slaves may 

be handed over to the local authority, to be sent back, if 

possible, to their country of origin ; if not, such authority shall 

• See Protocols. RatiflcationB, 2nd July, 1891, 2nd January, 1892, 
2nd February, 1892, and 30th March, 1892, pp. 92, 97^ 102, 104. French 
BeserTation:!, p. 98. 

73 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890.] AFRICA (GENERAL). [No. 18 

[Brussels Act. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

help them so far as possible to obtain means of subsistence, and, 
if ihej desire it, to settle on the spot. 

Vessel illegally detained. 

Aet. LIII.* If it should be proved by the inquiry that the 
vessel has been illegally detained, a right will accrue to an 
indemnity in proportion to the damages suffered by the vessel 
being taken out of its course. The amount of this indemnity 
shall be fixed by the authority which has direct-ed the in- 
quiry. 

Appeal to Tribunals. 

Art. LIV.* In case the officer of the capturing vessel should 
not accept the conclusions of the inquiry carried on in liis 
presence, the matter shall, as a matter of course, be handed over 
to the Tribunal of the nation under whose flag the captured 
vessel sailed. 

No exception shall be made to this rule, unless the disagree* 
ment arises in respect of the amount of the indemnity provided 
for in Article LIII, when it shall be fixed by arbitration, as 
specified in the following Article. 

Appointment of Arbitrators and Umpire. 
Art. LV.* The capturing officer, and the authority which 
has directed the inquiry, shall each appoint an Arbitrator 
within 48 hours ; and the two Arbitrators shall have 24 hours 
to choose an Umpire. The Arbitrators shall, as far as possible, 
be chosen from among the Diplomatic, Consular, or Judicial 
officers of the Signatory Powers, Natives in the pay of the 
Contracting Governments are formally excluded. The decision 
shall be taken by majority of votes, and shall be considered 
final. If the Court of Arbitration is not constituted within the 
time indicated, the procedure in respect of indemnity and 
damages shall be in accordance with the provisions of Article 
LVIII, paragraph 2. 

Tribunal to be referred to of Nation whose Colours have been used. 
Art. LVI.* Cases shall be referred with the least possible 

* So6 Protocols. Rfttifications, 2Dd July, 1891, 2iid Januaiy, 1892, 
2nd February, 1892, and 30th March, 1892, pp. 92, 07, 102, 104. French 
Reserrations, p. 98. 

74 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (GENERAL). [2 July, 1890 

[Brussels Aot. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

delay to the Tribunal of the nation whose colours have been 
used by the accused. Nevertheless, Consuls or any other au- 
thority of the same nation as the accused, specially com- 
missioned to that eifect, may be authorized by their Grovern- 
ment to deliver judgment instead and in the place of the 
Tribunals. 

Procedure and Judgment. 

Art. LVII.* The procedure and judgment in regard to 
offences against the provisions of Chapter III sliall always 
take place in as sammary a manner as is permitted by the Laws 
and Regulations in force in the territories subject to the autho- 
i-ity of the Signatory Powers. 

Execution of Judgments, 

Art. LVIII.* Any judgment of the national Tribunal, or of 
the authorities referred to in Article LVI, declaring that the 
detained vessel did not carry on Slave Trade, shall be imme- 
diately executed, and the vessel shall be entirely free to continue 
its course. 

In such cases the . captain or fitter-out of a vessel detained 
without legitimate ground of suspicion, or which has been sub- 
jected to annoyance, shall have the right of claiming damages, 
the amount of which shall be fixed by agreement between the 
Governments directly interested, or by arbitration, and shall be 
paid within a period of six months from the date of the judg- 
ment acquitting the captured vessel. 

Condemnation of Vessel. Lawful Prize. 

Art. LIX.* In case of condemnation, the sequestered vessel 
shall be declared a lawful prize for the benefit of the captor. 

Punishment of Captain, Crew, anil others. 
The captain, crew, and all other persons found guilty shall 
be punished according to the gravity of the crimes or ofPences 
committed by them, and in accordance with Article V. 

* See Protocols. Ratifloations, 2nd Julj, 1891, 2nd January, 1892, 
2nd February, 1892, and 30Ui March, 1892, pp. 92, 97, 102, 104. French 
ReserTatiuD.i, p. 98. 

75 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July. 1890.] AFRICA (GENEEAL). [No. 18 

[Bmuels Act. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

Special and other Tribunals. 
Art. LX.* The proyisionB of Articles L to LIX do not affect 
in any way the jurisdiction or procedure of existing special Tri- 
bunals, or of those which may hereafter be formed to take cog- 
nizance of Slave Trade offences. 

Instructions to Naval Commanders. 
Art. LXI.* The High Contracting Parties undertake to make 
known to each other reciprocally the instructions which they 
may give to the commanders of their men-of-war navigating the 
seas of the zone refeiTed to, for carrying out the provisions of 
Chapter III. 

Chap. IV. — Countries to which Slaves are sent, the Insti- 
tutions OF WHICH recognize THE EXISTENCE OF DOMESTIC 

Slavery. 

Importation^ Transit, and Eant, and Traffic in Slaves to he 
prohibited. 

Art. LXII. The Contracting Powers whose institutions re- 
cognize the existence of domestic slavery, and whose Posses- 
sions, whether in or out of Africa, consequently serve, in spite 
of the vigilance of the authorities, as places of destination for 
African slaves, engage to pi*ohibit the importation, transit, and 
exit, as well as traffic in slaves. They shall organize the most 
active and the strictest supervision at all places where the 
arrival, transit, or exit of African slaves takes place. 

Liberated Slaves. 
Art. LXIII. Slaves liberated under the provisions of the 
preceding Article shall, if circumstances permit, be sent back 
to the country from whence they came. In all cases they shall 
receive letters of freedom from the competent authorities, and 
shall be entitled to their protection and assistance for the pur- 
pose of obtaining means of subsistence. 

Fugitive Slaves. 
Art. LXIV. Every fugitive slave arriving at the frontier of 

* See Protocols. Batifications, 2nd Julj, 1891, 2nd January, 1892, 
2Dd February, 1892, and 30th March, 1892, pp. 92, 97, 102, 104. French Be- 
seryationfi, p. 98. 

76 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (GENERAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[Brusaels Act. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

any of the Powers mentioned in Article LXTI shall be con- 
sidered free, and shall have the right to claim letters of freedom 
from the competent authorities. 

Sales, ^c, null and void. 
Art. LXV. Any sale or transaction to which the slaves 
referred to in Articles LXIII and LXIV may have been sub- 
jected through circumstances of any kind whatsoever shall be 
considered as null and void. 

Slaves on hoard Native Vessels, 

Art. LXVl. Native vessels flying the flag of one of th? 
countries mentioned in Article LXII, if there is any indication 
that they are employed in Slave Trade operations, shall be sub- 
jected by the local authorities in the ports they frequent to a 
strict verification of their crew and passengers, both on arrival 
and departure. Should African slaves be on board, judicial 
proceedings shall be taken against the vessel and against all 
persons who may be implicated. Slaves found on board shall 
receive letters of freedom through the authorities who effected 
the seizure of the vessels. 

Penal Provisions. 
Art. LXVII. Penal provisions in harmony with those pro- 
vided for by Artide Y shall be issued against persons importing, 
transporting, and trading in African slaves, against the mutila- 
tors of children or of male adults, and those who traffic in them, 
as well as against their associates and accomplices. 

Ottoman Law against Negro Slave Trade, 

Art. LXVIII. The Signatory Powers recognize the grea»t 
importance of the' Law respecting the prohibition of the JSTegro 
Slave Trade sanctioned by His Majesty the Emperor of the 
Ottomans on the 4th (16th) December, 1889 (22 Rebi-ul- 
Akhir, 1307),* and they are assured that an active supervision 
will be organized by the Ottoman authorities, especially on the 
west coast of Arabia and on the routes which place this coast 

• See Turkey, p. 919. 

77 G 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890.] AFRICA (GENERAL). [No. 18 

[Bmasels Act. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

in coiQiniinication with the other poMessions of His Imperial 
Majesty in Asia. 

Persian Supervinon in its TeiTitorial Waters, Inland Boutes, 8fc. 
Art. LXIX. His Majesty the Shah of Persia consents to 
organize an active supervision in the territorial waters, and on 
those portions of the coast of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of 
Oman which are nnder his sovereignty , and over the inland 
routes which serve for the transport of slaves. The Magi- 
strates and other anthoi-ities shall recei¥^e the necessary powers 
for this purpose. 

Steps to he taken by Sultan of Zanzibar. 
Art. LXX. His Highness the Saltan of Zanzihar consents 
to give his most effective support for the repression of crimes 
aud offences committed hy traders in African slaves on land as 
well as at sea. The Tribunals created for this purpose in the 
Sultanate of Zanzibar shall strictly apply to the penal previ- 
sions mentioned in Article Y. 

Estahlishment of a Liberation Ofice in Zanzibar,] 

In order the better to ensure the freedom of liberated slaves, 
both in virtufi of the provisions of the present General Act and 
of the Decrees issued in this matter by His Highness and his 
predecessors^ a Liberation Office shall be established at Zan- 
zibar. 

DipUmuUic, Consular, and Naval Assistance to Local Authorities, 
AfiT. liXJLl. Diplomatic and Consular Agents and naval 
officers of the Contracting Powers shall, within the limits of 
existing Conventions, give their assistance to the local authori- 
ties in order to assist in repressing the Slave Trade where it 
still exists. 

Presence at Slave-trading Trials. 
They shall be entitled to be present at trials for slave trading 
brought about at their instance, without, however, being en- 
titled to take part in the deliberations. 

78 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] APETCA (GENEEAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[BrxuMel* Act. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

Liheration Offices. 

Aet. LXXII. Liberation offices, or institutions in lien 
thereof, sha]l be organized by tlie Admii^istrations of the 
conntriefi to which African slaves ^re sent, for the purposes 
specified in Article XVIII. 

Periodical Exclmnge of Statistical Data. 

Art. LXXIII. The Signatory Powers having undertaken to 
communicate to each other all information nsef al for the represr 
sion of the Slave Trade,* the Governments whom the present 
Chapter concerns shall periodically exchange with the other 
Governments statistical data relating to plaves detained and 
liberated, as well as the l^slative and adi^inistr^ljiv^e measures 
taken for suppressing the Slave Trade. 



Chap. V. — Institutions intended to insube the execuxioji of 
THE General Act. 

§ I. The International Maritime Office. 

Institution at Zanzibar, Bepresentatit.e», 

Art. LX]^iy. In accordance with i^e provisions of Article 
XXYII, an international Office is institated at Zanzibar, in 
which each of the Signatory Poijirers may be represented by 
a Delegate. 

Constitution. Regulations. 

Art. LXXV. The Office shall be constitated as sopn as 
three Powers have appointed their Representatives. 

It shall draw up Regulations fixing the mode of exercising 
its functions. These Regalations shall immediately be sub. 
mitted for the approval of those Signatory Powers who shall 
have notified their intention of being represented in the Office, 
and who shall come to a decision with regard to them with the 
lea.st possible delay. 

• See Article XX VI, p. 64. 

79 G 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 Jnly, 1890. J AFRICA (GfENERAL). [No. 18 

LBkiuwals Aot. Slav« Ttade by Sea. } 

Expenses, 
Abt. LXXVI. The expenses of this institation shall he 
divided in equal parts among the Signatory Powers mentioned 
in the preceding Article. 

Object, Ceiiiralizaiion of Documents and Information, Bepres- 
sion of the Slave Trade in the Maritime Zone, 

Art. I/XXVII. The object of the Office at Zanzibar shall 
be to centralize all docaments and information of a nature to 
facilitate the repression of the Slave Trade in the maritime 
zone. For this parpose the Signatory Powers undertake to 
forward to it within the shortest possible time :— 

1. The documents specified in Article XLI. 

2. Snmmaries of the Reports and copies of the Minntes 
rofeiTed to in Article XLVIII. 

3. The list of territorial or Consulcu* authorities and Special 
Delegates competent to take action an regards detained vessels, 
according to the terms of Article XLIX. 

4i, Copies of Judgments ai).d Decrees of Condemnation de- 
livered in accordance with Article LVIII. 

5. All information likely to lead to the discovery of persons 
engaged in the Slave Trade in the above*mentioned zone.. 

Archives a^essible to Naval Officers and others. 

Art. LXXVni. The archives of the Office shall always be 
open to naval oncers of the Signatory Powers authorized to act 
within the limits of the zone defined in Article XXI as well as 
to the territorial or judicial authjorities, and to Consuls specially 
appointed by their Governments. 

Translations of JDoeuments, 

The Office shall supply to foreign officers and agents autho- 
rized to consult its archives translations in a European language 
of documents written in an Oriental language. It shall make 
the communications provided for in Article XLVIII. 



80 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 18] AFRICA (aENEBAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[BruMeU Aot. Slave Trade by Seai] 

Auxiliary Ojfficee, 

Art. LXXIX. Auxiliary Offices in commanication with the 
Office at Zanzibar may be established in certain parts of the 
Eone, on agreement beforehand between the interested Powers. 

They shall be composed of Delegates of sach Powers, and 
established in conformity with Articles LXXY, LXXYI, and 
LXXVIII. 

Documents and Information^ where to be forwarded. 
The documents and information specified in Article LXX YII, 
80 far as they relate to the part of the zone specially concerned, 
shall be sent to them direct by the territorial and Consular 
authorities of the r^ion in question, without prejudice to the 
communication to the Zanzibar Office provided for by the same 
Article. 

Annual Reports to he ^prepared. 
Aet. LXXX. The Office at Zanzibar shall draw up within 
the two first months of every year, a Report upon its own 
operations, and those of the auxiliary Offices, during the past 
year. 

§ II. Exchange between the respective Governments of Documents 
and Information relating to the Slave Trade,* 

International Communications. 
Art. LXXXI. The Powers shall communicate to each other 
to the fullest extent, and with the least delay which they shall 
consider possible — 

Laws and Regulations, 

1. The text of the Laws and administrative Regulations, 
whether already existing, or enacted in application of the 
clauses of the present General Act. 

Statistical Information. 

2. Statistical information concerning the Slave Trade, slaves 

* See "Documente relatifs ^ 1a repression de la Traite des Esclayes, 
publics en execution des Article LXXXI, et suivans de TActe G^n^ral 
de Bruxelles, 1892/' itsuei by the Brussels Office, respecting the Slave Trade 
at Zanzibar. A copy of the volume containing these documents has been 
placed in the Librarj of each House of Parliament. 

81 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890.1 AFRICA (GKNKBAL). [No. 18 

[BrauelB Act. SUve Trade by Sea.] 

detained and liberated, and the traffic in arms, ammnnition, 
and spirituous liquors. 

Central Office at Brussels. 

Art. LXXXII. The exchange of these documents and infor- 
inotion shall be centralized in a special office attached to the 
£^oreign Office in Brussels. 

Information to be supplie I by Office at Zanzibar. 

Art. LXXXlIl. The Office at Zanzibar shall forward to it 
every year the report mentioned in Article LXXX upon 
its operations daring the past year, and upon those of the 
auxiliary offices which may have been established in accordance 
with Article LXXIX. 

Informdtion to be published cLnd communicated to the Towers. 

Art. I/XXXIY. The documents and information shall be 
collected and published, periodically, and addressed to all the 
Signatory Powers. This publication shall be accompanied every 
year by an analytical table of the legislative, administrative, 
and statistical documents mentioned in Articles LXXXI and 
LXXXIII. 

Expenses to be shared by Signatory Powers. 

AiiT. LXXXY. The office expenses and the expenditure in- 
curred for correspondence, translation, and printing shall be 
shared by all the Signatory Powers, and shall be recovered 
through the Foreign Office at Brussels. 

§ III. Protection of Liberated Slaves. 

Establishment of OffvCes or Institutions. 

Art. LXXX VI. The Signatory Powers, having recognized 
the duty of protecting liberated slaves in their respective pos- 
sessions, undertake to establish, if they should not already 
exist, in the ports of the zone determined by Article XXI 
and in such parts of their said Possessions as may be places 

82 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (OENEBAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[BroBsels Act. Slave Trade by Sea.] 

for the capture, passage, and arrival of African slaves, as 
many Offices or institutions as they may deem sufficient, the 
business of which will specially consist in freeing and protecting 
the slaves in accordance with the provisions of Articles VI, 
XVIII, LII, LXIII, and LXVI. 

Letters of Freedom. Registers. 

Art. LXXXVII. Such Offices, or the authorities charged 
with this service, shall deliver letters of freedom, and keep a 
register thereof. 

Liberation of Slaves and Punishment of Offenders, 

On receiving notice of an act of Slave Trade or of illegal 
detention, or at the instance of the slaves themselves, the said 
Offices or authorities shall exercise all necessary diligence to 
insure the liberation of the slaves and the punishment of the 
offenders. 

Legal Procedure against Slaves accused of Crime, 

The delivery of letters of freedom should in no case be 
delayed if the slave be accused of a crime or ofPence against 
common law. But after the delivery of the said letters, the 
ordinary legal procedure shall take its course. 

Befugesfor Wom^en, Education of Children* 

Art. LXXXVIII. The Signatory Power shall encourage 
the foundation in their Possessions of estnblishments of refuge 
for women and of education for liberated children. 

Access of Free Slaves to Offices, 

Art. LXXXIX. Freed slaves shall always be able to resort 
to the Offices to be protected in the enjoyment of their liberty. 

Punishment for depriving Liberated Slaves of their Letters of 
Freedom or of their Liberty, 

Whoever shall have used fraud or violence to deprive a 

83 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1890.] AFRICA (GENERAL). [No. 18 

[Broasels Act. Traffic in SpirituouB Liquors.] 

liberated slave of his letters of freedom or of his liberty shall 
be considered as a slave-dealer. 

Chap. VI: — Restrictive Measures concerning the Traffic in 
Spirituous Liquors. 

Zone within which Articles of Act respecting Spiritiious Liquors 
shall apply, 

' Art. XC. Justly anxious respecting the moral and material 
consequences which the abuse of spiHtnous liquors entails on 
the native populations, the Signatory Powers have agreed to 
ap^ly-th© provisions of Articles XCI, XCII, and XCIII within 
a zone extending from the 20th degree north latitude to the 
22nd degree south latitude, and bounded by the Atlantic Ocean 
on the west, and on the east by the Indian Ocean and its 
dependencies, comprising the islands adjacent to the shore up 
to 100 marine miles from the coast.* (See also Art. VIII.) 

Importation of Distilled Liquors prohibited. 
Art. XCI.t In the regions of this zone where it shall be ascer- 
tained that, either on account of religious belief or from other 
motives, the use of distilled liquors does not exist or has not 
been developed j the Powers shall prohibit their importation. 

Manufacture of DistiUed Liquors to be also prohibited. 
The manufacture therein of distilled liquors shall equally be 
pi-ohibited. 

Limits of Zones to be notified to the Poivers. 

Each Power shall determine the limits of the zone of pro- 
hibition of alcoholic liquors in its Possessions or Protectorates, 
and shall be bound to notify the limits thereof to the other 
Powers within the space of six months. 

Cases in which Prohibition can be suspended. 
The above prohibition can only be suspended in the case of 
limited quantities destined for the consumption of the non- 
• See Map facing p. 104. 

t See Notification of 18th June, 1892, respecting Witu, &c., Nyassaland, 
and Niger Protectorate, p. 328. 

84 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (GENERAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[Brussels Aot. TralAo In Spirituous Liquors.] 

native population, and imported under the system and conditions 
determined by each Government. 

Import Duties on Spirituous Liquors to be Levied by neighbouring 

States. 
Art. XCII. The Powers having Possessions or exercising 
Protectorates in the regions of the zone which are not placed 
nnder the system of prohibition, and into which spirituoas 
liquors are at present either freely imported or pay an import 
duty of less than 15 fr. per hectolitre up to 50 degrees centi- 
grade, undertake to levy on these spirituous liquors an import 
duty of 15 fr. per hectolitre up to 50 degrees centigrade for the 
three years next after the present General Act comes into force. 
At the expiration of this period the duty may be increased to 
25 fr. for a fresh period of three years. At the end of the sixth 
year it shall be snbmitted to revision, taking as a basis the 
average results produced by these Tariffs, for the purpose of 
then fixing, if possible, a minimum duty throughout the whole 
extent of the zone where the system of prohibition referred to 
in Article XCI should not be in force. 

The Powers retain the right of maintaining and increasing 
the duties beyond the minimum fixed by the present article in 
those regions where they already possess that right. 

Art. XCIII. Distilled liquors manufactured in the regions 
referred to in Article XCII, and Intended for inland consump- 
tion, shall be subject to an excise duty. 

This excise duty, the collection of which the Powers under- 
take to insure as far as possible, shall not be lower than the 
minimum import duty fixed by Art. XCII. 

Art. XCIV. The Signatory Powers which have possessions 
in Africa contiguous to the zone specified in Article XC under- 
take to adopt the necessary measures for preventing the intro- 
duction of spirituous liquors into the territories of the said zone 
across their inland frontiers. 

Art. XCV. The Powers shall communicate to each other, 
through the Office at Brussels, and according to the terms of 
Chap. Y, information relating to the traffic in spirituous liquors 
within their respective territories. 

85 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1830.] AFRICA (GENERAL). [No. 18 

[BmsBels Act.] 

Chap. VII. — Final PaoYisioNs. 

Repeal of all Stipulations of Conventions opposed to this Act* 

Art. XCVI. The present General Act repeals all contrary 
stipulations of Conventions previously concluded between the 
Signatory Powers. (See also Art. 24, p. 63.) 

Modifications or Improvement of Act. 

Art. XCVII. The Signatory Powers, without prejudice to 

he stipulations contained in Articles XI Y, XXIII, and XCII, 

the right of introducing into the present General Act 

later on, and by common agreement, such modifications or 

improvements as experience may prove to be useful. 

Permission to other Powers to accede, subject to Conditions. 

Art. XCVIII. Powers who have not signed the present 
General Act shall be allowed to adhere to it. 

The Signatory Powers reserve the right to impose the con- 
ditions which they may deem necessary on snch adhesion. 

If no conditions should be stipulated, adhesion implies full 
acceptance of all the obligations and full admission to all the 
advantages stipulated by the present General Act. 

The Powers shall concert among themselves as to the steps 
to be taken to procure the adhesion of States whose co-operation 
may be necessary or useful in order to insure the complete 
execution of the General Act. 

Adhesion shall be effected by a separate Act. It shall be 
notified through the Diplomatic channel to the Government of 
His Majesty the King of the Belgians, and by that Government 
to all the Signatory and adherent States. 

Batifications.f 

Art. XCIX. The present General Act shall be ratified within 
a period which shall be as short as possible, and which shall not 
in any case exceed one year. 

* Liberia acceded, 23rd December, 1892. 

t See Protocols, Ratifications, 2iid July, 1891 ; 2nd January, 1892 ; 2nd 
February, 1892, and 30th March, 1892, pp. 92, 97, 102, 104. French 
Rcseryations, p. 98. 

86 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (aKNERAL). [2 July, 1890. 

[Brussels Aot.] 

Each Power shall address its ratification to the Govemmenk 
of His Majesty the King of the Belgians, which shall give notice 
thereof to all the other Signt^tory Powers of the present General 
Act. 

The ratifications of all the Powers shall remain deposited in 
the archives of the Kingdom of Belgium. 

As soon as all the ratifications have been produced, or at 
latest one year after the signature of the present General Act, 
their deposit shall be recorded in a Protocol which shall be 
signed by the represeutatives of all the Powers which have 
ratified. 

A certified copy of this Protocol shall be forwarded to all the 
Powers interested. 

Oammencemeni of Act 

Art. G. The present General Act shall come into force in all 
the Possessions of the Contracting Powers on the 60th day after 
the date of the Protocol of Deposit provided for in the preceding 
article. 

In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have 
signed the present General Act, and have thereto affixed their 
kls. 

Done at Brussels the 2nd day of the month of July, 1890. 

[Here follow the Signatures.] 



Coasting Trade, 

Annex to Article XXXIX. 
Form of Licence to ply the Coasting Trade on the East 
Coast of Africa, in conformity with Article XXXIX, p. 68. 



87 



Digitized by 



Google 



July, 1890.] AFRICA (GENERAL). [No. 18 

[Braasels Aot. Import Duties.] 

Declaration respecting Import Duties, 2nd July, 1890. 

The Powers assembled in Conference at Brussels, who have 
ratified the General Act of Berlin of the 26th February, 1885 
(No. 17), or who have acceded thereto, 

After haying drawn up and signed in concert, in the General 
Act of this day, a collection of measures intended to put an end 
to the Negro Slave Trade by land as well as by sea, and to im- 
prove the moral and material conditions of existence of the 
native races, 

Taking into consideration that the execution of the provisions 
which they have adopted with this object imposes on some of 
them who have Possessions or Protectorates in the conventional 
basin of the Congo obligations which absolutely demand new 
resources to meet them. 

Have agreed to make the following Declaration : — 

Duties on Imports not to exceed 10 per cent, ad valorem.* 

The Signatory or adhering Powers who have Possessions or 
Protectorates in the said conventional basin of the Congo 
are authorized, so far as they require any authority for the 
purpose, to establish therein duties upon imported goods, the 
scale of which shall not exceed a rate equivalent to 10 per cent. 
ad valorem at the port of entry. 

Spirituous Liquors excepted. 

Always excepting spirituous liquors, which are regulated by 
the provisions of Chapter VI of the General Act of this day 
(Articles XC— XCV, pp. 84, 85). 

After the signature of the said General Act, negotiations 
shall be opened between the Powers who have ratified the 
General Act of Berlin or who have adhered to it, in order to 
draw up, within the maximum limit of 10 per cent, ad valorem^ 
the conditions of the Castoms system to be established in the 
conventional basin of the Congo. 

Nevertheless, it is understood : — 

• See Agreement, 22nd December, 1890, p. 90; and BritiBh Notification 
to Treaty Powers, respecting Zanzibar, 22nd June, 1892 (Appendix). 

88 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 18] AFRICA (GENERAL). [2 Joly 1890. 

[BmsMls Aot. Import Duties.] 

No Differential Treatment or Transit Duties to he established, 

1. That no differential treatment or transit duty shall bo 
established ; 

Customs Formalities. 

2. That in applying the Customs system which may be 
agreed, each Power will undertake to simplify formalities as 
mach as possible, and to facilitate trade operatioDS ; 

Duration of Arrangement for 16 Years, 

3. That the arrangement resulting from the proposed nego- 
tiations shall remain in force for 15 years from the signature of 
the present Declaration.* 

Position of Affairs at Expiration of that Period, 
At the e^cpiration of this period, and failing a fresh Agree- 
ment, the Contracting Powers shall return to the conditions 
provided for by Article IV of the General Act of Berlinf 
(No. 17), retaining the power of imposing duties up to a 
maximum of 10 per cent, upon goods imported into the con- 
ventional basin of the Congo. 

Ratifications, 

The ratifications of ^the present Declaration shall be ex- 
changed at the same time as those of the General Act of this 
day. 

In witness whereof the undersigned Plenipotentiaries have 
drawn up the present Declaration, and have affixed thereto 
their seals. 

Done at Brussels, the 2nd day of the month of July, 1890. 
[Here follow the Signatures.] 



• Till 2nd Julj, 1905. 
t Pagfl26. 

89 



Digitized by 



Google 



22 Dec, 1890.] AFRICA (GENERAL). [No. 19 

[Tariff. Bastezn Zone. Oonfiro Ba»in.] 

No. 19.— AGREEMENT between the Delegates of Great 
Britain, Germany, and Italy, respecting the Tariff of the 
Eastei^ ZoTie of the Conventional Basin of the Congo, 
Signed at Brussels, 22nd December, 1890. 

(Translation.) 

The Undersigned, Sir John Kirk and Mr. M. Gosselin, 
Delegates of Great Britain; M. le Gomte d'Alvensleben and 
M. W. GOhring, Delegates of Germany ; M. le Baron de Benzis 
and M. A. Bardi, Delegates of Italy, daly authorized to that 
effect by their respective Governments, in accordance with the 
provisions of the Declaration signed at Brussels the 2nd July, 
1890 (p. 88), as well as of the General Act of the Conference of 
the same date (No. 18), have agreed to modify in the follow- 
ing manner, within the limits of the eastern zone of the con- 
ventional basin of the Congo, Article lY of the General Act 
of the Berlin Conference of 1886 (No. 17), in accordance with 
the conditions specified in the said Declaration : — 

1. Great Britain, Germany, and Italy, in the territories 
under their influence situated in the eastern zone of the con- 
ventional basin of the Congo, and which are subject to Article IV 
of the General Act of Berlin (No. 17, p. 26), shall have the 
right to levy duties on goods imported into such territories 
either by land or by water, in accordance with the Customs 
Regulations actually in force under the Treaties with Zanzibar, 
which provide for an import duty of 6 per cent, ad vaJor&in,* 

Arms and Ammunition. 

2. Arms and ammunition introduced in accordance with the 
special provisions of the General Act of Brussels (No. 18) may, 
however, be charged with the import duty, not exceeding the rate 
of 10 per cent, ad valorem, provided that the Treaties containing 
contrary stipulations ai'C modified, and that circumstances per- 
mit of it. 

* See also British Notification to Treaty Powers respecting Zanzibar of 
22nd June, 1802 (Appendix), 

90 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 19] AFRICA (GEyERAL). [22 Dec, 1890. 

[TarifE: Bastem Zone. Oonffo Basin.] 

Import Duty on Alcohols, 

3. The import duty to be levied on alcohols shall be regu- 
lated in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VI of the 
General Act of Brassels. 

Certain Goods to he Admitted Free of Duty. 

4. The following goods shall be admitted free of duty, viz. : 
a'^ricultnral machines and instruments, as well as all materials 
intended for the constraction and maintenance of roads, tram- 
ways, and railways, and, generally speaking, all means of trans- 
port. 

Duration of Agreement. 

5. The present Agreement shall come into force at the same 
time as the Acts signed at Brassels the 2nd Jaly, 1890, p. 87. It 
shall remain in force for a period of five years, and continue in 
operation for five more years, and so on for periods of five 
years, unless one or other of the three Powers demands its 
revision six months before the expiration of the quinquennial 
period. 

In witness whereof the Undersigned Delegates have drawn 
up the present Act. 

Done at Brussels, the 22 ud day of the month of December, 
1800. 

JOHN KIRK. 

MARTIN GOSSELIN. 

ALVENSLEBEN. 

GOHRING. 

F. DE RENZIS. 

A. BARDI. 



91 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 1891.] AFRICA (GENEKAL). [No. 20 

[Brasseli Act. Batifloatlons.] 



No. 20.-- PROTOCOL of a Meeting held at the Foreign 
Office at Brussels, respecting the Ratifications of the GeTieraL 
Act of the Brussels Conferen/^e, 2nd July, 1891. 

(Translation.) 

Present : 

[Here appear the names of the Representatives.] 

Batijications, 

The Undersigned met at the Foreign Office at Brussels, in 
order to proceed to the execution of Article XCIX of the 
General Act of the Brussels Conference (No. 18). 

Production^ Examination, and Deposit of Ratifications of certain 
Powers. {Oermany, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Congo, Great 
Britain, Italy, Netherla/nds, Persia, Sweden and Norway, and 
Zanzibar,) 

Baron Lambermont, one of the Representatives of Belgium, 
read the said Article and the penultimate paragraph of the 
Declaration. He announced to the meeting that the Oovem- 
ment of His Majesty the King of the Belgians had received 
the ratifications of His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, King 
of Prussia ; of His Majesty the King of the Belgians ; of His 
Majesty the King of Denmark ; of His Majesty the King of 
Spain, and in his name of Her Majesty the Queen- Regent ; of 
His Majesty the Sovereign of the Independent State of the 
Congo ; of Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India ; of His Majesty 
the King of Italy ; of Her Majesty the Qaeen of the Nether- 
lands, and in her name Her Majesty the Queen- Regent ; of His 
Majesty the Shah of Persia ; of His Majesty the King of 
Sweden and Norway ; and of His Highness the Sultan of Zan- 
zibar. 

The said ratifications were produced, examined, and found 
in good and due form. These documents, in conformity with 

V2 



Digitized by VjOOQ 16 j 



No. 20] AFRICA (GENERAL). [2 July, 1891i 

rBroBsels Act. BatlflcatlonB. Austrla-Hnxiflrary, Turkey, BuBsia, 
XTnlted States.] 

the provisions of Article XGIX, will remain deposited in the 
archives of the Belgian Government. 

The Bepresentatives of the above-mentioned Powers acknow- 
ledged to the Bepresentatives of Belgium the fact of deposit. 

Austrior Hungary,* 

His Excellency Connt EiievenhuUer-Metsch declared that 
His Majesty the Emperor of Aastria*Hangary, his august 
Sovereign, had sigued the ratification of the General Act 
(No. 18) and of the Declaration of the 2nd July, 1890 (p. 88), 
that they have been dispatched, and will be, on their arrival in 
a day or two, deposited at the Belgian Foreign Office. 

Turkey* 

His Excellency Carath^dory Effendi declared that His 
Majesty the Empei*or of the Ottomans, his august Sovereign, 
had also signed his ratifications, and that it has been dispatched. 
His Excellency recalled attention to the reserve which his 
Government had made on the snbject of the use of Turkish 
characters in the case provided for in Article XXXIV .o;f the 
General Act, a reserve which had been brought to the notice 
of all the Signatory Governments, and had encountered no 
objection. 

The Representatives of the Powers took note jof their 
Excellencies' declarations. 

Bussia * 

His Excellency Prince Ouroussoff declared that His Majesty 
the Emperor of all the Bussias, his august Sovereign, had 
signed the ratification, but his Excellency considered that it 
was proper to defer its deposit until the moment when the 
execution of the General Act should be definitely assured. 

United States.f 
His Excellency Mr. Terrell declared that he was not officially 

• See also Protocol, 2nd January, 1892, p. 97. 
t See Protocol, 2nd February, 1892, p. 102. 

93 H 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, 189L] AFEICA (GENERAL). [No. 20 

[BruBselB Aot. BatlfloationB. United States, Franoe.] 

authorized to speak at this meeking, being withont instractions 
on the subject from his Goyemment. He was present merely 
in response to the courteous invitation he had received. 

Nevertheless, he thought he might say that the question of 
the ratification of the Brussels General Act was still before tbe 
Senate of the United States, which was not then in Session, 
but which would meet towards the beginning of the month of 
December next. 

His Excellency added unofficially, and merely for the infor- 
mation of the Repi*esentatives of the Powers, that the Govern- 
ment of the United States wishing to show the profound interest 
taken by them in the success of this great work, had concluded 
an arrangement with the Congo State with the express object 
of rendering possible the ratification of the Brussels General 
Act (No. 18) by the other Signatory Powers. 

France* 

The following letter was then read, addressed by his Excel- 
lency the Minister of the French Republic at Brussels to the 
Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs : — 

" Prince, " Brussels, Ist July, 1891. 

** I have the honour to confirm to your Excellency the infor- 
mation which I gave viva voce yesterday to Baron Lambermont ; 
after a prolonged discussion occupying the sittings of the 24th 
and 25th of last month, the French Chamber of Deputies 
decided to suspend the authorization to ratify the General Act 
and the Declaration of Brussels of the 2nd July, as well as of 
the Protocol of the 9th February last. His Majesty's Govern- 
ment must be aware of the part which the Cabinet had taken 
in this grave debate, and it has certainly been from no want of 
effort on their part that the conclusion was not entirely dif- 
ferent. Your Excellency is further aware that the considera- 
tions which weighed with the Chamber were derived from the 
nature of the measures to be taken for the repression of the 
ti-affic at sea. 

^ It is unnecessary to state that in view of this decision we 
• See aUo Protocol, 2nd JanHarr, 1892, p. g8. 
94 



Digitized by 



Google 



iB-.sfci^^ir^ 



iVSS^. 



No. 20] AFRICA (aENEBAL). [2 July, 1891. 

[BruBselA Act. BatilLcatlons. Franoe, Portugal.] 

find ourselves with much regret to be unable to ratify the 
arrangements prepared by the Conference within the prescribed 
period, that is to say, by the 2nd instant. 

*' Under these circumstances my Govemmont does not con- 
sider that my presence will be necessary at the meeting to 
which your Excellency did me the honour to invite me, and in 
which all of my colleagaes who will attend have either already 
received their ratifications, or are able to announce that they 
will shortly receive them. 

** I avail, Ac., 

"A. BOURfiE.'' 

PortugalJ^ 

Baron Lambermont stated that the Charge d' Affaires .ef 
Portugal at Brussels had announced to the Belgian Government 
that the Parliamentary Commission, in view of the Resolution 
of the French Chamber, had decided, on its part, to suspend 
the vote upon the law apiwroving tlie General Act of Bruasels. 

The Portugese Government had thought itself obliged to 
conform to the opinion .«f the Parliamentary Commission ; and, 
whilst affirming their humanitarian sentiments and good-will, 
had decided that under present circumstances they had no 
occasion to be represented at the meeting of the 2nd July. 

In view of the situation created by the documei^ts and 
declarations above set forth, and animated by a sinoei'e desire 
that an unanimous understanding amongst the Powers should 
be reached, the meeting decided 4ihat the delay fixed by 
Article XCIX of the General Act for the deposit of ratifications 
should be prolonged to a date to be fixed by common agreement, 
as soon as the Powers whose Representatives are not present, 
or have not the necessary authority, shall have made known 
their adhesion to this prolongation. 

The present Protocol to be open to them for this purpose for 
a period of 10 days. 

The meeting before separating expressed the desire that the 
Government of His Majesty the King of the Belgians would 

• See Protwol, 30th March, 1892, p. 104. 

95 H 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 July, ISW.T AFEICA (GENEEAL). [No. 20 

[BruBselB Aot. Batiiioations. Portugal.} 

ask for and receive the adhesions mentioned in the preceding 
paragraph, and when they should have been received, to act as 
intermediary to bring about an understanding between the 
t'owers as to the duration of the peiiod of prolongation. 

The Belgian Representatives promised to refer this wish to 
their Government, and did not doubfc that it would be favour- 
ably received. 

In witness whereof the present Protocol was drawn up, of 
which a certiGed copy will be sent by the Government of His 
Majesty the King of the Belgians to each of the other Powers 
who have ratified the General Act (No. 18) and the Declara- 
tion of the 2nd July, 1890 (p. 88). 

[Here follow the Signatures.] 



96 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 21] AFKIOA (OENEBAL). [2 'an., 1892. 

[BroflselB Act. Batiiications. Austria-Hungary, Buasia, Turkey.] 



No. 21.— PROTOCOL of a Meeting held at Brussels, in the 

Foreign Office, respecting the Hxchange of Ratifications of 

the General Act of the Brussels Conference, 2nd January, 

1892. 

(Translation.) 

Present : 

[Here appear tlie names of the Representatives.] 

Ratifications. 
The Undersigned met together at the Foreign OflBce at 
Brussels, in conformity with Article XCIX of the General Act 
of the 2nd July, 1890 (No. 18), and in ezecntion of the Pro- 
tocol of the 2nd Jnly, 1891 (No. 20), in order to draw np the 
record of the deposit of the ratifications of those of the Signatory 
Powers who did not accomplish that formality at the meeting 
of the 2nd .Tuly, 1891, 

Austria-Hungary . * 
His Excellency Count Khevenhuller-Metsch informed ihe 
meeting that the ratification by His Imperial and Royal 
Apostolic Majesty of the General Act (No. 18) and of the De- 
claration of the 2nd July, 1890 (p. 88^ was deposited at the 
Belgian Foreign Office on the 3rd Jnly, 1891. 

Russia.^ 

His Excellency Prince OuroussofE deposited the ratification 

by His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias of the General 

Act (No. 18) and of the Declaration of the 2nd July, 1890 

(p. 88). 

Turkey* 

His Excellency Caratheodory Effendi deposited the ratifica- 
tion by His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans of the 
General Act (No. 18) and of the Declaration of the 2nd July, 
1890 (p. 88). 

His Excellency declared, in accordance with a communica- 
• See also p. 100. 
97 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 Jan., 1832.] AFRICA (aKNEBAL). [No. 21 

[BmsseLi Aot. BaUfioatlons. Fraace.] 

tion which has boen made known to the Signatory Powers 
without encountering objection on their part, that the Imperial 
Ottoman Government interprets Article XXXIV of the General 
Act (No. 18) in the sense that the inscriptions prescribed hj that 
Article shall be made, in the case of Ottoman vessels, in Turkish 
characters and figures. ^Nevertheless the Sublime Porte does 
not object to a translation in Latin characters being added to 
inscriptions in Turkish characters. 

Note is taken of the declaration of the Minister of Turkey. 

Note is also taken of the deposit of the ratifications of their 
respective Sovereigns by the Ministers of Austria-Hungary, 
of Russia, and of Turkey.* 

France.'f 

His Excellency M. Bonree deposited the ratification by the 
President of the French Republic of the General Act (No. 18) 
and of the Declaration of the 2nd July, 1890 (p. 88). 

His Excellency declared that the President of the Republic, 
in his ratification of the General Act of Brussels, has provi- 
sionally reserved, for an ulterior understanding, Articles XXI» 
XXII, and XXIII (p. 63), and Articles XLII to LXI (pp. 70— 
76). 

The Representatives of the Powers take note of the deposit 
by the Minister of France of the ratification by the President of 
the French Republic, and of the exception concerning Articles 
XXI, XXII, and XXIII, and Articles XLII to LXI. 

Binding nature of General Act, wholly orpartially, as ratified 
hy different Powers. 

It 18 understood that the Powers who have ratified the 
General ^ct (No. 18) in its entirety recognize that they are 
reciprocally bound to each other in regard to all of its Articles. 

It is likewise understood that such Powers are only bound 
to the Power who has ratified partially, in the measure of the 
obligations undertaken by the latter Power. 

• See also p. 100. 

t See also p. 94. 

98 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 21J AFRICA (GENERAL). [2 Jan., 1892. 

[BruBsels Aot. Batlfioations. France.] 

Finally, it is well understood that, in regard to tlie Power 
who has ratified partially the matters to which Articles XLII 
to LXI relate shall continae, until an ulterior understanding 
be arrived at, to be goyerncd by the stipulations and arrange- 
ments now in force. 

Application of General Act to certain French Possessions. 

Baron Lambermont, one of the Belgian Representatives, 
then communicated to the Assembly the following letter, which 
had been addressed to the Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs 
by his Excellency the Minister of France : — 

'* French Legation in Belgium, 
''Brussels, Slst December, 1891. 
" Prince, 

" In a Note Verbale dated the 18th instant, handed that day 
by Baron Beyena to the Minister for Foreign Affairs of France, 
the Belgian Government called the attention of the Government 
of the Republic to the conditions under which Articles XXX to 
XLI of the General Act of the Conference of Brussels (No. 18) 
might be applied in certain French Possessions. These articles 
relate to the grant of the flag to native vessels, to the crew list, 
and to the manifest of negro passengers. Whilst recognizing 
the importance of these articles, and recalling that they were 
due to the initiative of France, the Government of King 
Leopold had called attention to the fact that they were only 
applicable in the ports of the zone established by Article XXI 
which is reserved by Fmnce He therefore leq nested that the 
Representative of the Republic at Brussels might be authorized 
to make known the intentions of the Cabinet of Paris on this 
point. 

Ohock. Madagascar. Comoros. 
" By Order of my Government, and in accordance with the 
desire expressed in the above-mentioned note, I have the honour 
to inform your Excellency that the dispositions contained in 
Articles XXX to XLI of the General Act of Brussels (No. 18) 
will be spontaneously applied by the Government of the Re- 

99 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 Jan-, 1892.] AFRICA (aENEEAL). [No. 21 

- [BrosaeLi Act. Batifloationa. Netherlands, Aufltria-Hunffaryy 
France, Buasia, and Turkey.] 

public in the territory of Obock, and, according to necessity in 
the Island of Madagascar and the Comoros. 

"Accept, Ac., 

"A. BOURfiB. 
" lti$ IlxcetleYicy the Prince de GMmay^ 

" Minister for Foreign Affairs^ ^c,** 

Netherlands,* 

His ilxcellency Baron Gericke de Herwynen declared in the 
name of his Grovernment that, in signing the Protocol of this 
day, he mnst observe that the Constitutional arrangements of 
the Netherlands require that the Protocol should receive the 
approbation of the States- General. It not having been possible 
to obtain stlch approbation before the 2nd January, the Govern- 
ment of the Queen-Regent proposes to take the necessary steps 
on the meeting of the Chambers. 

Note is taken of the Netherlands Minister's Declaration. 

Austria' Hungary, France, Bv^sia, and Turkey. 

The ratifications of His Majesty the Emperor of Austria- 
Hungary, of the President of the French Republic, of His 
Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, and of His Majesty the 
Emperor of the Ottomans^ were examined, and found in good 
and due form. These documents, in accordance with the pro- 
visions of Article XCIX, will remain deposited, together with 
the ratifications deposited on the 2nd July, 1891, in the archives 
of the Belgian Government. 

The Representatives of the Powers acknowledged to the 
Belgian Representatives the fact of this deposit. 

Portugal, 

His Excellency M. d'Antas declared that circumstances not 
having permitted the Portuguese Chambers to pronounce upon 
the General Act (No. 18) and the Declaration of the 2nd July, 
1890 (p. 88), he is instructed by his Government to request 

• Approved Ist April, 1892. 
100 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 21] AFEIOA (aENERAL). [2 Jan., 1892. 

[BmsMls Aiot. BaUfloatlons. Netherlands, AuBtria-Hunffary, 
France, Buasia, and Turkey.] 

that the Protocol remain open for the deposit of the ratifications 
of His Most Faithful Majesty nntil the 22nd Febmary, 1892. 

The Assembly assented to the period of prorogation re- 
quested by the Minister of Portugal.* 

In witness whereof the present Protocol has been drawn up, 
a certified copy whereof will be transmitted by the Government 
of His Majesty the King of the Belgians to each of the other 
Signatory Powers of the General Act (No. 18) and the Declara- 
tion of the 2nd July, 1890 (page 88). 

Done at Brussels, the 2nd January, 1892. 

[Here follow the Signatures.] 



• See Protocol, 30th March, 1892, p. 104. 



lOl 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 Peb., 1892.]; AFRICA (GENERAL). [No. 22 

[Bnusels Act. Batliloatlons. United BtatM.] 



No. 22.— PROTOCOL recording the Batificatim hy the 
United States of Arrurica of the General Act of Brussels of 
2nd July, 1890. Sigrud at Brussels, 2nd February, 1892. 

(Tranalation.) 

Eatifications, United Statei. 

Oq the 2nd February, 1892, in conformitj with Article 
XCIX of the General Act of the 2nd July, 1890 (No. 18), and 
with the nnanimons decision of the Signatory Powers prolonging 
till the 2nd February, 1892, in favour of the United States, the 
period fixed by the said Article XCIX, the Undersigned, Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States 
of America, deposited in the hands of the Belgian Minister for 
Foreign Affairs the Ratification by the President of the United 
States of the said General Act. 

At his Excellency's request the following Resolution, where- 
by the Senate of the United States consented to the Ratification 
of the President, was inserted in the present Protocol : — 

"Resolved (two- thirds of the Senators present concurring 
therein), 

" That the Senate advise and consent to the ratification of 
the General Act signed at Brussels on the 2nd July, 1890 
(No. 18), by the Plenipotentiaries of the United States and 
other Powers, for the suppression of the African Slave Trade, 
and for other purposes. 

" Resolved further : That the Senate advise and consent to 
the acceptance of the partial ratification of the said General 
Act on the part of the French Republic, and to the stipulations 
relative thereto, as set forth in the Protocol signed at Brussels 
on the 2nd January, 1892 (No. 21). 

•* Resolved further, as a part of this act of ratification : That 
the United States of America, having neither Possessions nor 
Protectorates in Africa, hereby disclaims any intention in rati- 
fying this Treaty, to indicate any interest whatsoever in the 
Possessions or Protectorates established or claimed on that 

102 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 2aj A.FRICA (GENERAL). [2 Feb., 1892. 

[BruMelB Aot. BatiftoationB. Uxiited States.] 

Continent by the other Powers, or any approval of the wisdom, 
expediency, or lawfulness thereof, and does not join in any 
expressions in the said General Act which might be construed 
as such a declaration or acknowledgment ; and, for this reason, 
that it is desirable that a copy of this Besolntion be inserted in 
the Protocol to be drawn up at the time of the exchange of the 
ratifications of this Treaty on the part of the United States." 

The above Besolntion of the Senate of the United States 
having been textnally communicated in advance by the Grovem- 
ment of Belgium to all the Signatory Powers of the General 
Act, the latter have assented to its insertion in the present 
Protocol, which shall remain annexed to the Protocol of the 
2nd January, 1892. 

An official notification to thLs effect was made to the United 
States Minister. 

The Batification of the President of the United States 
having been found in good and due form, notification of its 
deposit was made to his Excellency Mr. Edwin H. Terrell. It 
will be retain^d in the archives of the Belgian Foreign Office. 

On proceeding to the signature of the present Protocol, the 
Minister for Foreign Affairs of His Majesty the King of the 
Belgians announced that the Bepresentative of Bussia, in his 
note expressing the assent of his Government, expressed the 
opinion that it was desirable that, in the Protocol, a French 
translation should accompany the English text of the Besoln- 
tion of the Senate of the United States of America, and that, in 
any case, the absence of such translation should not form a pre- 
cedent. 

A certified copy of the present Protocol will be sent by the 
Belgian Government to the Signatory Powers of the General 
Act. 

Done at Brussels, the 2nd February, 1892. 

PBINCB DE CBIMAY, the Minister 

for Foreign Affairs. 
EDWIN H. TEBBELL, the Envoy 

Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 

of the United StcUes of America, 
103 



Digitized by 



Google 



30 March, 1892.] AFRICA (GENERAL). [No. 23 

. [Brussels Act. Batiftcatlons. Portugal.] 



No. 23. — PROTOCOL recording the Ratification by Porticgal 
of the General Act of Brussels of 2nd July, 1890, and of 
the Declaration of the same date. Signed at Brussels, ZOth 
March, 1892. ' 

(Translation.) 

Ratifications, Portugal. 

On the 30th March, 1892, in conformity with Article XCIX 
of the General Act of the 2nd July, 1890 (No. 18), and with 
the nnanimoQS decision of the Powers, prolonging till the 2nd 
April, 1892, in favour of Portngal, the period fixed by the 
same Article XCIX, the Undersigned, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the King of Portugal 
and the Algarves, deposited in the hands of the Belgian Minister 
of Finance, Minister for Foreign Affairs ad interim, the ratifica- 
tion by his Sovereign of the said General Act (No. 18) and of 
the Declaration of the same date annexed thereto (page 88). 

The ratification having been found in good and due form, 
notification of its deposit was made to his Excellency M. d'Antas. 
It will be retained in the archives of the Belgian Foreign 
OfBce, in conformity with Article XCIX of the General Act. 

A certified copy of the present Protocol will be sent by the 
Belgian Government to the Signatory Powers of the General 
Act. 

Done at Brussels, the 30th March, 1892. 

A. BEERNAERT, the Belgian Minister of Finance, 

Minister for Foreign Affairs ad interim. 
M. D*ANTAS, the Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 

Pleniiwtentiary of His Majesty the King of Portugal 

and the Al^n/rves. 



104 



Digitized by 



Google 



AFRICA WEST, Ac. 

AFEICA, CENTRAL. 
See British Central Africa Protectorate, p. 810, Congo Free 
State, p. 191, and Appendix, Egypt, p. 269, Nyassaland, 
p. 810, and Great Britain and France, p. 537. 

AFRICA, EAST. 
See British East Africa Company, p. 107, Congo, p. 191, and 
Appendix, France (Comoro Islands), p. 291, German East 
Africa Company, p. 301, Germany, p. 301, Great Britain, 
p. 327, Italy, p. 771, Madagascar, p. 787, Portugal, p. 821, 
Somali, p. 831, and Zanzibar, p. 923. 

AFRICA, NORTH. 
See Egypt, p. 259, France (Algeria), p. 287, Morocco, p. 801, 
Spain, p. 881, and Tunis, p. 905. 

AFRICA, NORTH-WEST. 
In June, 1879, Mr. Donald Mackenzie communicated to the 
Foreign Office a copy of a Treaty which he had concluded at 
Tarfah on the 19th April, 1879, with the Sheik Mohammed 
Bairook of Aghameen, by which that Sheikh ceded to him 
that portion of Tarfah extending from Cape Juby (on the 
north-west coast of Africa, in about latitude 28° north) to the 
next promontory southward (to be hereafter called Stafford 
Point), together with the reef or reefs situated between the 
said Cape Juby and Stafford Point which forms the port to be 
hereafter known as Port Victoria, with the territory extending 
from the sea-shore inland to the distance of 2 English miles, as 
indicated on a plan which was annexed. See also Morocco, p. 
801, and Spain, p. 881. 

AFRICA, SOUTH. 
See British South Africa Company, p. 173, Great Britain (Cape 

Colony), p. 339, Orange Free State, p. 813, and South 

African Republic (Transvaal), p. 837. 

AFRICA, SOUTH-WEST. 
See Germany, p. 301, Great Britain (Cape Colony), p. 339, and 
Portugal, p. 821. 

AFRICA, WEST. 
See Dahomey, p. 247, Denmerk,p. 255, France, p. 267, Germany, 
p. 301, Great Britain (various Colonies), pp. 329—535, 
Libeiia, p. 777, Portugal, p. 821, and Spain, p. 881. 
105 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALGEEIA, BELGIUM, Ac. 

ALGERIA. 

See France, p. 287, and Morocco, p. 801. 

ASSAB. 
See Abyssinia, Ac, p. 1. 

AUSSA. 
See Abyssinia, Ac, p. 1. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

The Emperor of Austria- Hungary has no Possessions or Protec- 
torates in Africa, bat His Majesty was a Signatory Party 
to the Berlin Act of 26th February, 1886 (No. 17), and 
to the Brussels Act of 2nd July, 1890 (No. 18). Austria- 
Hungary has also entered into Treaties with the Congo 
Free State, p. 194, and with Zanzibar, p. 926. 

BASUTOLAND. 
See Great Britain (Bafiutoland), p. 329. 

BECHUANALAND. 
See Great Britain (British Bechuanaland), p. 333. 

BECHUAKALAND, TERRITORY NORTH OF. 
See Great Britain (Bechuanaland), p. 333. 

BELGIUM. 

On the 16th December, 1884, a Convention was conoladed 
between Her Britannic Majesty and the King of the Belgians, 
acting as founder of, and in the name of, the International 
Association of the Congo, by which the British Government 
recognized the flag of the International Association of the 
Congo, and of the Free States under its administration, as the 
flag of a friendly Goverament. See Congo Free State, p. 191. 

His Majesty the King of the Belgians, was one of the 
S'gnatory Powera to the Berlin Act of 26th February, 1885 
(No. 17), and, as King of the Belgians, and, as King Sovereign 
of the Independent State of the Congo, His Majesty signed the 
Brussels Act cf 2nd Juij, 1890 (No. 18). 

lUO 



Digitized by 



Google 



BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA 
PROTECTORATE. 

(SiK NYASSALAND.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA COMPANY. 



LIST OF TREATIES, &c. 



No. 

— 26 Feb., 1885. "BerUnAot" 
29 Oct., ■ 

Agreement. . 



2jy uot., 1 
— to [►1886. 

INOT.J 



— 8, 4 Dec, 1886. Agreement. 



24. 24 May, 1887. Concession . 



— June, 1887. List of Trea- 
ties 
25. 8 Sep., 1888. Bo^ al Charter 



26. 9 Oct., 1888. Concession.. 



27. 8 Aug., 1889. Agreement . 



See Africa (G-eneral). 



Page 



— 17 Aug., 1889. Award. 



— 31 Aug., 1889. Concession . 
— 22 Oct., 1889. Notification , 



Ghreat Britain and Germany. Spheres 
of Influence. (See Great Britain and 
Germany.) 

Great Britain and Zanzibar. Limits of 
Sultan's Dominions. (See Great 
Britain and Zanzibar.) 

Sultan of Zanzibar to British East Africa 
Association. Mrima. Wanga to 
Kipini. (See also Concession, 9th 
October, 1888.) 110 

British East Africa and Natiye Chiefs 
referred to in Charter ICA 

Imperial British East Africa Company. 
Zanzibar dominions. Mrima. Wanga 
to Kipini, and Territories of Natire 
Chiefs 118 

Sultan of Zanzibar to British East Africa 
Company. Extension of PriTileges. 
Mrima. Wanga to Kipini and Islands. 
(See also Concession, 4th March, 
1890.) 125 

British East Africa Company and Italy. 
Concession of Kismayu, Brava, 
Meurka, Magadisbo, and Warsheikh 
to be made by Company to Italy when 
conceded by Zanzil^r to Company. . . 137 

Belgium. Dispute. British East Africa 
Company and German Witu Company. 
Farming of Customs and Administra- 
tion of Island of Lamu. (See Great 
Britain and Germany.) 

Zanzibar Islands to British East Africa 
Company. (See Great Britain and 
Zanzibar.) 

German Protectorate over Coast between 

Wita and Kismsyu. (See Germany.) 

107 I 



Digitized by 



Google 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA COMPANY, 
[XiUit of Treaties, Ac] 



18 Nor., 1889. Deed. 



Page 



29. 21 Dec., 1889. Agreement • 



4 Mar., 1890. Concession • • 



^ 6 Mar., 1890. Letter, 



— 8 Apr., 1890. Notification. 



1 July, 1890. Agreement . . 

2 July, 1890. "BruBseU 

Act" 
19 Not., 1890. Notification. 



-* 26 Jan., 1891. Tenns of 
Peace. 

31. 5 Mar., 1891. Suppl. Agree- 
ment. 



32. 5 Mar., 1891. Agreement . 

33. 18 Mar., 1891. Agreement . 



Transfer hj British East Africa Com- 
pany to Italy of Company's rights 
over Braya, Meurka, Magadisho, and 
Warsheikh. Joint occupation of 
Kismayu 142 

British East Africa Company and Zan- 
ribar. Castoms BeTcnues. Wanga 
to Kipini 146 

Sultan of Zanzibar to British East Africa 
Company. Kipini to Mruti. Lamu. 
Manda. Patta. Kwyho. Benadir 
Ports : — Kismayu, Braya, Meurka, 
Magadisho, and Warsheikh. (Amend- 
ed by Agreement of 5th March, 1891.) 148 
Consent of Sultan of Zanzibar to 
arrangements between Company and 

Italy. BenadirPorts 149 

Concession granted by Sullan of Zanzi- 
bar to British East Africa Company 
transferred to Italy. (See Zanzibar 
and Italy.) 

Great Britain and G-ermany. Spheres 
of Influence. Bast Africa, &c. (See 

^ Great Britain and Germany.) 
See Africa (General) . 

British Protectorate oyer Witu, Patta, 
Manda, &c., and oyer Coast from 
Kipini to Kismayu. (See Great 
Britain. Africa, East Coast.) 

Great Britain and Witu. Submission 
of Witu to Great Britain 156 

Modification by Sultan of Zanzibar of 
Concession to British East Africa 
Company of 4th March, 1890. Wanga 
to Kipini ; Lamu, Manda, Patta, and 
Kismayu conceded to Company "in 
perpetuity.* * Benadir Ports : — Brava, 
Meurka, Magadisho, Warsheikh, and 
Mruti undisturbed 160 

British Goyemment and British East 
Africa Company. Administration by 
Company of Territory of Witu 158 

British Yice-Consul at Zanzibar, the 
British East Africa Company, and the 

Peopleof Witu 157 

10« 



Digitized by 



Google 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA COMPANY. 
[List of TrMitles, fto.} 



No. 

34. 20 Mar., 1891. Notification.. 



24 Mar., 1891. Protocol . . . . 



— 15 Apr., 1891. Protocol . . . . 



35. 1887—1891. List of 

Treaties. 

36. 1887—1891. Notes .... 



Page 



British East Africa Companjr. Ad- 
ministration of Witu and of Coast 
from Kipini to Kismaju 160 

Great Britain and Italy. Spheres of 
Influence, East Africa. (See Great 
Britain and It^l/.) 

Great Britain and Italj. Spheres of 
Influence. (See Ghreat Britain and 
Italy.) 

British East Africa Companjr and Native 
Chiefs 164 

On Boundaries of the British Sphere of 
Influence on East Coast of Africa 



— 30 Mar., 1892. Treaty 



< — 12 Aug., 1892. Concession . . 



— 16 May, 1898. Agreement . . 



) May, 1898. Provisional 
Agreement. 



British East Africa Company (Cape 
Lugard) and Mwanga, King of 
Uganda. Suzerainty of Company. 
Protection of Uganda* (Not ratified) . 
Sultan of Zanzibar to the Italian Go- 
Ternment. Benadir Ports placed 
under the Administration of Italy. 
(See Zanzibar and Italy.) 

ProTisional Administration of Benadir 
Ports by Italian Government for three 
years. (See Zanzibar and Italy.) 

British Commissioner (Sir G. Portal) 
and Mwanga, King of Uganda. 
British Protectorate, Non-Conclusion 
of Treaties with Foreign Powers, &c. 



170 



172 



172 



109 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 May, 1887.] BRIT. EAST AFRICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [NO- 21 
[Concession; Mrima. Wan^a to Kipinl.] 



No. 2A.—CChVCESSI0N granted hy the Saltan of Zanzihar 
to the British East African Association. 2Mh May, 1887.* 

Preamble. Concessions to Association for 50 Years.'\ 

His Highness the Sajyid Barghasb-bin-Said,;^ Sultan of Zan- 
zibar and its East African Dependencies, hereby grants the fol- 
lowing concessions for a term of 50 yearsf to the Corporation 
or Association under the presidency of Mr. William Mackinnon, 
hereinafter to be called the British East African Association, or 
the Association, who, on their part, agree to accept the accom- 
panying obligations. 

Administration by Association of Sultanas Territories on Mainland 
from Wanga to Kipini, in Sultan's Name. 

Art. I. His Highness the Sultan makes over to the Britibh 
East African Association all the power which he possesses on the 
mainland in the Mrima,§ and in all the territories and Depend- 
encies from Wanga to Kipini inclasive, the whole administra- 
tion of which he concedes to and places in their hands to be 
carried out in His Highness' name, and under his flag, and 
subject to His Highness' sovereign rights ; 

Non-payment hy Sultan of Blood Money or other Claims. 

But it is understood that the Association is to be responsible 
for all the affairs and administrations of that part of His High- 
ness' dominions included in this Concession, and that His High- 
ness the Sultan shall not be liable for any expenses connected 
with the same, nor for any war or ** diya " (blood money), or for 

• See also Concession of 9th October, 1888, p. 125. 

t Altered to " in perpetuity " by Agreement with Sultan of 5th March 
1891, p. 150. 

X Sultan Sayyid Barghash died 26th March, 1888, and was succeeded by 
Sultan Sayyid Ehilifa, who died Idth February, 1890, and was succeeded by 
Sultan Sayyid Ali-bin-Said, who died 5th March, 1893, and was succeeded 
by Sultan Hamed-ben-Thwain (present Sultan, July, 1894). 

§ "Mrima" signifies ^'mainland." Part of the Mrima Coast was in- 
eluded in the German sphere of influence by the Anglo-German Agreement 
of October— November, 1886, p. 615. 

110 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 24] BRIT. EAST AFRICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [24 May, 1887, 
[Concession ; Mrima. Wan^a to Kiplni.] 

any claims arising therefrom, none of wbiub His Highness 
shall be called npou to settle. 

Purchase of Public Lands. 
No other but themselves shall have the right of purchasing 
public land on the mainland, or anywhere in His Highness' 
territories, Possessions, or Dependencies within the limits above 
named except through them, as is the case now with His High- 
ness. 

Jjevying of Taaes. 

He also grants to the Association, or to their Representatives, 
the faculty of levying taxes upon the people of the mainland 
within the limits above named. 

Support to he given by Sultan to Acts of the Association. 

His Highness further agrees to do all acts and deeds that 
may be necessary to give full effect to the terms of this Con- 
cession, to aid and support the Association, or their Repre- 
sentatives, with all his authority and force, so as to secure to 
them the rights and powers hereby granted. 

Treaties between Zanzibar and Foreign Powers to be respected,* 
It is further agreed upon by the Contracting Parties that 
nothing contained in the following Articles of Concession shall 
in any way infringe on or lessen the rights recorded by His 
Highness to the subjects or citizens of Gi*eat Britain, the United 
States of America, France, Germany, or any other foreign 
Powers having Treaty relations with His Highness,t or the 
obligations which are or may be imposed upon him by his adhe- 
sion to the Berlin General Act (No. 17). J 

Power to Association to appoint Commissioners to administer 

Districts, 
Art. II. His Highness authorizes the Association, or their 
Representatives, to appoint in his name and on his behalf Com- 
missioners to administer over any districts in His Highness' 

• See ttl»o Art IV, p. 114. 
t See Zanzibar, p. 923. 
t February 26, 1885. See p. 20. 
Ill 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 May, 1887.] BRIT. EAST AFRICA (X). & ZANZIBAR. [No. 24 
[Gonoesaioxi ; ICrlxna. Wanga to KipJnl.] 

posseBsions included in the limit of territories above named, 
except as hereinafter provided ; 

Subordinate Officers, 
To appoint snch subordinate officers as may be required ; 

Laws for Oovemment of Districts, 
To pass laws for the government of districts ; 

Courts of Justice. 
To establish Conris of Justice; and generally to adopt such 
measures as may be necessary for the protection of the districts 
and interests under their rule. 

Treaties with Native Chiefs. 
His Highness further authorizes the Association, or their 
Representatives, to make Treaties with subordinate and other 
native Chiefs, such Treaties and engagements to be ratified and 
confirmed by him in such cases as they are made in the name 
of His Highness. 

Cession to Association of Bights over Lands {except " Shambas'*). 

His Highness also agrees to cede to the Association, or to 
their Representatives, all the rights which he himself possesses 
over the lands in the whole of his territory on the mainland of 
Africa within the limits of this Concession, only excepting the 
private lands or " shambas," 

Forts and Buildings. 
And gives the Association all forts and unoccupied public 
buildings, excepting such buildings as His Highness may wish 
to retain for his own private use, a schedule of such buildings, 
plantations, or properties to be drawn up and agreed to be- 
tween His Highness and the Association. 

Lands not yet occupied. 
Further, he authorizes them' to acquire and regulate the 
occupation of all lands not yet occupied; 

112 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 24] BEIT. EAST AFRICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [24 May, 1887. 
[OouoeMion ; SCrima. Wansa to Xipini.] 

Taxes, Dues, and Tolls, 
To levy and collect local or other taxes, dues, and tolls ; 

Local Oovemme7it, Justice, Boads, Debts, Sfc. 
To do all these and such other acts as may be necessary for the 
maintenance and support of such local Governments, forces, 
administration of justice, the making and improving of roads 
or water communications, or other public works, defensive or 
otherwise, and for the liquidation of debts and payment of 
interest upon capital expended. 

Appointment of Judges* 
The Judges shall be appointed by the Association, or their 
Representatives, subject to the Sultan's approval, but all 
*' Kathis" shall be nominated by His Highness. « 

Administration of Laws. 

In aboriginal tracts the law shall be administered by the 
Association or their officials. 

Stipends of Officials. 

The stipends of the Governors, and all other officials in the 
territories occupied and controlled by the Association, or their 
Representatives, shall be paid by them. 

Bight to trade, to hold Property, to acquire Lands, to erect 
Buildings, Sfc. 

Art. III. His Highness grants io the Association, or to 
their Representatives, the right to trade, to hold property, to 
erect buildings, and to acquire lands or buildings by purchase 
or negotiation anywhere within His Highness' territories in- 
cluded in the limfts of this Concession, with the consent of the 
proprietors of any such lands and houses. 

Trade, Commerce, Navigation, Fisheries, Boads, BailwaySf 
Telegraphs, ^c. 

Art. IV . His Highness grants to the Association, or to their 
Representatives, special and exclusive privileges and powers, to 

113 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 May, 1887.] BEIT. EAST AFRICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [No. 24 
[Ooncession ; Mrima. Wanga to KlplnL] 

regulate trade and commerce ; also the naTigation of rivers and 
lakes, and control of fisheries, the making of roads, tramways, 
railways, canals and telegraphs, and to levy tolls and dnes on 
the same ; 

Importation of Arms, Ammunition, Intoxicating LiqnorSj Sec. 

Also the power to control or prevent the importation of any 
merchandize, arms, ammunition of all sorts, intoxicating liquors, 
or any other goods which, in the opinion of the Association, or 
their Representatives, are detrimental to law, order, and 
morality, and in whatsoever His Highness is not bound towards 
other Governments. , 

Treaties between Zanzibar and Foreign Powers to be respected. 

But it is clearly understood that all exercise of these priyi- 
leges and powers shall be in conformity with existing Treaties 
between His Highness and foreign States.* 

Ports at MoutJis of Rivers. Custom Houses. Duties, 8fc.y on 
Vessels and Goods. Smuggling. 

Art. Y. His Highness authorizes the Association, or their 
Representatives, to occupy in his name all ports at the mouth or 
mouths of any river or rivers, or elsewhere in his dominions 
included in the limits of this Concession, with the right to 
esfcablish Custom Houses and to levy and collect dues on any 
vessels, goods, &c., arriving at, or departing from, such port or 
ports, and to take all necessary measures for the preyention of 
smuggling, subject in all cases to the Treaties above named. 

Working of Mines. 

Art. VI. His Highness grants to the Association, or to their 
Representatives, the exclusive privilege to search for and work, 
or to regulate, lease, or assign, in any part of His Highness' 
territories within the limits of this Concession, any mines or 
deposits of lead, coal, iron, tin, copper, gold, silver, precious 
stones, or any metal or mineral, or mineral oils, whatsoever ; 
also the exclusive right to trade in the same, free from all taxes 
* See alBO Art. 1, page 111, and Zanzibar, p. 923. 
114 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 24] JBRIT. EAST AFRICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [24 May, 1887. 
[Conceflsion ; Mrima. Wansra to Kiplni.] 

and dues, excepting such moderate royalty on minerals only, 
not exceeding 5 per cent, on the first value of the articles, less 
working expenses, as may be hereinafter agreed by the Asso- 
ciation and their representatives to be paid to His Highness. 

Forest Trees and other Woods. 

Also the right to use all forest trees and other woods and 
materials of any kind whatsoever for the purpose of the works 
aforesaid, and also for trade. Bat the wood used for building 
and for burning, commonly known as '* borti," may be cut on 
the mainland by others, as now, by payment of such dues to the 
Association, or to their Representatives, as they may agree upon ; 
but no sueh dues shall be required for wood cut for His High- 
ness* use. 

Estahlishment of Banks. 

Art. VII. His Highness grants the Association, or their 
Representatives, the right to establish a bank or banks anywhere 
in His Highness' territories above mentioned with the exclusive 
privilege of issuing notes. 

Duration of Powers and Privileges for 50 years. 

Art. VIII. All the aforesaid powers and privileges to extend 
over and be available for the purposes and objects of the Asso- 
ciation, or their representatives, during the whole of the term of 
50 years* next, and dating from the time of this Concession 
being signed. 

At the conclusion of the said term all the public wotks, 
buildings, <&c., shall revert to the Sultan, his heirs, and suc- 
cessors, if desired, at a valuation, to be fixed by Arbitrators 
chosen by both parties. 

Begie or Lease of Customs to Association. 

Art. IX. His Highness grants to the Association, or to their 
representatives, the '' R^gie " or lease of the Customs of all the 
ports throughout that part of His Highness* territories above 

• Altered to " in perpetuity '* by Ag^'eement of 5th March, 1891, p. 150. 

115 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 May, 1887.] BEIT. EAST AFEICA CX>. & ZANZIBAR. [No. 24 
[OonoeMion ; SCrima. Waa^a to ZiiOiil.] 

defined, for an equal period of time to the other Conoessions, 
upon the following terms, namelj : — 

Ouarantee to Sultan of Customs Duties now received. 

The Association hereby guarantee to pay to His Highness the 
Sultan the whole amount of the Customs duties which he now 
receives both from the import and export- trade of that part of 
His Highness' dominions included in this Concession.* 

Customs Duties not to he paid twice over. 

But it is understood that His Highness shall not claim the 
duty on any part of this trade twice over, and that the Associa* 
tion shall therefore be entitled to claim a drawback for the 
amount of any duties which may hereafter be paid direct to His 
Highness on any imports to, or exports from, the ports included 
in this Concession. 

Fifty per cent, of Additional Customs Revenues to he paid to 
Sultan, 

And the Association further guarantees to pay to His High- 
ness 50 per cent, of the additional net revenue which shall come 
to them from the Customs duties of the ports included in this 
Concession. 

Bights of Association over Territorial Waters, Transit and 
Shipment of Merchandize^ 8fo, 

And His Highness grants to the Association all rights over 
the territorial waters in or appertaining to his dominions 
within the limits of these Concessions, particularly the right to 
supervise and control the conveyance, transit, landing, and 
shipment of merchandize and produce within the said waters 
by means of a coast-guard service both on land and water. 

One Founder's Share allotted to Sultan.f 

Art. X. In consideration of the foregoing Concessions, 
powers, and privileges being granted by His Highness, the 
Association, or their representatives, allot to His Highness, free 

* See Agreement, 21 Bt December, 1889, p. 146. 
t See also Concession, 9th October, 1888, p. 125 
116 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 34] BRIT. EAST AFEICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [24 Hay, 1887. 
[Conoeasion ; Mrima. Wan^a to Kiplni.] 

of cost, one f ounder*8 share, which will entitle him to such pro- 
portion of the net profits, as shown by the books of the Com- 
pany, after interest at the rtite of 8 per cent, shall have been 
paid upon the shareholders* paid-np capital, as shall attach to 
the said one founder's share. 

Exclusion from Concession of Islands of Zanzibar a/nd Pemha, and 
certain other of the Sultanas Territories. 

Art. XI. These Concessions do not relate to His Highness' 
Possessions in the Islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, nor to his 
territories south of Wanga or north of Kipini. 

Powers of Association to he exercised in namie of the Sultan, 

And it is understood that all public, judicial, or Government 
powers and functions herein conceded to the Association, or to 
their Representatives, shall be exercised by them only in the 
name and under the authority of the Saltan of Zanzibar. 

Duration of Concession, 

Art. XII. It is hereby agreed by both Parties that these 
Concessions and corresponding obligations, as set forth, shall be 
binding upon both Parties, their heirs, saccessors, and assigns, 
during the term of 50 years* for which they have been agreed 
upon. 

Zanzibar, 24th May, 1887. 

E. N. MACKENZIE. 
(For the British East African Association). 

I witness the above signature of Mr. E. N. Mackenzie. 

Fredc. Holmwood. 
Registered No. 1464 a. 

Fredc. Holmwood. 
British Consulate- General, Zanzibar, 
25th May, 1887. 

• Altered to "in perpetuity" by Agreement of 6th March, 1891, p. 150 

117 



Digitized by 



Google 



8 Sept, 1888.] BRITISH EAST AFRICA CO. . [No. 25 

[Charter ; Mrima. Wan^a to Kipini.] 

No. 25.— BOTAL CHARTER granted to the Imperial 
British East Africa Company, 3rd September, 1888.* 

Victoria by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, Qneen, Defender of the Faith. 
To all ifvhom these presents shall come, Greeting : 
Whereas a humble Petition has been presented to us in our 
Council, by 

[Here follow the names.] 

And whereas the said Petition states amongst other things : 
That the Petitioners and others are associated for the 
purpose of forming a Company or Association, to be in- 
corporated, if to us should seem fit, for the objects in the said 
Petition set forth under the corporate name of the Imperial 
British East Africa Company. 

Concession from Sultan of Zanzibar of 24/A May, 1887. 

That His Highness the Sayyid Barghash Bin-Said, Sultan of 
Zanzibar and its East African Dependencies, by his grants or 
concessions dated the 24th May, 1887 (No. 24), granted and 
conceded to the Petitioners, or some of them, under the name 
or description of the British East African Association, all his 
powers, and the rights and duties of administration ;t 

Territory o^i Mainland, 

And other privileges specially named on the mainland of 
East Africa, in the Territory of the Mrima, J and also on the 
Islands embraced in such territory ; 

Wanga to Kipiniy on the Coast. 

And in all his territories and Dependencies on the Coast of 
East Africa, from Wanga to Kipini, both inclusive, such powers, 

• S. P. Vol. 79, p 641. 

t An Abstract of Treaties was communicated to the Foreign Office, 5th 
March, 1891. See p. 164. 

t "Mrima" signifies "mainland." Part of the Mrima Coast was in- 
cluded in the German sphere of influence bj the Anglo-German Agreement 
of October— November, 1886, p. 615. 

118 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 25] BRITISH EAST AFRICA 00. [3 Sept., 1888. 

[Charter; Mrima. Wansra to Kipini (Uombasa).] 

rights, and duties to be exercised and performed in his name 
and under his flag, and subject to the provisions of the said 
Grants and Concessions. 

Agreements with Native Chiefs. 

That divers preliminary Agreements have been made on 
behalf of the Petitioners with Chiefs and tribes in regions 
which adjoin or are situate to the landward of the territories 
included in the said Grants or Concessions, and which are in- 
cluded in the sphere of British influence, agreed on behalf of 
ourselves and the Government of His Majesty the Emperor of 
Germany, in 1886, (No. 123), by which powers of government 
and administration in such regions are granted or conceded to 
or for the benefit of the Petitioners. 

Proniotion of T-rade^ Commerce^ and Oood Government, 

That the Petitioners desire to carry into effect the said 
Grants, Concessions, and Agreements, and such other Grants, 
Concessions, Agreements, and Treaties as they may hereafter 
obtain within the districts already referred to as being within the 
sphere reserved for British influence, and elsewhere, as we may 
be pleased to allow, with the vie*v of promoting trade, com- 
merce, and good government in the territories and regions 
which are or may be comprised in such Grants, Concessions, 
Agreements, or Treaties, as aforesaid, and the Petitioners believe 
that, if the said Grants, Concessions, Agreements, or Treaties 
can be carried into efEect, the condition of the natives inhabit- 
ting the aforesaid territories and regions would be materially 
improved, and their civilization advanced, and an organization 
established which would tend to the suppression of the Slave 
Trade in such territories, and the said territories and regions 
would be opened to the lawful trade and commerce of our sub- 
jects and of other nations. 

Mombasa. 
That the possession by a British Company of the coast-line, 
as above defined, and which includes the Port of Morabassa, 
.w:ould be advantageous to the commercial and other interests 

119 



Digitized by 



Google 



3 Sept., 1888.] BRITISH EAST AFRICA CO. [No. 25 

[Charter ; Urima. Wanffa to Kipinl.] 

of onr sabjecta in the Indian Ocean, who may otherwise become 
compelled to reside and trade nnder the government or pro- 
tection of alien powers. 

Boyal Oharter 'prayed for. 

That the success of the enterprise in which the Petitioners 
are engaged would be greatly advanced if it should seem fit to 
us to grant them our Boyal Charter of Incorporation as a 
British Company under the said name or title, or such other 
name or title, and with such powers as to us may seem fit for 
the purpose of more effectually carrying out the objects afore- 
said. 

Sums of Money subscribed for. 

That the Petitioners have already subscribed large sums of 
money for the purposes of the intended Company, and i^e pre- 
pared to subscribe or to procare such further amount as may 
hereafter be found requisite for the development of the said 
enterprise in the event of our being pleased to grant to them 
our Boyal Charter of Incorporation as aforesaid. 

Boyal Charter Granted, 

Now, therefore, we having taken the said Petition into onr 
Boyal consideration in our Council, and being satisfied that the 
intentions of the Petitioners are praiseworthy and deserve en- 
couragement, and that the enterprise in the Petition described 
may be productive of the benefits set forth in the said Petition 
by our prerogative Boyal, and of our especial grace, certain 
knowledge, ajid mere motion have constituted, erected, and in- 
corporated, and by this our Charter for us and our heirs and 
Boyal successors do constitute, erect, and incorporate into one 
body politic and corporate by the name of the Imperial British 
East Africa Company the said William Mackinnon, the Bight 
Honourable Lord Brassey, K.C.B., General Sir Donald Stewart, 
Bart., G.C.B., G.C.S.I., CLE. ; Sir John Kirk, G.C.M.G. ; 
William Burdett-Coutts, M.P. ; Bobert Palmer Harding ; 
-George Sutherland Mackenzie ; and such other p^^ons and 

120 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 25] BRITISH E.\^T AFRICA CO. [3 Sept., 1888. 

[Charter ; Mrima. Wanga to KLpinl.} 

finoh bodies as from time to time become and are members 
of that body, with perpetual sacoession and a common Seal, 
with power to break, alter, or renew the same at discretion, 
and with the farther authorities, powers, and privileges 
conferred, and subject to the conditions imposed hj this our 
Charter; 

Imperial British East Africa Company. 

And we do hereby accordingly will, ordain, grant, and declare 
as follows (that is to say) : — 

1. The said Imperial British East Africa Company (in this 
our Charter referred to as ^' the Company '*) is hereby au- 
thorized and empowered to hold and retain the full benefit of 
the several Grant-s, Concessions, Agreements, and Treaties 
aforesaid, or any of them, and all rights, interests, authorities, 
and powers necessary for the purposes of government, preserva- 
tion of public order in, or protection of the said territories, or 
otherwise of what nature or kind soever, under or by virtue 
thereof, or resulting therefrom, and ceded to or vested in the 
Company, in, over, or affecting the territories, lands, aud 
property comprised in those several Grants, Concessions, Agree- 
ments, or Treaties, o^ in, over, or affecting any territories, 
lands, or property in the neighbourhood of the same, and to 
hold, use, and exercise the same lands, property, rights, in- 
terests, authorities, and powers respectively for the purposes of 
the Company, and on the terms of this our Charter. 

Poioer of Comjpany to acquire and possess Lands ^ 8fc,^ in Africa, 
by Treaties or Concessions. 
2. The Company is hereby further authorized and em- 
powered, subject to the approval of one of our principal 
Secretaries of State (herein referred to as our Secretary of 
State) to acquire and take by any Grant, Concession, Agree- 
ment, or Treaty, other rights, interests, authorities, or powers 
of any kind or nature whatever in, over, or affecting the terri- 
tories, lands, or property comprised in the several Grants, Con- 
cessions, Agreements, or Treaties, as aforesaid, or any rights, 
interests, authorities, or powers of any kind or nature what« 

121 



Digitized by 



Google 



3 Sapt, 1888.] BRITISH EAST AFRICA CO. [No. 25 

[Charter; Mrima. Wansra to Kipini.] 

ever in, over, or affecting other territories, lands, or property in 
Africa, and to hold, use, enjoy, and exercise the same for the 
purposes of the Company and on the terms of this our Charter.* 

3. Provided that none of the powers of this our Charter 
shall be exercised under or in relation to any Grant, Conces- 
sion, Agreement, or Treaty as aforesaid, until a copy of sach 
Grant, Concession, Agreement, or Treaty in such form and with 
such maps or particulars as our Secretary of State approves and 
verified as he requires, has- been transmitted to him, and he 
has signified bis approval thereof, either absolutely or subject 
to any conditions or reservations. 

4. The Company shall be bound by and shall falfil all and 
flingalar the stipulations on their part contained in any such 
Grant, Concession, Agreement, or Treaty, as aforesaid, subject 
to any subsequent Agreement affecting those stipulations ap- 
proved by oar Secretary of State. 

Company to be British in Character and Domicile. Officers and 

Directors, 

5. The Company shall always be and remain British in 
character and domicile, and shall have its principal office in 
Great Britain, and the Company's principal Representative in 
East Africa, and all the Directors shall always be natural bom 
British subjects or persons who have been naturalized as British 
subjects by or under an Act of Parliament of our United 
Kingdom. 

Company precluded from transferring Concessions, 

6. The Company shall not have power to transfer wholly or 
in part the benefit of the Ghrants, Concessions, Agreements, or 
Treaties aforesaid, or any of them, except with the consent of 
our Secretary of State. 

Differences between Sultan of Zanzibar and Native Chiefs to be 
submitted to Secretary of State, 

7. In case at any time any difference arises between tho 
Sultan of Zanzibar, or the Chiefs or tribes which are included 

* See Lift of Trefttiee, p. 164. 
122 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 25] BBITISH EASl? AFRICA 00. [3 Sept, 1888. 

[Oharter ; TJfrima. Waaara to Xipinl.] • 

in the sphere of British inflaence, as hereinbefore recited, and 
the Company, that difference shall on the part of the Company 
be submitted to the decision of our Secretary of State, if he is 
willing to undertake the decision thereof. 

Dealings of Company with Foreign Powers, 

8. If at any time oar Secretary of State thinks fit to dissent 
from or object to any of the dealings of the Company with any 
foreign power and to make known to the Company any sugges- 
tion founded on that dissent or objection, the Company shall 
act in accordance therewith. 

Any Objections on 'part of Secretary of State to he deferred to hy 

Company, 

9. If at any time our Secretary of State thinks fit to object 
to the exercise by the Company of any authority or power 
within any part of the territories comprised in the several 
Grants, Concessions, Agreements, or Treaties aforesaid, or 
otherwise acquired by the Company, on the ground of there 
being an adverse claim to that part, the Company shall defer 
to that objection until such time as any such claim has been 
withdrawn or finally dealt with or settled by our Secretary of 
of State. 

10. — Abolition of Slave Trade and Slavery, 
11. — Freedom of Religious Worship, 8fc, 
12. — Jtistice. Local Laws and Customs, 
13. — Bight of Secretary of State to object to Proceedings or 
System of the Company. 

14. — Facilities for British Ships in Company^ s Harbours, 

Places where Company^ s Flag may he hoisted, 

15. Except in the Dominions of His Highness the Sultan of 
Zanzibar (within which it is required to use His Highness' 
flag), the Company may hoist and use on its buildings and 
elsewhere in its territories, and on its vessels, such distinctive 
flag indicating the British character of the Company as our 
Secretary of State and the Lords Commissioners of thQ Ad- 
miralty shall from time to time approve. 

123 K 



Digitized by 



Google 



3 Sept., 1888.] BRITISH east AFRICA CO. [No. 25 

• [Oharter; Mrima. Wanffa to Kiplni.] 

16. — Monopolies forbidden. 

17. — No differential treatment of Subjects of any Power as to 
Trade or Settlement, 

18. Import and Export Duties^ and Taxes, Company to con- 
form to Treaty Stipulations between Zanzibar and other Powers,* 

19. Taxes on Foreigners. Company to conform to Treaty 
Stipulations between Zanzibar and other Powers. 

20. Suppression of the Slave Trade. Tax on Caravans and 
Porters passing through Company* s Territory. 

21. Licences io take and kill Elephants. Export Duty on 
Elephants^ Tusks or Ivory. 

Company to be bound by Treaties between the British Govemmenf 
and Foreign Powers. 

22. The Company shall be subject to and shall perform and 
nndertakc all the obligations contained in or undertaken by 
ourselves under any Treaty, Agreement, or Arrangement be- 
tween ourselves and any other State or Power, whether already 
made or hereafter to be made. 

Jurisdiction : Company to conform to Directions given by the 
Secretary of State. 

In all matters relating to the observance of this Article, or 
to the exercise within the Company's territories for the time 
being, of any jurisdiction exercisable by us under the Foreign 
Jurisdiction Acts, the Company shall conform to and observe 
and carry out all such directions as may from time to time be 
given in that behalf by our Secretary of State, and the Com- 
pany shall appoint all necessary officers to perform such duties 
and shall provide such Courts and other requisites as may from 
time to time be necessary for the administration of justice. 

Powers of the Company. 

23. The Company is hereby further specially authorized and 
empowered for the purposes of this our Charter — 

[Here follows a description of the Powers of the Company.] 

* See Zanzibar, p. 928. 

124 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 26] BRIT. EAST AFRICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [9 Oct., 1888. 
[ConcMsion ; Krima. Wan^a to Xipini and laland*.] 

No. 2Q.— CONCESSION given hy His Highness the Sayyid 
Khalifa^ Sultan of Zanzibar, to tlie Imperial British East 
Africa Company. 9th October, 1888.* 

Preamble. 
Whereas His Highness Sayjid Barghash-bin-Said, the late 
Sultan of Zanzibar,t granted certain Concessions by a deed, 
document, or agreement, dated the 24th day of May, 1887 
(No. 24), to an Association or Company, under the presi- 
dency of William Mackinnon, and which Association or Com- 
pany, now known as the Imperial British East Africa Company, 
hereinafter referred to as the said Company, has been duly in- 
corporated by a Charter granted by Her Majesty Victoria of 
the United Kingdom of Gi'eat Britain and Ireland Queen, 
Empress of India, 3rd September, 1888 (No. 25). 

One Fminder*s Share allotted to Sultan. 
And whereas the said Company, in consideration of the 
rights, powers, and privileges and authorities made over by 
such Concession, entered into certain obligations towards Hi» 
Highness, his heirs, successors, and assigns, has formally ap- 
portioned or allotted to His Highness one founder's share in the 
said Company, whereby His Highness, his heirs, successors, and 
assigns, has become entitled to one -tenth of the net profit made 
by the Company, as shown by the books of the Company, after 
payment, or making provision for all the interests, working and 
other expenses, and depreciations, of and incidental to the 
carrying out of the objects of the Company, and after allowing 
interest at the rate of 8 per cent, per annum on the capital 
called and paid up from time to time by the shareholders in the 
Company. And the inght and title to such founder's share is 
evidenced by the certificates which have been issued by the 
Company to His Highness the Sultan Sayyid Khalifa as the 
successor of His Highness the Sultan Sayyid Barghash-bin-Said. 

• S. P., Tol. Ixxix, p 378. 

t Saltan Sayyid Khalifa died 13th Februnry, 1890, and was succeeded 
by Sultan Sayyid Ali-bin-Said, who died 5th March, 1893, and was succeeded 
by Saltan Hamed-ben-Twain (Present Saltan, July, 1894). 

125 K 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



9 Oct., 1888.] BRIT. EAST AFBICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [No. 26 
[Concession ; Mrima. Wanera to Xipinl, and Islands.] 

Extendon of Uighis^ Powers, and Privileges to Company, 

And whereas the said Gompanj has applied to His High- 
ness to grant farther facilities to the said Company for the 
more beneficial and effectoal exercise of the rights, powers, 
privileges, and authorities already granted by the Concession 
before mentioned, in order that the objects for which the Com- 
pany has been established may be fully carried out, and that 
certain provisions in the said Concession may be more clearly 
defined, so that no dispute or discussion may at any time arise 
as to the true meaning thereof. 

Now, it is hereby witnessed, that in consideration of the 
premises. His Highness Sayyid Khalifa, Sultan of Zanzibar and 
its East African Dependencies, hereby declares and agrees that 
these presents and the following Articles shall be read with the 
Concession to the Company of the 24th May, 1887 (No. 24), 
as if the same were a part thereof : — 

Adminisirationby Company of Zanzibar Territory on the Mainland 
in the Mrima* avd from Wanga to Kipini, including the 
Islands,^ 

Art. I. His Highness the Sultan makes over to the Imperial 
British East Africa Company all the powers and authority to 
which he is entitled on the mainland in the Mrima* and all his 
territories and Dependencies from Wanga to Kipini inclusive, 
also the islands embraced in such territory,^ the whole adminis- 
tration of which he concedes to, and places in their hands, to 
be carried out in His Highness' name and uuder his flag and 
subject to His Highness' sovereign rights. 

Non-payment hy Sulian of Blood-Money or other Claims, 

But it is understood that the Company will conduct all the 
fkfTairs and administration of that part of His Highness' 
dominions included in this Concession, and that His Highness 

* Part of tbe Mrima Coast was included in the German Sphere of Influ- 
ence by the Anglo-German Agreement of October — November, 1886, p. 615. 
See also Agreement, Great Britain and Germany, Ist July, 1890, p. 642. 

t See Map facing p. 160. 

X Mombasa, &c. See also Concession, 4th March, 1890, p. 148. 

126 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 26J BRIT. EAST AFRICA 00. & ZANZIBAR. [9 Oct., 1888. 
[Concrssion ; Mrima. Wanffa to Kiplni, and Islacda.] 

the Sultan shall not le liable for any expenses connected with 
the same, nor for any war or." dija '* (blood-monej), or for any 
claim arising therefrom, none of which His Highness shall be 
called upon to settle. 

Purchase of Public Lands. 

No other bat themselves shall have the right of purchasing 
or dealing with pnblic lands on the mainland or anywhere in His 
Highness' territories, Possessions, or Dependencies within the 
limits above named, except thi-ongh them, as is the case now 
with His Highness. 

Levying of Taxes. 

He also grants to the Company, or to their Representatives, 
the sole right and power of levying taxes upon the people of the 
mainland within the limits above named. 

Suppoi'L to he given by Sultan to Acts of the Company. 

His Highness farther agrees to do all acts and deeds that 
may be necessary to give full effect to the terms of this Conces- 
sion, to aid and support the Company, or their Representatives 
with all his authority and force, so as to secure to them tha- 
rights and powers hereby granted. 

Treaties between Zanzibar and Foreign Powers to be respected^ 

It is further agreed upon by the Contracting Parties that 
nothing contained in the following Articles of Concession shall 
in any way infringe on or lessen the rights accorded by His 
Highness to the subjects or citizens of Great Britain, the 
United States of America, France, Germany, or any other 
foreign Powers having Treaty relations with His Highness,* 
or the obligations which are or may be imposed upon him by 
his adhesion to the Berlin General Act, 26th February, 1885 
(No. 17). 

• See Zanzibar, p. 928. 
127 



Digitized by 



Google 



9 Oct., 1888.] BRIT. EAST AFBICA CO. k ZANZIBAR. [No. 26 
[Concessicn ; Mrima. Wan^a to Kipixil, and Islands.] 

Foicer of Company to appoint Commissioners to administer 
Districts. 

Art. II. His Highness authorizes the Company, or their Re- 
presentatives, to appoint in his name and on his behalf Commis- 
sioners to administer any district in His Highness' Possessions 
included in the limit of territories named above, except as 
hereinafter provided ; 

Subordinate Officers. 
To appoint such subordinate officers as may be required ; 

Laws for Qovernment of Districts. 
To pass laws for the government of districts ; 

Courts of Justice. 
To establish Courts ti Justice, and generally to adopt such 
measures as may be necessary for the protection and govern- 
ment of the districts and interests under their rule. 

Treaties with Native Chiefs. 

His Highness further authorizes the Company, or their 
Representatives, to make Treaties with subordinate and other 
native Chiefs, such Treaties and engagements to be ratified and 
confirmed by him in any cases in which they are made in the 
name of His Highness ; 

Cession to Company of Sultanas Rights over Lands, (except 
'' Shambas''). 

His Highness also agrees to cede to the Company, or their 
Representatives, all the rights which he himself possesses over 
the lands in the whole of his temtory on the mainland of 
Africa within the limits of this Concession, only excepting the 
private lands or " shambas." 

Forts and Buildings. 
And gives the Company all forts and public buildings, except- 
ing such buildings as His Highness may wish to retain for his 
own private use, a schedule of such buildings, plantations, or 

128 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 26] BBIT. EAST AFRICA 00. & ZANZIBAE. [9 Oct, 1888. 
[OonceMlon; Urixna. Wan^a to Kipinl, and Island*.] 

properties to be drawn up aud agreed to between His Higbness 
a2id tbe Company. 

Lands not yet occupied. 

Furtber, be autborizes and empowers tbem to acquire, and 
regulate, and dispose of tbe occupation of all lands not yet 
occupied ; 

Taxes^ Dues, Tolls. 
To levy and collect local or otber taxes, dues, and tolls ; 

Local OovemmentSy Justice, Roads, Debts, 8fc. 

And to do all tbese and sucb otber acts as may be necessary for 
tbe maintenance and support of sucb local governments, forces, 
administration of justice, tbe making and improving of roads 
or water communication, or otber public works, defensive or 
otberwise, and for tbe liquidation of debts and payment of 
interest upon capital expended. 

Appointment of Judges, 

Tbe Judges sball be appointed by tbe Company or tbeir 
Representatives, and tbe Sultan sball confirm all sucb appoint- 
ments, but all " Katbis " sball be nominated by His Higbcess. 

Administration of Laws. 

In aboriginal tracts tbe law sball be administered by tbe 
Company or tbeir officials. 

Stipends of Officials. 

Tbe stipends of tbe Governors and all otber officials in tbe 
territories occupied and controlled by tbe Company, or tbeir 
Representatives, sball be paid by tbem. 

Uight to trade, to hold Property, to erect Buildings, to acquire 

Lands, 8fc. 

Act. Ill, His Higbness grants to tbe Company, or to tbeir 
Representatives, tbe rigbt to trade, to bold property, \o erect 
buildings, and to acquire lands or buildings by purcbase or 

129 



Digitized by 



Google 



Oct., 1888.] BRIT. EAST AFRICA <X). & ZANZIBAR. [No. 26 
[ConoeMion ; Xrlaa. Wan^a to Kipini, and lalanda.] 

negotiations anywhere within His Highness' territories in- 
cluded in the limits of this Concession, with the consent of the 
proprietors of any snch lands and houses. 

ContTnerce, Navigation, Fisheries, Boads, Railways, Telegraphs, 8fc, 

Art. IY. His Highness grants to the Company, or to their 
Representatives, special and exclusiTe privileges and powers to 
regulate trade and commerce, also the navigation of rivers and 
lakes and contcol of fisheries, the making of roads, tramways, 
railways, canals, and telegraphs, and to levy tolls and dues on 
the same ; 

Importation of Arms, Ammunition, Intoxicating Liquors, 8fC, 

Also the power to control or prevent the importation of any 
merchandize, arms, ammunition of all sorts, intoxicating liquors^ 
or any other goods which, in the opinion of the Company, or 
their Representatives, are detrimental to law, order, and 
morality, and in whatsoever His Highness is not bound towards 
other Governments. 

Treaties between Zanzibar and Foreign Towers to he respected. 

But it is clearly understood that all exercise of these privi- 
leges and powers shall be in conformity with existing Treaties 
between His Highness and foreign States.* 

Forts and Foi'ts at Mouths of Bivers. Custom Houses. Duties, 
Sfc, on Vessels and Goods. Smuggling. 

Art. y. His Highness authorizes the Company, or their 
Representatives, to occupy, in his name, all ports and forts at 
the mouth or mouths of any river or rivers, or elsewhere in his 
dominions included in the limits of this Concession, with the 
right to establish Custom Houses and to levy and collect dues 
on any vessels, goods, Ac, arriving at, or departing from, such 
port or ports, and to take all necessary measures for the pre- 
vention of smuggling, subject in all cases to the Treaties above 
named. 

• See Zanzibar, p. 923. 
130 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 26] BEIT. EAST AFRICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [9 0ct.,188& 
[Conoesaion ; Krima. Wan^a to Kipinl, and Islands.] 

Working, ^c, of Mines. 

Art. VI. His Highness grants to the Company, or to their 
Representatives, the ezclasive privilege to search for, and 
work, or to regulate, lease, or assign, in any part of His 
Highness' territories within the limits of this Concession, any 
mines or deposits of lead, coal, iron, copper, tin, gold, silver, 
precioas stones, or any metal or mineral, or mineral oils what- 
soever; also the exclusive right to trade in the same, free 
from all taxes and dues, excepting such m.oderate royalty on 
minerals only, not exceeding 5 per cent, on the first value of 
the article, less the working expenses, as may be hereinafter 
agreed by the Company and their Representatives to be paid to 
His Highness ; 

Forest Trees and other Woods. 

Also the right to use all forest trees and other woods, and 
materials of any kind whatsoever for the purpose of the work* 
aforesaid, and also for trade. But the wood used for building 
and for burning, commonly known as " borti," may be cut od 
the mainland by others, as now, by payment of such dues "to- 
the Company, or to their Representatives, as they may agree- 
upon, but no such dues shall be required for wood cut for His- 
Highness' use. 

Establishment of Banks. 

Aet. VII. His Highness grants to the Company, or to their 
Representatives, the right to establish a bank or banks any- 
where in His Highness* territories above mentioned, with the 
exclusive privilege of issuing notes. 

Duration of Powers and Privileges limited to 50 Years. 

Akt. VIII. All the aforesaid powers and privileges to ox- 
tend over, and be available for the purposes and objects of the 
Company, or their Representatives, during the whole of the- 
term of 50 years next,* and dating from the time of this. 
Concession being signed. 

* Altered to " in perpetuity " by Supplementary Agreement, 5th March^ 
1891, p, 160. 

131 



Digitized by 



Google 



90ot.|1888] BEIT. EAST AFEIOA CO, & ZANZIBAR [No. 26 
[ConoeMlon ; Urima. Wan^ra to Kipi&l, and Islands.] 

At the conclasion of the said term all the public works and 
bmldings may revert to the Sultan, his direct heirs, and suc- 
cessors nominated by him, if desired, at a valuation, to be fixed 
by arbitration chosen by both parties, subject to conditions of 
Article XIV. 

Begie or Lease of Customs granted to Company. 

Art. IX.* His Highne;5s grants to the Company, or to their 
Representatives, the " regie," or lease of the Customs of all the 
ports throughout that part of His Highness' territories above 
defined, for an equal period of time to the other Concessions, 
upon the following terms, namely : — 

Guarantee to Sultan of Ctistoms Duties now received. 

The Company hereby guarantees to His Highness the whole 
amount of the Castoms duties which he now receives, both from 
the import and export trade of that part of His Highness' 
dominions included in this Concession. The definitive amount 
of the annual average shall be fixed after one year's experience. 
Arrangement with regard to Customs Duties. 

During the first year the Imperial British East Africa 
Company shall have the right to claim all and every pecuniary 
or other advantages connected with the administration of the 
Coast and Customs, whicii is guaranteed, under similur circum- 
stances, to the German Company in their Concession.f 

For the first year also the Company guarantees to His 
Highness the amount of the Customs which he now receives, 
as shown by the books, to be paid by monthly instalments, post 
numerando, according to the Arab reckoning of the year. 

After the first year's experience the annual average of the 
sum to be paid to His Highness by the Company shall be fixed. 
The Company, however, shall have the right at the end of 
every third year, according to the results of the previous three 
years, as shown by their books, to enter into fresh negotiations 
with His Highness in order to fix a revised average. 

• See Agreement, 2lBt December, 1889, p. 146, 

t An Undertaking was given to the Sultan, on the 3rd October, 1888, that 
it was not intended that the Company should charge His Highness 170,000 Bs. 
for administering the couAt, or that he should be responsible for this payment. 
See " McDermott on British East Africa," p. 275. See also Concession to 
German East Africa Company, 17th February, 1885. Qeruajsy, p. 303* 

132 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 26] BRIT. EAST AFEICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [9 Oct., 1888. 
[Conoesslou ; Mrima. Wan^a to Aiplnl, and Islands.] 

Duties not to be paid Twice over. Drawbacks. 

Farther, it is tinderstood that His Highness shall not claim 
the duty on any part of this trade twice over, and that the 
Company shall therefore be entitled to claim a drawback for 
the amount of any duties which may hereafter be paid direct to 
His Highness on any import to, or exports from, the ports 
included in this Concession; 

Fifty per Gent, of Additional Customs Revenue to be paid to 

8uUan. 

And the Company further guarantees to pay to His Highness 
50 per cent, of the additional net revenue which shall come to 
them from the Customs duties of the ports included in this 
Concession after payment of all expenses ; 

Company^ s Bights over Territorial Waters, Transit and Shipment 

of Mei'chandize^ 8cc, 
And His Highness grants to the Company all rights over the 
territorial waters in or appertaining to his dominions within 
the limits of these Concessions, particularly the right to super- 
vise and control the conveyance, transit, landing, and shipment 
of merchandize, and produce within the said waters by means 
of a coastguard service both on land and water. 

Privileges, SfCj granted to German East Africa Company extended 
to British East Africa Company. 

Finally, in addition to all that is stated in the foregoing 
Article, the Imperial British East Africa Company shall have 
the right to claim and exercise every right, privilege, or 
power granted by His Highness the Sultan to the German 
East African Association* in Article IX, or in any other Article 
of their Concession. 

Allotment to Sultan of Capital of Company equal to one Founder's 
Share, or one-tenth of Net Profits, less certain Deductions. 

Art. X. In consideration of the foregoing Concessions, 
powers, and privileges being granted by His Highness, the 

• See Concession, I7th February, 1886. Gbbmany, p. 803. 
133 



Digitized by 



Google 



9 Oct., 1888.] BBIT. BAST AFRICA CO. & ZA17ZI6AB. [No. 26. 
[Oonoassion ; Mrima. Wanera to Xipinl, and Zslanda.] 

Companj, or their Representatives^ allot to His Highness the 
dividend on the value or that part of the Company's capital 
which is corresponding to one founder's share of the Imperial 
British East Africa Company free of cost, which shall entitle 
him to one-tenth of the net profits, as shown by the books of 
the Company, after payment of all expenses, interests, and de- 
preciations, and after interest at the rate of 8 per cent, shall 
have been paid upon the shareholders' paid-np capital. 

Privileges, ^c, granted to any other Compavy to he extended 
to British East Africa Company, 

Art. XI. The Imperial British East Africa Company shall 
enjoy all the rights, privileges, immnnities, and advantages 
which are, or hereafter may be, enjoyed by, or accorded to, 
any other Company or particular person to whom His Highness 
may have given, or may give, Concessions in any other part of 
his dominions, similar to those granted by this Concession to 
the Imperial British East Africa Company, or of a different 
character. 

Exclusion from Concession of Islands of Zanzibar and Pemla, and 
certain other of the Sultanas Possessions South of Wanga and 
North of Kipini. 

Art. XII. These Concessions do noi relate to His Highness* 
Possessions in the islands of Zanzibar or Pemba, nor to his ter- 
ritories south of Wanga or north of Kipini. 

Powers of the Company to he exercised in name of the Sultan. 

And it is understood that all public, judicial, or Govern- 
ment powers and functions herein conceded to the Company, 
or to their Representatives, shall be exercised by them only in 
•the name, and under the authority, of the Sultan of Zanzibar. 

Obligations of Concessions to be binding on both Parties for 
50 Years. 

Art. XIII. It is hereby agreed by both Parties that these 
Concessions, and the corresponding obligations set forth, shall 

134 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo. 261 BEIT. EAST APRICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [9 Oct., 1888. . 
[ConceMlon ; Krlma. Wan^a to Xipini, and Islands.] 

be binding upon both Parties, their heirs, successors, and 
assigns, daring the term of 50 years* for which they have been 
agreed upon. 

Bailtvayg, Canals, Telegraphs^ and other Public Works. 

Art. XIV. All railways, tramways, caravanserais (rest- 
houses), roads, canals, telegraphs, waterworks, gasworks, and 
other works of public utility ; also mines constructed by the 
Company, or by parties authorized by them, with all their 
lands, buildings, and appurtenances, shall be the property of 
the contracting Company in perpetuity, or of any Company 
which may be formed by the said Company to make them, and 
they shall be free for ever from taxation of any kind, except- 
ing only the royalties on minerals previously provided for in 
Article VI. 

2'emp07'ary Occupation and Administration of Territories and 
Revenues by Sultanas Officials, 

Art. XV. Pending such reasonable period after the date of 
tbe final ratification of this Agreement as may be required by 
the Imperial British East Africa Company to make their ar- 
rangements for administering the teiTitories and revenues con- 
ceded to them herein, the officials and troops of His Highness 
the Saltan of Zanzibar shall continue in possession of such 
territories until the aforesaid Company intimate their readi- 
ness to take over the whole administi*ation, including the 
collection of revenues. 

Responsibility of Company to Sultan from date of their 
Administration. 

The Company shall be responsible to the Sultan for the 
payment of the amount to which he may be entitled under the 
pi-ovision in Article IX of this Agreement only from the date 
on which they may take over charge of the administration as 
above specified. 

* Altered to '* in perpetuity *' by Supplementary Agreement, 5th March,. 
1891, p. 150. 

135 



Digitized by 



Google 



•9 Oct., 1888.] BRIT. EAST AFRICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [No. 26 
[ConoeMion ; Krima. Waaffa to Klplni, and Islands.] 

Transfer of Customs^ Ac, to he made be/ore let July, 1889. 

Ifc is further tinderstand that the time of transfer of the 
Customs, lands, and buildings aforesaid shall be fixed by special 
Agreement; but it is understood that such transfer shall be 
made before the 1st January, 1889, at latest. 

English Text of Agreement to decide any point in Dispute. 

Art. XVI. The present Agreement has been made out in 
four copies, two of which are written in the Arabic language. 
All these copies have the same issue and meaning Should 
differences, however, hereafter arise as to the proper inter- 
pretation of the English and Arabic texts of one or other of 
the stipulations of this Concession, the English copy and 
meaning shall be considered decisive. 

In faith whereof His Highness the Seyyed Khalifa-bin-Sa'id, 
and George Sutherland Mackenzie, Director on behalf of the 
Imperial British East Africa Company, have signed this Con- 
cession and affixed their seals. 

Done at Zanzibar, this 9th day of October, 1888. 

(L.S.) Signature of SULTAN OF ZANZIBAR. 
(L.S.) GEORGE SUTHERLAND MACKENZIE, 

Director^ Impenal British East Africa 
Company. 

Witness to the above : 
Lloyd William Mathews, 

In command of Zanzibar Troops. 

I certify the above seals and signatures of His Highness the 
Sultan of Zanzibar and Mr. George Sutherland Mackenzie, 
a Director of the Imperial BHtish East Africa Company. 

C. B. Euan-Smith, Colonel, 

Her Britannic Majesty^s Agent and Consul-General. 
Zanzibar, 9th October, 1888. 



136 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 27J BRITISH EAST AFRICA CO. & ITALY. [3 Aug., 1889. 
[Xlamayu, Brava, Meurka, Magadisho, and Warsheikb.] 



No. VI.— AGREEMENT between the British East Africa 
Company and the Italian Government , respecting the pi'o- 
posed Concession by the Sultan of Zanzibar to t/ie Company 
of Territories, cfcc, on the East African Coast, including 
Kismayic, Brava, Meurka, Magadisho, and Warslieikh, and 
the Transfer of those Territories to Italy. London, Zrd 
August, 1889. 

(Translation.) 

Agreement entered into this 3rd day of August, 1889, 
between the Imperial British East African Company, herein- 
after called " The British Company," of the one part, and 
M. Catalani, Charge d' Affaires for His Majesty the King of 
Italy in London, for and on behalf of the Royal Italian 
Government, of the other part, whereby it is agreed as 
follows : — 

Whereas, negotiations have been carried on for some time 
past, and are still pending, between the British Company and 
His Highness Seyyid Khalifa, Saltan of Zanzibar, for the 
cession by the said Sultan to the British Company of certain 
lands, territories, and countries which lie on the coast from and 
including Kismayu and north of the mouth of the River Juba, 
including the ports of Brava, Meurka, and Magadisho, with 
radii landwards of 10 sea miles, and of Warsheikli, with a 
radius of 5 sea miles : 

And whereas. His Highness the said Seyyid Khalifa, Sultan 
of Zanzibar, by a letter dated the 16th January, 1889, addressed 
to His Majesty the King of Italy, through Her Britannic 
Majesty's Agent and Consul- General at Zanzibar, authorized 
His Majesty the King of Italy's Government to arrange with 
the British Company for the joint occupation of Kismayu : 

And whereas, the Royal Italian Government are desirous of 
acquiring territories and ports in the East Coast of Africa, and 
the British Company are anxious to assist the Royal Italian 
Government in attaining such object : 

137 



Digitized by 



Google 



3 Aug., 1889.] BRITISH EAST AFRICA 00. & ITALY. [No. 27 
[Kimiayii, Brava, ICeurka, SCagadiaho, and Waxslieikli.] 

Territory^ when Conceded by the Sultan of Zanzibar to the 
Company, to he transferred hy the Company to the Italian 
Government. 

Brava^ Meurka^ Magadtsho, and Warsheikh, 

1. Now, it is hereby mutually agreed betweeu the parties 
hereto, that when His Highness Seyyid Khalifa, Sultan of 
Zanzibar, concedes to and hands over according to his promises 
«ind declaratiocs to the British Company the said lands, terri- 
tories, and countries lying on such coast from and including 
Kismayu and north of the mouth of the River Jnba, including 
the ports of Brava, Menrka, and Magadisho, v^ith radii land- 
wards of 10 sea miles, and of Warsheikh, with a i*adius of 5 sea 
miles,* the British Company shall, with the consent and ap- 
proval of the Sultan, but at the expense of the Italian Govern- 
ment, transfer, or cause to be transferred, to the duly authorized 
Agents of the Italian Government, the aforesaid lands, terri- 
tories, and countries, and the above ports of Brava, Meurka, 
Magadisho, and Warsheikh, to be held by the Italian Govern- 
ment on the same terms and conditions as those which may be 
contained in the Concession to be granted for the aforesaid 
ports and territories to the British Company, or on the best 
terms obtainable from the Sultan. 

Joint Occupation of Kismayu. 
Except as to Kismayu and its adjoining territory, which is 
to be jointly occupied by the parties hereto, as hereinafter 
pi-ovided. 

Company to he Indemnified. 

2. The Italian Government hereby agrees to indemnify the 
British Company from all expenses, reasonable demands, and 
•claims, if any, that may arise by reason of the provisions of 
this Agreement, or in the carrying out of the same. 

■Joint Occupation by the Company and the Italian Government of 

Kismayu. 

3. The British Company agree with the Italian Government 

* See Deed of Transfer, 18th Kovember, 1889, p. 142, and Concession, 
Zanzibar to British East Africa Company, 4th March, 1890, p. 148. 

138 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 27] BRITISH EAST AFRICA CO. A ITALY, ffi Aug., 1889. 
[Sinaayii, Brava, Xeiirka, Kaaradisho, and Warsheikh.] 

upon an eqnal joint occapation of Kismayn an^ its adjoining 
territory as conceded by the Sultan, which will be jointly and 
equally hold and administered by the two Contracting Parties. 
Both the British Company and the Italian Government shall 
possess at Kismayn and its adjoining territory perfect equality 
of rights and privileges, but subject always to terms, if any, of 
the Concession to be granted as aforesaid. The Italian Go- 
vernment and the British Company shall bear a^d pay an equal 
share of the cost of administration, and shall divide equally 
the net returns from Kismayn and its adjoining territory. The 
detailed provisions for arriving at a modus vivendiy and parrying 
out in the most friendly way the provisions of this clause, are 
to be agreed upon and settled at Kismayn by the Agents of the 
Italian Government and the Agents of the British Company 
duly authorized as soon as possible after Kismayn has been 
handed over by the Sultan of Zanzibar to the British Company, 
and by the British Company to the Italian Government. 

Limitation of Italian Sphere of Influence. 

4. The Italian Government bind themselvps to limit the 
Italian sphere of influence and operations on the East African 
continent by refraining from exercising any political or other 
influences, accepting Protectorates, making acquisitions of 
lands, or interfering with the extension of British influence on 
the territories or over the tribes lying to the west or south of 
a line drawn from the north bank of the mouth of the Juba 
River, and intended to keep always on the north and east sides 
of the River Juba to the point w^here the 8th degree of north 
latitude intersects the 40th degree of east longitude, and a line 
drawn direct from the above-named point and running over 
the parallel intersecting the 35th degree of east longitude of 
the meridian of Greenwich. 

Limitation of Company's Sphere of Influence. 

On their part the British Company agree and bind them- 
selves to limit the said British Company's sphere of influence 
and operations on the East African continent by refraining 
from exercising any political or other influence, accepting Pro- 

189 L 



Digitized by 



Google 



3 Ang., 1889.] BEITISH EAST AFRICA CO. & ITALY. [No. 27 
[Kismayn, Brava, Kenrka, Kaflradisho, and Wanheikh.] 

tectorates, making acquisitions of lands, interfering with the 
extension of Italian influence on the territories or over the 
tribes lying to the east and north-east of the lines above speci- 
fied, provided, nevertheless, that if the course of the Juba 
River should, on survey, be ascertained to^ow at any points to 
the north or east of the above-mentioned lines, then the 
northern or eastern bank of the said river, as the case may be, 
shall at such points be accepted as the line of demarcation 
between the said parties. This proviso, however, shall only 
extend to deviations of the said river up to the point where the 
8th degree of north latitude intersects the 40th degree of east 
longitude. The aboTC-mentioned lines are distinctly marked in 
red on the Map annexed hereto,* and which Map, for the pur- 
poses of identification, has been signed by the parties hereto. 

Navigation of the River Juba. 

5. It is hereby further agreed that the Italian Government 
shall have joint and equal rights with the British Company of 
navigation on the River Juba and its tributaries so far as it 
may be requisite to give the Italian Government free access to 
the territories reserved to its sphere of influence as above 
mentioned. 

jyisputes respecting Interpretation or Execution of Agreement to he 
submitted to Arbitration. 

6. The two Contracting Parties agree that any controversies 
which may arise respecting the interpretation or the execution 
of the present Agreement, or the consequences of any violation 
thereof, shall be submitted, when the means of settling them 
by means of an amicable arrangement are exhausted, to the 
decision of the Commissions of Arbitration, and that the result 
of such arbitration shall be binding upon both Contracting 
Parties. The members of such Commissions shall be elected 
by the two Contracting Parties by common consent, failing 
which, each of the parties shall nominate an Arbitrator, or an 
equal number of Arbitrators, and the Arbitrators thus appointed 
shall select an Umpire. 

• Not published with Agreement. 
1^0 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 27] BRITISH EAST AFRICA CO. & ITALY. [3 Aug., 1889. 
[Kiomaya, Brava, ICeurka, ICaffadlsho, and WantajoikhJ 

Bight of Italian Oovernment to Delegate its Privileges^ ^c, to the 
Royal Italian East African Company, 

7. The Boyal Italian Government reserve to themselveg 
fall power to delegate all their rights, powers, and privileges 
belonging to them, or acquired through the present Agreement, 
to an Italian Company, in course of formation, to be called 
"The Boyal Italian East Africa Company," or some such 
similar name, binding themselves, however, that the said 
Italian Company shall comply with sA\ obligations undertaken 
herein by the Italian Government, who will themselves remaizi 
responsible for the strict compliance with the obligations herein 
contained.* This Agreement to be constraed according to 
English law. 

Done and signed at London, in duplicate, in the English 
and Italian languages, with the understanding that the English 
text shall be binding, this 3rd day of August, in the year 
1889. 

W. MACKINNON. 
T. OATALANI. 

Signed by the said Sir W. Mapkiuiion an<} Signer Catalan^ 
in the presence of — 

George S. Mackenzie. 

3rd August, 1889. 

Reservation of Right of Company to nidify Boundaries, 

Notwithstanding the boundaries herein specified, the Imperial 
British East Africa Company shall have the right to require 
that the boundary shall be modified by drawing a line in a 
north-westerly direction, from about the 37th degree of east 
longitude, on the 8th degree of north latitude, to a point on 
the Blue Nile, or Abawi River, westward of the 37th degree of 
east longitude ; which river shall be the boundary to the 35th 
degree of east longitude ; thereafter the boundary westwards 
and northwards shall be as marked on the map.f 

• See Deed of Transfer, 18th November, 1889, p. 142, and Concession, 
Zanzibar to Briti^ East Africa Corapanj, 4th March, 1890, p. 148. 
t See map facing p. 666. 

Ul L 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



18 Nov., 1889.] BRITISH EAST AFRICA 00. & ITALY. [No. 28 
[Kismayu, Btata, Keurka, Maffadlsho, Warahelkli, St Kruti.] 



No. 2S.— DEED OF TRANSFER executed bdioeen the 
British East AfHca Company and the Italian GovernmerU, 
for the Concession to Italy of tlie Company a Rights and 
Privileges in the Ports of Brava, Meurka, Magadisfio, and 
Afruti, subject to the approval of the Sultan of Zanzibar* 
ISth November, 1889. 

This Indenture was made this 18th day of November, 1889, 
between the Imperial British East Africa Company, of No. 2, 
Pall Mall East, London (hereinafter called the Company), of 
the one part, and Thomas Catalani, Charg6 d 'Affaires for His 
Majesty the King of Italy iu London, for and on behalf of the 
Royal Italian Government, of the other part : 

Brava^ Meurka, Magadisho, and Warsheikh. 

Whereas by an Agreement made the 3rd day of August, 
1H89 (No. 27), between the Parties hereto, after reciting that 
negotiations had been carried on for some time past, and were 
still pending, between the Company and His Highness Sayyid 
Khalifa, Sultan of Zanzibar, for the cession by the said Sultan 
to the Company of certain lands, territories, and countries 
which lie on the coast, from and including Kismayu, and north 
of the month of the River Juba, including the ports of Brava, 
Menrka, and Magadisho, with radii landwards of 10 sea miles, 
and of Warsheikh, with a radius of 5 sea miles ; and that His 
Highness the said Sayyid Khalifa, Sultan of Zanzibar, by a 
letter dated the loth January, 1889, addressed to His Majesty 
the King of Italy through Her Britannic Majesty's Agent and 
Consul- General at Zanzibar, authorized His Majesty the Kiug 
of Italy's Government to arrange with the Government for the 
joint occupatiun of Kismayu ; and that the Royal Italian 
Government were desirous of acquiring territories and ports on 
the East Coast of Africa, and the Company were anxious to 
assist the Royal Italian Government in attaining such object : 

* See Concession, Zanzibar to British East Africa Company, 4tl] March, 
1890, p. 148. 

142 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 28] BRITISH EAST AFBICA 00. & ITALY. [18 Nov., 1889. 
[Ki«mayn, Brava, ICeurka, Maffadiaho, Warslieikh, A Mruti.] 

It was mutually agreed between the parties thereto (inter alia) 
that when His Highness Sajyid Khalifa, Sultan of Zanzibar, 
conceded to and handed over, according to his promises and 
declarations io the Gompanj, the said lands, territories, and 
countries lying on such coast, from and inclading Kismayu, 
and north of the mouth of the River Juba, including the ports 
of Brava, Meurka, and Magadisho, with radii landwards of 
10 sea miles, and of Warsheikh, with a radins of 5 sea miles, 
the Company should, with the consent and approval of the 
Sultan, bat at the expense of the Italian Government, transfer 
or cause to be transferred to the dnly authorized Agents of 
the Italian Oovemment the aforesaid lands, territories, and 
countries, and the above ports of Brava, Mearka, Magadisho, 
and Warsheikh, to be held by the Italian Government on the 
same terms and conditions as those which might be contained 
in the Concession to be granted for the aforesaid ports and 
territories to the Company, or on the best terms obtainable 
from the Saltan, 

Kismayu. Joint Occupation, 

Except as to Kismayu and its adjoining territory, which 
was to be jointly occupied by the parties thereto as therein 
provided. And the Italian Government thereby agreed to 
indemnify the Company from all expenses, reasonable demands, 
and claims, if any, that might arise by reason of the pro- 
visions of the reciting Agreement or in the carrying out of 
the same. And whereas by Concession, dated the 31st day of 
Aagast, 1889, the Sultan of Zanzibar, with (as therein stated) 
the concurrence of the British Government, thereby granted 
a lease of his possessions to the Company on the following 
conditions, namely : — 

[Here follow the words of the Agreement between Great 
Britain and Zanzibar of Slst August, 1889 (No. 154).] 

And whereas the Royal Italian Government are desirons 
that the Company should, by virtue of the provisions of the 
above-recited Agreement of the 3rd day of August, 1889 
(No. 27), execute such transfer as is hereinafter contained ; 

US 



Digitized by 



Google 



18 Nov., 1889.] BRITISH EAST AFRICA CO. & ITALY. [No. 28 
[KiBmayn, Brava, Kevrka, KaRadlaho, Wanheikh, ft Kruti.] 

and whereas the Company have nofc yet had the time or been 
able to apply for and obtain the consent and approval of the 
Saltan of Zanzibar to the said intended transfer, but steps are 
now being taken to apply for such consent and approval: — 

Tranter by Company to Italian Government of Goast from (but 
not including) Kismayu to North of the Mouth of ths Juba 
Eiver, including Prava, Meurka^ Magadisho, Warsheikh, and 
Mrutif subject to approval of Sultan of Zanzibar,* 
Now, this Indenture witnesseth that in pursuance of the 
hereinbefore-recited Agreement of the 3rd day of August, 1889 
(No. 27)j the Company do hereby (subject to the consent and 
approval of the Saltan of Zanzibar being obtained to this 
present transfer) transfer to the Royal Italian Government and 
their assigns all the towns, lands, and possessions on the coast 
from (but not including) Kismayu, and north of the moutb of 
the River Juba^ including the ports of Brava^ Meurka, and 
Magadisho, and Warsheikh and Mruti, to hold unto the Royal 
Italian Government and their assigns for all such estate and 
interest as the Company have therein under or by virtue of the 
hereinbefore-recited Concession of the 31st day of August, 1889 
(No. 154), but subject to the terms and pi*ovisions of the said 
Concession of the 31st day of August, 1889, and the said 
Agreement of the 3rd day of August, 1889 (No. 27), 
respectively; provided always, and it is hereby expressly agreed 
and declared, that if the consent and approval of the Sultan of 
Zanzibar to this present transfer be not obtained,* then, and in 
such case, these presents shall be null and void, anything here- 
inbefore contained to the contrary notwithstanding. 

In witness whereof the Imperial British East Africa Com- 
pany have caused their common seal to be hereunto affixed, and 
the said Thomas Catalani hath hereunto set his hand and seal, 
the day and year first above written. 

W. MACKINNON, Director. 

W. P. ALEXANDER, Eon. Secretary. 

• See Concesaion from Sultan of Zanzibar to British East Africa Com- 
pany of 4th March, 1890, p. 148 ; and Sultan's Letter, 5th March, 1890, 
p. 149. 

144 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 28] BRITISH EAST AFRICA CO. & ITALY. [18 Nov., 1889. 
[KiBxnayn, Brava, Keurka, KaflradiBho, Warsbeikh, A Hmti.] 

Sealed with the common seal of the Imperial British East 
Africa Company, in the presence of — 

H. GooDWYN Stephenson, Solicitor^ 
31, Lombard Street, London. 

(For and on behalf of the Rojal Italian Government) 

T. CATALANI. 

Signed, sealed, and delivered bj the above-named Thomas 
Gatalani, in the presence of — 

H. GooDWTN Stephenson, Solicitor^ 
31, Lombard Street , London. 



145 



Digitized by 



Google 



21 Dec, 1839.] BRIT. EAST AFRICA CO. 4 ZANZIBAR. [No. 29 
[Oustomi Bovenues. Wanffa to Kiplni.] 



No, 29.— AGREEMENT between the Sultan of Zanzibar 
and the Imperial Britis/i Bast Africa Company, respecting 
the Customs Dues levitd in 1888, and the Ports lying 
between Wanga and Kipini, 21st Deceniber, 1889. 

(Translation.) 

CustoTns Duties levied in 1888. 

It has this day been agreed betMreen His Highness Sayyid 
Khalifa, Sultan of Zanzibar, and George S. Mackenzie, the 
dalj authorized representative of the Imperial British East 
Africa Cdmpany, that the Customs duties collected last jear, 
and payable to His Highness for the revenues of the territory 
lying between the ports of Wanga and Kipini,* as verified by 
the accoTlnts of the first 12 months, amounts to 56,000 dollars, 
Zanzibar currency, as arranged for in the Concession granted 
by His Highness to the Imperial British East Africa Company, 
dated the 9th October, 1888 (No. 26). 

The above sum to be paid in advance, in four quarterly 
sums of 14,000 dollars each, and in addition to this sum His 
Highness shall be paid half of the net increase that may here- 
after be collected on the above-named revenues, but His High- 
ness shall not be responsible for any expenses connected with 
the collection of the revenues. 

It is also understood that the Company shall not (vide 
Article IX)t levy duty on merchandize, &c., which has pre- 
viously paid duty in Zanzibar or other coast ports belonging to 
His Highness, and the Sultan on his part undertakes not to 
charge duty on merchandize, &c., which has previously paid 
duty at any port-s under the jurisdiction of the Company. His 
Highness retains to himself the right of having a representa- 
tive, to be paid by himself, at each and all the Custom Houses, 
who will keep a copy of the Custom House books on behalf of 

* See Map facing p. 150. 
t Page 132. 

14G 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 29] BBIT. EAST AFRICA CO. k ZANZIBAR. [21 Dec, 1889. 
[Ooatonui Revenues. Wanga to KipinL] 

His Highness, who shall, in conjnnction with the Company, 
agree their respective accounts at the close of each year. 

Signature and Seal of Snitan of Zanzibar. 
GEORGE S. MACKENZIE, Director. 

Imperial British East Africa Company. 
Zanzibar, 2l8t December, 1889. 

Certified that the above translation has been made by ns, 
and is the trne and correct purport of the document in Arabic 
on the other side. 

Lloyd Wm. Mathews, Brigadier- General. 
Esau-bin-Mahdc. 

I hereby certify that the foregoing is a duplicate of the 
Agreement between His Highness Sayyid Khalifa-bin-Saeed, 
Sultan of Zanzibar, and Mr. George S. Mackenzie, Director of 
the Imperial East India Company, registered at the office of 
Her Majesty's Agency and Consulate- General, Zanzibar, under 
Nos. 1218 and 1219 of 1890. 

C. B. Euan-Smith, Her Britannic Majesty's 
Agent and GonsuUOeneral. ' 
British Agency and Consulate- General, Zanzibar, 
23rd December, 1889. 



147 



Digitized by 



Google 



4 March, 18C0.3 BRIT. EAST AFRICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [No. 30 

[Concessioxi. Kiplni to Urati, Lamu, Kanda, Patta, Kwyho, Kismayu. 
Benadir Coast: — Kismayu, Brava, Keurka, KaflradUho, War- 
sheikh, fto.] 

No. ^0.— CONCESSION hy the Sultan of Zanzibar to 
British Hast Africa Co. of certain Islands^ and of certain 
places on the Benadir Coast, ith March, 1890.* 
(Translation.) 

Coast between Kipini and Mruti. Islands of Lamuy Manda, Patta, 
Kwyho, and Pkices on Benadir Coast — Kismayu, Brava, 
Mervice [Meur^a], Magadisho, Warsheikh, Mruti, 8fc. 

1. His Highness Seyyid All, Saltan of Zanzibar and its 
East African Dependencies, hereby declares and agrees to 
concede to the Imperial East Africa Company all the powers 
and authority to which he is entitled on the mainland lyinir 
between Kipini and Mrati, also the islands embraced in such 
territory, including Lamu, Manda, Patta, Kwyho, and all the 
other towns and places on the Benadir coast, viz., Kismayu, 
Brava, Mervioe [Meurka], Magadisho, Warsheikh, Mrati, and 
the islands in their vicinity belonging to His Highness. The 
same to be administered and held for the same period, and on 
the same terms and conditions, as the Imperial British East 
Africa Company's Concession, dated the 9th October, 1888, 
for (No. 26) the territories lying between Wanga and Kipini.f 

Payment to be made by Company to Zanzibar Customs Revenue. 

2. The Imperial British East Africa Company undertake to 
pay His Highness, as in the case of their Mombasa Concession^ 
above named, the gross revenue of the Customs as collected by 
them : the amount to be paid by His Highness shall be fixed 
by the experience of the sum collected the first year, but in the 
event of any abnormal loss arising in the first year's collection 

• Modified by Supplementary Agreement of 6tli March, 1891, p. 150. 

t The period fixed by the Concession of 9lh October, 1888, was for 60 
years, but by a Supplementary Agreement, dated 5th March, 1891, it was 
modified, and the privileges granted in perpetuity, with the exception of 
Brara, Meurka, Magadisho, Warsheikh, and Mruti, which, it was declared, 
should remain undisturbed. (See p. 150.) But by a Concession, dated 12th 
August, 1892, Mie Benadir Forts were placed under the administration of the 
lliilian Government. (See p. 950.) 
+ 24th May, 1887, Article IX, p. 116. 

148 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 30] BRIT, EAST AFRICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [4 March, 1890 

[ConceMlon. I<«mu, Kanda, Patta, Kwyho, Klsmayu, Brava, 
Kourka, Maffadisho, Waralieikli, Ac] 

through distarbances on the coast, or from any cause whatever, 
His Highness shall not suffer loss thereby. 

Choss Revenue of Customs. 

3. Be it known that the revenue which His Highness now 
receives from the Benadir ports is 90,000 dollars, and the 
revenue of Lamu is 13,000 dollars jearlj. Therefore, the 
Imperial British East Africa Company agrees, should the 
collection for the first year bo less than the above-named sum, 
to make good the difference to His Highness. 

50 per cent, of Additional Net Heve^iue to he paid to the Sultan, 

4. The Imperial British East Africa Company farther 
guarantees to pay to His Highness 50 per cent, of the addi- 
tional net revenue which may come to them from the customs 
duties of the ports above named after deduction of the entire 
charges of the administration, and the fixed revenue as in the 
case of their Mombasa Concession. 

GEO. S. MACKENZIE, 
Director and Administrator -in- Chief, 
Witness : Imperial British JEast Africa Company, 

E. J. L. Berkeley, 

Ilei* Majesty's Vice-Consul, 



The Sultan of Zanzibar to Colonel Euan- Smith, 
Benadir Ports. 
(Translation.) (After compliments.) 

ISth Eajah, 1307 {6th March, 1890). 
We have the honour to inform you that we have looked in 
the letter which our brother the late Seyyid Khalifa wrote on 
the 11th Jamad-el-Aowal, 1307, to the Italian King regarding 
the matter of Kismayu* And now you know what has happened 
between us and our friends, the English Company. That we 
have given to them the concession of all Benadir ports, Ac, 
and now we agree if the Italian Company will arrange with our 
friend Mr. Mackinnon we have no objection ; our desire is to 
increase the friendship. 

Written by his order, his slave, Abdul Aziz. 

149 



Digitized by 



Google 



5 March, 1891] BRIT. EAST AFRICA CO. & ZANZIBAR. [No. 31 

[Wanga to Kipini. Zjamn, Kanda, Patta, Slamayu. Bonadir Ports : 
— Brava, Keurka, Kasmdisho, Warsheikh ; and Kruti.] 



No. Z\.— SUPPLEMENTARY AGREEMENT concluded 
between Sis Highness Seyyid Aliy G,C.8J., SvUan of Zan- 
zibar ^ and Mr. George Mackenzie y Director and Acting 
Administrator- in^Chief of the Ivvpeinul British East Afi^ica 
Company, bth March, 1891. 

Modification of Concession of 4ith March, 1890. Lamu, Manda^ 
Patta^ Kismayu, 8po. 
The Concession, dated the 4th March, 1890 (No. 30), re- 
garding the Benadir ports granted bj His Highness Sejyid Ali 
to the Imperial British East Africa Company, is hereby modi- 
fied by mutual consent, in so far as that Concession relates to 
the Islands of Laiau, Manda, Patta, <fec., as well as to the port 
and territory belonging to Kismayn. 

Benadir Ports : — Brava, Meurka, Magadisho and Warsheikhf and 
Mrutiy undisturbed. 

That portion of the Concession which relates to the ports 
belonging to His Highness lying on that coast to the north- 
ward of the River Juba, viz., Brava, Meurka, Magadisho and 
Warsheikh, and Mruti, shall remain undisturbed. 

Coast Line from Wanga to Kipini, including IjamUy Manda 
Patta, and Kismayu conceded to Company in perpetuity. 

His Highness the Sultan Seyyid Ali hereby grants to the 
imperial British East Africa Company the concession of his 
entire coast line from Wanga to Kipini, and, further, the 
Islands of Lamo, Manda, Patta, and his territory at Elismayu, 
in perpetuity, instead of for 50 years, from the date of and as 
stated in, first, the Concession signed by the late Seyyid 
Khalifa, and dated the 9th day of October, 1888 (No. 26) ; 
and, secondly, the Concession signed by His Highness Seyyid 
Ali, and dated 4th March, 1890 (No. 30). 

150 



Digitized by 



Google 



16 fauce pa^e 150 




WyMfiftS«is,IC,Uh 6S,C«rc«r Um laoSe-H 



Map shewing 

Coast Line of the Imperial British 

East Africa Cox? Territories 

BETWEEN THE WANGA AND JUBA RIVERS. 

J886-1891. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo. 31] BHIT. EA8T AFBICA GO. k ZANZIBAR. [5 March, 1891. 

[Benadir Porto ; Brava, Menrka, Maffadlsho, Warslxeikli, 
and lEmti.] 

Gondittons. 

The following are the conditions of this present modified 
Agreement : — 

80,000 Dollars to he paid hy tlie Oonvpany to the Sultan of 
Zanzibar J by quarterly payments in advance. 

The Imperial British East Africa Company to paj as rental 
to His Highness the Saltan for the above coast-line and all the 
islands embraced therein, extending from the port of Wanga to 
that of Kismayn, both inclasive, nnder the conditions detailed 
in the Concession of the 9th October, 1888 (No. 26), the sam 
of 80,000 dollars annually, by quarterly payments, in advance, 
of 20,000 dollars each, the same to come into operation on and 
after the 1st Jane, 1891, this snm to cover absolutely and 
entirely all and every payment now or hereafter to be made by 
the Company to His Highness the Saltan on any accojint what- 
ever, save only such payments as may become due to His High- 
ness on the foander's share held by His Highness. 

Territory stiU to he administered under Flag and in the Name of 
the Sultan of Zanzibar, 

Nothing in this Agreement, excepting only in so far as 
relates to rents, revenues, and length of lease, is to be considered 
as running counter to the general provisions and principles of 
the Concession of the 9th October, 1888 (No. 26), under 
which the territory belonging to His Highness will continue to 
be administered under His Highness* flag and in His Highness* 
name. 

Drawbacks and Customs Duties, 

The provisions of Article IX* regarding drawbacks to remain 
in full force, and His Highness the Sultan shall only be called 
upon to refund to the Company the actual Customs duties which 
he has collected on their behalf for goods passing through and 
between His Highness' Custom House and the Company's 
ports. 

• Concession of 9th October, 1888, p. 125. 
151 



Digitized by 



Google 



5 March, 1891.] BRIT. EAST AFRICA CO. k ZANZIBAR. [No. 31 

[Beuadlr Forts ; Brava, Meurka, Maffadisho, Wanheikh, 
and lEmtL] 

His Higliness is not to he responsible for more than he has 
received as Castoma duties levied in accordance with the terms 
of the Customs Tariff on behalf of the Company. 

Company not to put forward or to press^ during lifetime of present 
Sultan, any claim to commute Annual Payment for a Lump 
Sum^ 

In consideration of the afore-mentioned modification of the 
Concession referred to, the Company bind themselves, during 
the lifetime of the present Saltan, His Highness Seyyid Ali- 
bin-Sai'd, not to put forward or to press any claim to commute 
their annnal payment for a lump sum paid down, save on the 
request or initiative of His Highness the Sultan, or with the 
consent and approval of Her Majesty's Government. 

ALI BIN-SAID. 

Wititess to His Highness the Sultan's signature : 
C. B. Euan-Smith, Golonel, 

Her Majesty^ 8 Agent and Consul-Oeneral. 

Zanzibar, 5th March, 1891. 

GEORGE S. MACKENZIE, Director, 

Imperial British East Africa Company, 

Witness to Mr. George S. Mackenzie's signature : 
Ernest J. L. Berkeley, 

Her Majesty's Vice-GonsuL 

5th March, 1891. 



152 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 32] BR. EAST AFRICA CO. & BRIT. GOVT. [5 March, 1891. 

[Witn.] 



No. 32. — AGREEMENT between the British Government 
and the British East Africa Company, respecting the Ad- 
ministration ly the Company of the Territory of Wiiu. 
Zanzibar, 5th March, 1891.* 

Preamble. . 
# It is hereby mntaally agreed between Colonel Sir Charles 
B. Euan-Smith, K.C.B., C.S.I., Her Majesty's Agent and 
Consul-General at Zanzibar, acting on behalf of Her Majesty's 
Government, on the one part ; and between Mr. George Suther- 
land Mackenzie, Acting Administrator-in-Chief of the Imperial 
British East Afi-ica Company, on the other part ; both having 
been duly empowered to make and sign this Agreement, that 
the Imperial British East Africa Company shall take over and 
assume the charge and administration of the State and terri- 
tory of Witu, under the following conditions : — 

Administration of Witu by the Company, 
Art. I. The Imperial British East Africa Company, with 
the consent of Her Majesty's Government, -will assume direct 
charge of the administration of the territory of Witu under the 
terms of their Charterf [3rd September, 1888. No. 25] from 
the earliest possible date, not later than the 8 1st March, 1891. 

Responsibility of the Company for proper Government of the 
Province, 

The sole responsibility regarding the administration and 
future proper government of the province will rest with the 
Imperial British East Africa Company. 

Taxes and Customs Duties. 
The Imperial British East Africa Company shall have 
power to raise revenue by the imposition of taxes and Cus- 

* This Agreement was terminated, 31et August, 1898, when the flag of 
the British Protectorate (the red Arab flag with a small Union Jack in the 
centre) was hoisted in Witu. See P.P. " Africa No. 9 (1893)." 

t Sec Agreement, 18th Marcli, 1891, p. 157 ; and Notice, 20th Marcli, 
1891, p. 160. 

153 



Digitized by 



Google 



5 March, 1801.] BB. EAST AFRICA CO. k BRIT. 6K>yT. [Ko. 32 

toms da ties, such revenne to be for the Imperial British 
East Africa Company's sole use and disposal, but the said 
taxes and Customs duties to be subject, if necessary, to re- 
visal by Her Majesty's Ooyemment. 

Judicial AdministrtUion. 
The judicial administration of the territory shall be in 
accordance with the procedure and provisions of the Indian 
Civil and Criminal Codes. 

AdministrcUton of Territory under European Control. 
Art. II. The Imperial British East Africa Company bind 
themselves to institute an efficient administration in the terri- 
tory of Wita nnder European control with the least possible 
delay,* and to maintain the same. 

Agreement between Sir (7. Euan-Smith and the Witu Leaders. 
Art. III. The Imperial British East Africa Company bind 
themselves loyally to fulfil each and all of the conditions of 
pacification recently concluded by Sir Charles B. Eaan-Smith 
with the Witu leaders, of which a copy is attached.t 

Entrance of Europeans into Witu, 

Abt. IV. The prohibition regarding the entry of Europeans 

into Witu territory to be withdrawn simultaneously with the 

assumption of administration by the Imperial British East 

Africa Company, who will exercise sole control in this respect. 

Martial Law to he abolished. 
Art. V. Martial law, which was proclaimed and is now in 
force throughout Witu territory, to be abolished at the same 
time. J 

Relations between Zanzibar and Witu, 

Art. VI. § Her Majesty's Government reserve to themselves 

* See Agreement, 18th March, 1801, p. 157. 

t See p. 156. 

t Proclamation withdrawn by Official Notice, 14th March, 1801. 

$ See proyiso, p. 155* 

154 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ko. 32] BR. BAST AFRICA CO. A BRIT. GOVT. [5 MftTOh, 1891. 

rWitu.] 

the right of deciding at any future time as to what extent, 
if any, the Soltan of Zanzibar ihall be connected with Witu 
and the adjoining territory.* 

Ultimate Sovereignty over Witu, 

The question of the ultimate sovereignty over Witn is also 
reserved for their decision. 

Flag. 

Art. VIT. The Imperial British East Africa Company's 
flag may be flown throughout Witu territory as soon as they 
are in a position to protect the same. 

C. B. EUAN-SMITH, Colonel, Her Majesty's 

Agent and Consul- Oeneral. 
GEORGE S. MACKENZIE, Administrator- 

in- Chief, Imperial British East Africa Com^ 

pany. 

Zanzibar, 5tli March, 1891. 

(Subject to proviso attached, relating to Article VI, and 
Memorandum attached to the Terms of Peace.) 

G. S. M. 



Proviso relating to Art. VL 



Relations between Zanzibar and Witu, 

Should Her Majesty's Government at any time exercise 
the powers reserved to them under Article VI to the dotri- 
ment of the Company, the latter are to be recouped for all 
outlay connected with their administration. 

G. S. M. 



• See Notice of 20th March, 1891, p. 160. 
155 



Digitized by 



Google 



6 ?i/[arch, 1891.] BR. EAST AFRICA CO. & BRIT. GOVT. [No. 32 

[Witii.3 

Terms of Feace signed^ 2htli January , 1891. 
Submission of Witu People to British Qovernment. 
[Referred to in Art. Ill of the prereding Agreement.] 
Be it known that the people of Wita have sued for peace 
and pardon from the great English Government for all the 
evil that they have done. And the people of Witu promise 
to obey any future orders whatever that the great English 
Government may issue with regard to the territory and State 
of Witu ; and they will not oppose any measures whatever that 
the great English Government may consider it advisable to 
adopt in this matter. And it fs understood that honourable 
treatment and subsistence will be accorded to Fumo Amari 
and his relatives. And when this paper has been signed by 
Famo Amari and the people, all war and fighting shall cease ; 
and the people of Witu have permission to go where they 
please and attend to their business. And every person in Witu 
who stole or seized the property of Europeans shall return it 
forthwith. But certain people who have done very bad things, 
and whose names are given to the Envoys, will not be pardoned, 
and are not included in this general pardon. 



Subsistence Allowance to Fumo Omari. 
It is agreed that the amount of subsistence allowance to be 
recorded to Fumo Amari shall be fixed by the Imperial British 
East Africa Company, and shall not exceed a maximum pay- 
ment of 4,200 rupees annually, such payment to be made con- 
ditional on his good behaviour and for nominal services to be 
rendered by him to the Company. The subsistence allowance 
to be limited to the life of Fumo Amari himself. 

G. S. M. 



[Hostilities ensued between the British Government and 
Fumo Omari on the 31st July, 1893, when Pumwani, his 
stronghold, was stormed by the British Naval Bngade, and he 
retreated into the forest. On the 13th August, 1893, Jongrni 
was also destroyed. See P.P. "Africa, No. 9 (1893)," and 
*• Africa, No. 1 (1894)."] 

15C 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 33] BRITISH EAST AFRICA CO. & WITU. [18 Mar., 1891. 

[Wltu.] 

No. 2>2.— AGREEMENT between Imperitxl British East 
Africa Company and Wiiu. 18th March, 1891.* 

Agreement entered into between Mr. Ernest J. L. BerJceley^ Her 
Britannic Majesty^ s Vice- Consul at Zanzibar ; Mr. George 8, 
Machenzie, Director , Imperial British East Africa Company ; 
and the undersigned Representatives of the People of WitUy at 
Jongenif in the TerrUory of Witu, on the 18th March^ 1891. 

(Swabili translation.) 

Art. I. Sheikh Fumo Amari, Bwana Avatulla, and the 
Notables of Witu, having duly received and read the letter 
addressed to them by Sir Charles Euan- Smith, Her Majesty's 
Agent and Consul -General at Zanzibar, dated the 4th March, 
1891, and having discussed all the matters therein referred to 
with Mr. Berkeley and Mr. Mackenzie aforesaid, do hereby, on 
behalf of themselves and the people of Witu, fully, freely, and 
loyally accept and recognize that the territory of Witu is bene e- 
forth under the control and administration of the Imperial 
British East Africa Company, and they further pledge them- 
selves faithfully and loyally to serve, and support, and obey 
the said Company's administration. 

Flag. 

Art. II. The flag of the Imperial British East Africa 
Company, and no other, shall be recognized throughout the 
territory of Witu. 

Observance of Conditions of Peace with Witu People, 

Art. III. The Imperial British East Africa Company 
pledge themselves faithfully to observe each and all of the con- 
ditions of the peace concluded between the people of Witu and 
Sir Charles Euan-Smith, Her Majesty's Agent and Consul- 
General, on the 23rd and 24th January, 1891, 

Proclamation of Martial Law withdrawn. 
Art. ly. The martial lawwhich, on the 21st October, 1890 
• See P.P., "Africa, No. 1 (1894)." 

1.57 M 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



18 Mar., 1891.] BRITISH EAST AFRICA CO. & WITH. [No. 33 

[Witu.] 

was proclaimed tbroughoat the teiTitory of Witu by Admiral 
Fremantle, is withdrawn in accordance with the official notice 
to that effect signed on the 14ih March, 1891, by Captain 
HilI,R.N., Senior Naval Officer on the East Coast of Africa. 

Administration of Witu handed over fo British East Africa 
Company, 

Art, V. Vice- Consul Berkeley, on behalf of Her Majesty's 
Government, hereby declares the Province of Witu to be 
duly and formally handed over to the Administration of the 
Imperial British East Africa Company aforesaid, under the 
terms of the Agreement entered into on the 5th March, 1891 
(No. 31), between Sir Charles Eaan-Smith, Her Majesty's 
Agent and Consul- General at Zanzibar, and Mr. G. S. Mac- 
kenzie, Director, Imperial British East Africa Company.* 

Suppression of the Slave Trade avd Slavery, 

Art. VI. The Notables and people of Witu, being aware of 
and desirous to support the efforts that have continuously been 
made by Her Majesty's Government and by the British 
Company to suppress the Slave Trade and slavery in East 
Africa, do hereby freely and solemnly pledge themselves hence- 
forth to have no dealings of any kind or description with the 
Slave Trade, and to nse their best endeavours to suppress and 
obstruct it. They further engage and declare that from this 
day forth all the inhabitants of Witu are free, and that, in the 
Province of Witn, the status of slavery is abolished, and shall 
no longer be recognized, but all the aforesaid inhabitants of 
Witu are now British- protected persons, and shall enjoy all the 
rights and privileges appertaining to such persons. And the 
Imperial British East Africa Company will use their best 
endeavours to ensure that while this provision regarding the 
freedom of all Witu subjects is put into full and legitimate 
execution, it shall not in any way injuriously affect the lawful 

• This Agreement was terminated 3l8t July, 1893, when the flag of 
t^ e British Protectorate was lioisted in Witu. See P.P. "Africa, No. 9 
(1693)." 

158 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 33]- BRITISH EAST AFRICA CO. A WITU. [18 Mar., 1801. 

[Witu.] 

rights of the subjects of His Highness the Sultan of Zanzibar 
resident in Lama and the territories adjoining the Province of 
Witu. 

Emancipation of Slaved, 

But regarding the general emancipation of slaves above 
referred to, it is agreed, "with a view to prevent an immediate 
and heavy loss to the owners of plantations, sham has, SrrC., at 
present worked solely by slave labour, to defer the actual pro- 
cess of liberating bond fide slaves thus employed for a period of 
five years : the slaves, nevertheless, retaining the usual right to 
purchase their freedom by mutaal consent at any time. Tlie 
total abolition of slavery throughout the Province of Witu is 
fixed to take place finally and absolutely on the 24th May, 
1896. 

Importation of Coolie Labour into Witu. 

Art. VII. In consideration of the provisions of Article VI, 
the Imperial British East Africa Company pledge themselves to 
use their best endeavours, should it be requisite, to obtain and 
encourage the importation into Witu territory of codie labour 
for agricultural and other legitimate purposes. 

Done in triplicate, in English and Swahili, at Jongeni, on 
the ISlh day of March, 1891. 

ERNEST J. L. BERKELEY, Eer Britannic 

Majesty *« Vice- Consu L 
GEORGE S. MACKENZIE, Director, Im^ 
ptrial British East Africa Company. 
Witness to the Signatures : 

F. J. JACKSON. 
What if written abore is true : 

FUMO AMARI-BIN'SULTAN ACHMED (wi(h 
his own hand). 
What if written above is true : 

AVATULLA-BIN-HERO SOMALI (with liij 
own hand). 
Witness to above signatures : 

SAID-BIN^HAMADI HIADI (with his own hand). 



159 



Digitized by 



Google 



2a March, 1891.] BRITISH EAST AFEICA CO. [No. 34 

[Witu. Kipinl to KlsmAyn.] 



No. 34. — NOTICE of British East Afiica Company, respect^ 
itig the Administration of Witu, and the Coast from 
Kipini to Kismayu. Lamu, 20th March, 189L 

Adminisiration by Company of Witu and Coast from Kipini 
to Kismayu, 

NoTiCB is hereby given, that under Arrangement dated 
[5th] March, 1891 (No. 32), entered into between Sir Charles 
Euan-Smith, Her Britannic Ma]e8tj*8 Agent and Consul- 
General at Zanzibar, acting on behalf of Her Britannic Majesty^s 
Government, and Mr. George S. Mackenzie, Director of the 
Imperial British East Africa Company, the said Compauy 
and their oflBcers have, from the date hereof, assumed the 
government and control of the territory hitherto known as the 
Sultanate of Witu, as also the continuous coast-line from Kipini 
to Kismayu,* over vzhich a British Protectorate was declared, as 
published in the ^'London Gazette*' of Tuesday, the 25th 
November, IBQO.f 

Api'lication to Witu of all Regulations in force in Company^ s 
Territories. 

All the Regulations which are now in force in the Imperial 
British East Africa Company's other towns and territories 
(lying within the British sphere of influence) shall be re- 
cognized and made equally applicable to all people resident 
within the above-mentioned territory now acquired by the said 
Company. 

Disputes of Europeans and Foreigners with Natives. Olaivis, 

To prevent disputes arising between Europeans and foreig- 
ners, of any nationality, and the natives, such as led to the 
late lamentable destruction of life and property, all parties are 
requested to lodge particulars of outstanding claims, with proofs 

• See Map, facing p. 327. 

t See Notification of lUth NoT<jmber, 1890, p. 327. (Great Britain, 
Africa, East Coast.) 

160 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 34] BRITISH EAST AFRICA CO. [20 March, 1891. 

[Wltu. Kipinl to Kiflmaya.] 

in support of same, in order' tbat the same may be investigated 
on tlie earliest possible date. But claims arising ont of the 
destruction of life and property during the late troubles must 
be presented direct to the representatives at Zanzibar of the 
several Governments interested. 

The Company will take no cognizance of any claims foi 
compensation or other than ordinary mei*cantile debts which 
may have been incurred prior to the date hereof. 

Claims to Lands, Houses, or Shamhas. 
Further, all foreigners claiming lands, houses, or shambas 
are required, within ihe space of six months from the date 
hereof, to notify same to the representatives of the Imperial 
British East Africa Company's resident in Lamu, and to 
accompany such notification with full and true copies of the 
title-deeds appertaining to . same, in order that they may be 
examined and registered in the books of the Company. 

Complainfs of Europeans to he addressed to Company, 

In order to remove all feelings of animosity which may 
exist in the minds of disaffected natives against Europeans in 
consequence of the late lamentable disturbances and the sub- 
sequent British punitive expedition, all Europeans, of any 
nationality whatever, are hereby specially cautioned against 
attempting, in case.s of dispute, to take the law into their own 
hands, 'and so possibly bring about a breach of the peace. All 
complaints should be lodged at the nearest Agency of the 
Imperial British East Africa Company, whose representative 
will promptly institute a full and impartial inquiry into the case. 

Pass to he granted hy Company to Europeans and Fpreigners 
proceeding Inland. 

The said Company require that all Europeans and foreigners, 
when leaving the coast to proceed inland, should notify the 
same to the Company's principal representative in Lamu, who 
will furnish them with a pass commending them to the care 
and protection of the local Governor or Chief. Any complar/its 

161 



Digitized by 



Google 



20 March, 1891.] BBITISH EAST AFRICA CO. [Ho. 34 

[Witu. Kiplnl to Kismayn.] 

arising out of the neglect of this rule maj, at the option of the 
Company's representative, prevent complaints being recognized 
or investigated. 

Title-deeds to Land, 

Hereafter lands for which proper title-deeds have not been 
registered (other than shambas and land nnder actual cultiva- 
tion) cannot be bought, sold, or transferred by a native to a 
foreigner until the same has been duly notified to the repre- 
sentative of the Company, and the requisite sanction in writing 
be obtained from the principal European district officer. 

Sale of Shamhcts and Lands. 

There will be no hindrance wliatever to the sale of shambas 
and lands actually under caltivation ; the proprietors of them 
may deal with them as they please. 

Abolition of double Duties on Imports and Exports, 

The Company will, in the exercise of their sovereign rights 
over the entire coast-line, abolish the collection of double duties 
on produce or imports and exports of any kind passing to and 
from the port of Lamu and the mainland. 

Custom Houses* 

No one other than the Company is entitled to establish a 
custom house, or collect duties or taxes of any kind, within the 
territory or coast-line specified in this notification. 

Kidnapping, Tribute, 

Kidnapping of any people or forcing them to work gratuit- 
ously is also forbidden. No tribute of any kind in produce or 
otherwise is to be collected from any of the people resident 
within the sphere of the Company's influence. 

Catching and Selling Slaves. 

The catching and selling of slaves is also illegal, and persons 
caaght doing such will be severely punished. 

162 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 84] BRITISH EAST AFRICA CO. [20 March, 1891. 

[Witu. Klpini to Kismayu.] 

British Protection over Province of Witu, 

All the inhabitants of the Province of Witu are now under 
the rule and protection of the British Government. 

Runaway Slaves. 

And all the ranaway slaves from other parts of the coast wiI1» 
on the date of the Company assaming charge, fonnd in Witu, 
be reckoned free people. 

Domestic Slaves* 

But domestic slaves, the lawful property of subjects of His 
Highness the Sultan of Zanzibar, flying to Witu after the date, 
will not be harboured there. 

Judicial Administration of Territory, 

The judicial administration of the territory shall be in 
accordance with the procedure and provisions of the Indian 
Civil and Criminal Codes, which shall be applicable to all 
parties holding lands and properties within the teiTitory herein 
referred to. 

GEORGE S. MACKENZIE, Director, 
Imperial British East Africa Company. 

Lamu, 20th March, 1891. 



163 



Digitized by 



Google 



1887-1891.] BRITISH EAST AFRICA & NATIVE CHIEFS. [No. 35 
[Treaties with Native Chief*.] 

No. S5.~ZIST OF TREATIES cmccluded by the BHtish 
East Africa Association with Native Chiefs, 1887 — 1891.* 

(1.) List of Teeaties (Nos. 1 — 21) concluded in June, 1887, 
according to the following Form (a), and referred to in 
theii Charter : — * 

Form a. 
[Name of Chief '\ declares that he has placed all his country 
and peoples under the British East African Association. 

" The whole country is voluntarily placed under the rule 
and government of the said Association, and I will hoist the 
flag of His Highness the Sultan of Zanzibar, as has been 
agreed by deed between His Highness and the Association. 

[Signature of Chief.] 
"ERNEST BERKELEY. 

" Her Majesty's Vice-ConsuV* 
Witnesses. 

" Let it be known to all whom it may concern that [Name of 
Chief] has placed himself, country, and peoples under the pro- 
tection of the British East African Association, and that the 
Undersigned is authorized in their name to give him and them 
protection. * 

" E. K MACKENZIE, as Agent:* 



No. 


Date of Treaty. 


Names of Chiefs. 


Tribes or Districts. 


1 


June 9, 1887 


Mbaruk - bin • Baschid- 
bin-Salem-bin-H amed 


Duruma (Q-unjoie country). 


2 


.. 20, 1887 


Mearoni 
Tomwatu 








Lodali 


IWataveta. 






Mali Vishne . . 








Salook . . . , 




3 


„ 20, 1887 


Mbogoli 
Eauiba 








• Wateita. 






MTaveta 




4 


„ 20, 1887 


Nwilu Wagundu 


jWakamba. 






Dung a Wagungaa 


5 


„ 20, 1887 


Mdega Maazow 
Ketonga 


1 Ditto. 



• p.p. "Africa No. 4 (1892)." "Papers relating to the Mombasa 
Kailway Survey and Uganda." See also P.P., Africa, No. 2 (1894). 

164 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 35] BBITISa EAST AFRICA & NATIVE CHIBB'3. 
[Treaties with Native ChiefiB.] 



[1887. 



No. 


Date of Treaty. 


Names of Chiefe. 


Tribes or Districts. 


6 


June 20, 1887 


Kiruuu. . 

Gona 


' Wagiriama. 


7 


„ 20, 1887 


Mboja 








Mciiunja 


> Wadurma. 






Maiamn 




8 


„ 20, 1887 


Mbogo Mpngulu 
Mwezuiani 


1 Ditto. 


9 


„ 20, 1887 


Muyka Wangomba 


1 Ditto. 






Demndego Meyero . . 


10 


„ 20, 1887 


Bonfo-bin-Kif ui 


Ditto. 


11 


„ 20, 1887 


Kubu 


Wadigo. 


12 


„ 20, 1887 


Mzee Kilanda (Kaja 

Bema) 
Mzee Muazi (Fimboei) 








„ Kallanko (Kabai 


"Warabai. 






Mpia) 








Mzee Djmija (Kyeni- 

blue) 
Kirari 




IS 


„ 20, 1887 


Waribe. 


14 


„ 20, 1887 


Makondi-bu»Fethair . . 


Wakambi. 


15 


„ 20, 1887 


Cbiro Eiromonga 


Wachoni. 


16 


„ 20, 1887 


Koolay 


Wagibana. 


17 


„ 20, 1887 


Moti-bin-Omaro 


• Wasania. 






Abigela-bin-Heribai .. 


18 


„ 20, 1887 


Ghnra Babara 


■ 






Godana Ghara (son of 


• WagaUa. 






above Chief) 




19 


„ 20, 1887 


Myogwe 

Madgowa 

Momchera • 

Mombazi 

'Mwenzama . 

Magalonja 

Makijumbe 

Majego 

Majunda 

Marmzi 

Wazaba 

Dani . . 

Magundu 




[-Washimba Wadigo. 


20 


„ 20, 1887 


Shanga 
Kuse .. 
Ndowongere . 
Msanii . . 




> Eauma. 


21 


„ 20, 1887 


Calgallo-bin- Abarof at 
Ohda-bin-Odalala .. 


1 WagaUa. 
J 







16^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



1889-1891.] BRITISH EAST AFRICA & NATIVE CHIEFS. [Ho. 35 
[Treaties with Native Chiefs.] 

(2.) List of Treaties (Nos. 22 — 62) concluded by the British 
East Africa Company with Native Chiefs, between March, 
1888, and May, 1890 (after the Charter), according to the 
following Form (&), which were submitted to the British 
Goyemment for appi-oval, 5th March, 1891, and were 
approved, 30th June, 1891 : — 

Form (6). 

l^Name of Chief ] hereby declares that he has placed him- 
self and all his territories, countries, peoples, and subjects 
under the protection, rule, and government of the Imperial 
British East Africa Company, and has ceded to the said Com- 
pany all its sovereign rights and rights of government 
over all his territories, countries, peoples, and subjects, in con- 
sideration of the said Company granting the protection of the 
said Company to him, his territories, countries, peoples, and 
subjects, and extending to them the benefit of the rule and 
government of the said Company. And he undertakes to hoist 
and recognize the flag of the said Company. 

As witness his hand, at this day of , 

18 . 

[Signature or Mark of Chief.] 

Witnesses 



No. 


Date of Treaty. 


Names of Chiefs. 


Tribes op Districts. 


22 


Mar. 18,1889 


Kyoi 


Wapokomo (Masa). 


23 


„ 20, 1889 


Mbaraka 


„ (N tuna), north 
bank of Tana. 


24 


„ 21, 1889 


Bagilla 


Wapokomo (Kidorior Kula), 
Tana. 


25 


„ 23, 1889 


Golgalo 


Wasania (Manyole). 


26 


„ 24, 1889 


Delo 


„ (Kikate). 


27 


„ 27, 1889 


Koricha 


] 






Bolotho 


laarisa. 


. 




(Joint Chiefs of Kur- 






umse in Garisa.) 


J 


28 


April 1,1889 


Molongu Boro 


Wapokomo (Korokopo). 
(Waraopa in Oto Bacirova). 


29 


„ 1, 1899 


Sethe 


Wagalas (Korokoro). 


291 


„ 1, 1889 


>» • • • • • • 


Deed of sale, land (Koro- 
koro). 


80 


„ 17, 1899 


Eribjindima .. 


L'aza, on Tana. 


81 


Julj 18,1889 


Ayatula-bin*Khairo .. 


Waboni, 



16t> 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 35] BRITISH EAST AFRICA & NATIVE CHIEFS. [1887-1891. 
[Treaties with Native Chiefii.] 



No. 


Date of Treaty. 


Names of Chiefs. 


Tribes or DistricU. 


82 


July 17,1889 


Nife 


Wapokomo (Nderani). 


83 


„ 18, 1889 


Makorani 


„ (Guano). 


84 


„ 19, 1889 


Qulo 


„ (Kinekomba). 


35 


1, 20, 1889 


Otha .. 


(Ndura). 
(Malalulu). 


36 


„ 22, 1889 


Otha Wa Bobu 


37 


„ 30, J 889 


Dada Komono 


(Mwina). 


38 


„ 21, 1889 


Aba Shora 


Wasania (Karacha). 


r9 


„ 21| 1889 


Kay u way u of Subaki. . 


Wapokomo (Subaki). 


10 


Aug. 17, 1389 


Daadi Aba Daada .. 


King of the GaUas (Gol- 
banti). 


41 


„ 25,1889 


Gura Wagadana 


Chief of town and district 
of Kinakorabe, on south 
bank of River Tana. 


42 


Sept. 25, 1889 


Kasa Mudoni • • 


Chief of town and district 
of Konne, on south bank 
of River Tana. 


43 


• • 


AliNabar .. 


Murjerten. 


44 


• • 


Goolhed Mahomed . . 


Kismayn. 


46 


Inthemontliof 
Jumad Akhr 
28, 1307 


Sherwa Ismael 


Murjerten (Kismayn). 


46 


• • 


Ismail Othman - bin - 
Sowakbron 


Kismayu. 


47 


• • 


Othman Kilidudoil . . 


Ditto. 


48 


Mar. 29,1889 


MzeSaef 


Chief of Wabagoni. 


49 


May 13,1890 


Omer Mahomed 


1 Murjerten Somalis (Kit- 
J mayu). 






Ismail Mahomed 


50 


„ 18, 1890 


SImrua-bin-Ismail . . 


I Ditto. 






Othman-bin-Jamia . . 


51 


April 21, 1890 


Sumunta Abdalla • . 








Hadji-bin-Ohamid . . 


- Warsengli Somalis. 






Ali-bin-Sliurwar 




52 


May 9, 1890 


UbdiArrala .. 


A 






Abdulla Jama. . 
Hu88on-bin-Adoni . . 


>Doolbahanti Somalis. 






Omer Ubdi . . 




53 


April 22, 1890 


Aharaed-bin- Mahomed 


1 *' 






Abdulla Isa .. 


» Orguden Somalia. 






Abdur-ah-mon-Ubseye 




54 


May 15,1890 


Mahomed rbin- Maho- 
med 


•^ 






Hadji All .. .. 


j^ Juba River. 






Husson-bin-Ahamid «. 








Ali Brala • • • • 




55 


April 25, 1890 


Umbari • • 


Musugooro. 


56 


May , 1888 


Mazamboni . . • . 








Katto 


. Undussuma. 






Ralenge 




57 


. 1888 


Uchunku, for Antari . . 
Mpororo 


- Wanyankori and Mpororo. 


58 


. 1888 


Mbiassi, of Kavalli . . 


-< 






Mwite 

lialai 


[Between Iturik Birer and 






Ruguju 


^ Nyania. 






Musiri 


J 



167 



Digitized by 



Google 



1887-:891] BRITISH EAST AFRICA & NATIVE CHIEFS. [No. 85 
[Treaties with Native Chiefli.] 



No. 


Date of Treaty. 


Names of Chiefs. 


Tribes or Distrioti. 


69* 

60 

61 


May , 1888 

, 1888 
, 1888 
• 1888 


Komubi 

Katonza 

Mpigwa • • • • 

Mpinga . « 

Bulemo Enigi.. 

Bevwa 

Ulegga . • • • • . 

Bevwa . • 

E:akuri 


[Between Iturik River and 
1 Nyanza. 

Unyampaka and Kitag- 
wenda. 

j Ukonju and Semliki Valley, 
l- Basongora. 


62 


Concession, 
March 4, 1890 


Lamu 

Manda 

Patta 

Kismayu, &o 


>-From Sultan of Zanzibar. 



(3.) List of Treaties (Nos. 63 — 73) concluded by the British 
East Africa Company with Native Chiefs between August, 
1889, and July, 1890, according to the above Form (6) 
(p. 166), which were submitted to the British Government 
for approval, 28th May, 1891, and were approved, 30th 
June, 1891 :— * 

No. 63. With M'Boli, of Iwati, Ukambani . . August 4, 1889. 

„ 64. „ Kamiri, of Kikyuyu „ 11, „ 

„ 65. „ Menya Eisfaaria, of Lumbwa • . . October 13, „ 

„ 66. „ Kitoto Jama, of Lower Kavirondo „ 23, „ 

„ 67. „ Kisero Punda Mero, of Kisumo . • Auguiit 28, „ 

„ 68. „ Kimaiigichi, Elgon February 2, 1890. 

„ 69. „ Sakwa, of Eisongo March 6, „ 

„ 70. „ Wakoli, of Akola , 25, „ 

,, 71. „ Majanja, of Eitosh . . • . • . June 21, „ 

„ 72. „ Mumiya, of Upper Kavirondo . • „ 28, „ 

„ 78. „ Losora Lonon, Njemps • • • • July 14, „ 



The following Treaties were approved on the 29th April, 
1892 :— 

No. 74. Agreement -with the Representatives of 

the People of Witu (No. 33). . . . March 18, 1891. 

• See P.P., " Africa, No. 4 (1892)," pp. 14 and 19. 
168 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 35] BRITISH EAST AFRICA & NATIVE CHIEFS. [1887-1891. 
[Treaties with Native Ohiefs.] 

No. 75. Treaty with King (Mwasga) and Chiefs 

of Ugaada (per Captain Lugard, p. 16) December 26, 1890. 
„ 76. Treaty with Mbekirwas, of Busoga • . „ . 10, „ 

or > Declaration with Ooguden Somalia .. August 13,1891. 
., 78 J 



List op Treaties (Nob. 79—84) concluded by the British East 
Africa Company with Native Chiefs in September and Octo- 
ber, 1891, according to the above Form (6) (p. 166), which 
were submitted to the British Government for approval 
11th Januaiy, 1892, and were approved, 23rd January, 
1892.t 

No. 79. With Watoro (El Qosha) Tribes of Riyer 







♦Tuba (Mirgow, &c.) 


.. September 10, 1891. 


80. 


i> 


Ditto (Macowah) .. 


• • >» 


19, „ 


81. 


>» 


Ditto (Mgindo, &c.) 


• • It 


1». „ 


82. 


>» 


Ditto (Moosagoor) 


• • > 


18. ,. 


88. 


» 


Ooguden Somalia (between 


Tana 








and Juba Riyers) 


.. October 


13, „ 


84. 


y» 


Reer Hursi Tribe of Somalia 








(River Juba) .. 


• • >i 


IB. „ 



• No. 77 was a Treaty with Kimangelia, of 19th May, 1891, but it wag 
not submitted for approval, as it dealt with territory now in the German 
Kilimanjaro sphere of influence. 

t In approving these six Treaties, the Company were informed that the 
Agreement annexed to Treaty No. 79, sent by them, did not accompany 
that sent home by Mr. (afterwards Sir Gerald) Portal, and, being outride the 
Treaty, was not included in the approval. They were also informed that 
Noa. 83 and 84 had been received through Her Majesty's Agent and Consul* 
General at Zanzibar. 



IG9 



Digitized by 



Google 



1887-189L] BEITISH K^IST AFRICA. [No. 38 

[Boundaries. British Sphere of Influeuce.] 



No, 36. — NOTES on the Boundaries of the British Sphere of 
InfliLence on the East Coast of Africa, 1887 — 1891. 

The following reference to the boundaries of the British 
sphere of influence on the East Coast of Africa was made 
in a Despatch addressed by the Marqnis of Salisbury to Mr. 
(afterwards Sir Gerald) Portal, Her Majesty's Commissioner 
and Consul. General, on the 22nd March, 1892, which was laid 
before Parliament with the " Papers relating to the Mombasa 
Railway Survey and Uganda " (Africa No. 4 (1892)). 

" The boundaries of the British sphere north of the German 
sphere on the East Coast of Africa are defined in the Ist Article 
of the Anglo- German Agreement of the 1st July, 1890 
(No. 129), and in the Anglo-Italian Agreement of the 
24th March, 1891 (No. 135). 

" There are tbree distinct divisions of the territory comprised 
in the British sphere of influence on the East Coast of Africa. 

'* 1. The dominions of the Sultan of Zanzibar leased to the 
British East Africa Company, extending from "Wanga to 
Kipini, with an inland frontier 10 miles from the coast, and 
including the islands of Lamu, Patta, and Manda. (See Con- 
cessions, 24th May, 1887 (No. 24) ; 9th October, 1888 
(No. 26) ; 4th March, 1890 (No. 30) ; and 6th March, 
1891 (No. 31). 

**2. The territory administered by the Company under its 
Charter (3rd September, 1888 (No. 25)). 

" 8. The territory not at present administered by the Com- 
pany." 

Terrify leased hy the Sultan of Zanzibar to the British East 
Africa Company. 

" 1. The limits of this territory are thus described in the note 
written by Acting Consul- General Holmwood to he Sultan on 
the 3rd December, 1886 (No: 153). The note refers, in addi- 
tion, to ports north of the Juba. 

170 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 36J BRITISH EAST AFRICA. [1887-1891. 

[Boundaries. Britlali Sphere of Influence.] 

Territory administered by the Company under its Charter, 

" 2. The second includes territory held by the Company 
nnder Grants, Concessions, Agreements, or IVeaties, in accord- 
ance with clause 1 of the Charter, subject to the provisions 
of clause 3, which stipulates that no power shall be exer- 
cised under such Grants, Concessions, Agreements, or Treaties 
until copies shall have been furnished to the Secretary of State, 
and he shall have signified his approval, absolutely or condition- 
ally. The claims of the Company are recorded in letters and 
Treaties, all of which have received the formal approval of the 
Secretary of State. Under the 2nd clause of the Charter, the 
Company is authorized and empowered to extend its territory 
from time to time, but such extension is subject to the approval 
of the Secretary of State and to the condition^ of rthe 3rd clause. 

Territory not at present administered by the Govfpany. 

" 3. The third division comprises all territory not included in 
tho other two divisions. This is liable to diminution in propor- 
tion to the extension of the Company's administration. 

The Instructions ^ Mr. (afterwards Sir Gerald) Portal ^h en 
said : — 

^* The administration of justice, as regards Europeans and 
others, not natives of the country, will be exercised under the 
Order in Council of 15th October, 1889.* 



'* The Order in Council does not apply to the Sultan's 
dominions, in which the administration of justice is governed 
by His Highness' Treaties. 

" It will not be your duty, in the portion of your district 
outside of the dominions of the Sultan of Zanzibar, to under- 
take judicial administration as regards natives. This should, 
• H. T., vol. xviii, p. 1. 

171 N 



Digitized by 



Google 



1887-1891.] BRITISH EAST AFRICA. [No. 36 

[Boandaries. British Sphere of Inilaence.] 

for the present, remain in the hands of the Chiefs ; but jou 
should check abases, and let the Chiefs understand that, under 
British influence, injustice will not be tolerated. In special 
cases, where no other remedy may appear adequate, you will be 
justitied in obtaining the delegation to you of the Chiefs' 
powers, in order that you may undertake the direct administra- 
tion of justice. Such cases should always be reported by you." 
[For the changes which have taken place since this despatch 
was written, see Geeat Britain, Africa (Bast Coast); Great 
Britain and Congo State; Great Britain and Germany; and 
Zanzibar and Italy.] 

Uganda. 

On the 20th August, 1891, the British East Africa Company 
annoanced its determination to withdraw from Uganda, which 
was definitely confirmed on the I7th May, 1892. 

On the 3rd M£M*ch, 1892, a Treaty was concluded by Cap- 
tain Lugard, on behalf of the British East Africa Company, 
• with Mwanga, King of Uganda, by which the Company agreed 
(among other things) to afford protection to the Kingdom of 
Uganda, and the King (among other things) acknowledged the 
suzerainty of the Company ;* but this Treaty was not ratified. 

On the 29th May, 1893, Mwanga, Sang of Uganda, entered 
into a Provisional Agreement with Sir Grerald Portal, Her 
Britannic Majesty's Commissioner, in which it was recorded 
that the British East Africa Company had definitely withdrawn 
from Uganda, and that, pending the decision of Her Majesty's 
Government on the whole question of Uganda, Mwanga had 
bound himself to certain specified conditions, and entered into 
certain engagements, with the object of securing British pro- 
tection, assistance, and guidance ; one of which engagements 
was that he would make no Treaties or Agreements of any 
kind with any European, of whatever nationality, without the 
consent and approval of Her Majesty's Representativcf This 
Treaty was ratified, and a British Protectorate proclaimed over 
Uganda, 18th June, 1894 (See Apfenwx). 

• See Pari. Paper., "Africa," No. 1, p. 26 (1893). 
t Pari. Paper, " Africa," No. 2, p. 18 (1894). 

172 



Digitized by 



Google 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA 
COMPANY. 



N 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



BEITISH SOUTH AFEICA COMPANY. 



LIST OP TREATIES, &c. 



No. 

37 29 Oct., 1889. Boyal Charter. 

— gAng! J 890. Conyention . . • . 



— 4 Oct., 1890. Treaty. 



— 2 April, 1891. Agreement • • . . 



— 14 May, 1891. Notification , 
38 1890,1891. Notes , 



11 June, 1891. Agreement . 



39 1889—1891. Treaties. 



— 22 Feb., 1893. Notlfieation • • . 



Page 

Incorporation of British South Africa 
Company 174 

G-reat Britain and South African Be- 
publ ic. Non-extension of Bepublic 
into Territories of British South 
Africa Company 183 

British South Africa Company and 
G-ungunhana, King of GazaUmd 
(East and South East of Mashona- 
land) 184 

British G-OTemment and British South 
Africa Company. Consent to Ex- 
tension of Field of Company's 
Operations to the North of the 
Zambesi, exclusiye of Nyvsaland. 
Administration of Territory by 
Mr. H. H. Johnston 185 

British Protectorate. Nyasaland 
District. (See Nyasahind.) 

On the British South Africa Company, 

Nyasaland, &c 183 

(See also Nyasaland, p. 811.) 

Great Britain and Portugal. Spheres 
of Influence. East and Central 
Africa. (See Great Britain and 
Portugal.) 

Abstract of Treaties concluded with 
Native Chiefs of the Shire High- 
lands. Nyasaland , . . 187 

Nyasaland District to be hereafter 
known as the " British Central 
Africa Protectorate." (See Nyasa- 
land.) 



173 



Digitized by 



Google 



29 Oct., 1889.] BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA CO. [No. 37 

[Charter.] 

No. 21.— ROYAL CHARTER of Incorporation grarUed 
to the British South Africa Company, 29th October, 
1889.* 

Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland Qneen, Defender of the Faith. 

To all to whom these presents shall come. Greeting. 

Preainhle. 
Petition : — ■ 

Field of Operations of Company in " Region of South Africa 
tying to the North of Bechudnaland and to the West of Portuguese 
East Afrita^ 

Concessions and Agreements made hy Native Chiefs and 
Tribes inhabiting the said Region, and such other Concessions, ^c, 
as the Petitioners may hereafter obtain within the said Region or 
elsewliere in Africa.f 

Improvemefit of Condition of Natives, SlavB Trade, 

Advantages of a Royal Charter: 

Subscriptions towards Enterprise. 

Grant of Boyal Charter of Incorpordtion. 

Now, therefore, We having taken the said Petition into Onr 
Boyal consideration in Our Council, and being satisfied that the 
intentions of the Petitioners are praiseworthy and deserve en- 
couragementj and that the Enterprise in the Petition described 
ma^ be productive of the beiietits set forth therein, by Our 

• " London Gazette," 20th December, 1880. H. T., Tol, xTiii, p. 133. 

+ On the 11th Februarj, 1888, an Agreement was entered into by 
Lobengula, Ruler of the tribe known as the Amandebele, together with the 
Maahona and Makakalaka, tributaries of the same, by which he agreed, on 
belialf of hiiAself and people, that he would refrain from entering into any 
correspondence op Treaty with any foreign State or Power to sell, alienate, 
or cede, or permit or countenance anj sale, alienation, or cession of the 
whole or anj part of the said Amandebele country under his chieftainship, 
or upon any other subject, without the previous knowledge and sanction of 
Her Majesty's High Commissioner for South Africa (S.P., toI. Ixzix, p. 868) ; 
and on the 30th October, 1888, a Concession was granted by Lobenfnilft> 
King of Matabeleland, to the representatives of the British South Africa 
Company. 

174 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 37] BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA CO. [29 O.t., 1889. 

[Charter.] 

Prerogative Royal and of Our especial grace, certain knowledge 
and mere motion, have constituted, erected, and incorporated, 
and by this Our Charter for ITs and Our Ueirs and Royal suc- 
cessors do constitute, erect, and incorporate into one body, 
politic and corporate, by the name of The British South 
Africa Company the said — 

[Here follow the names*] 

and sach other persons and such bodies as from time to time 
become and are members of the body, politic and corporate, by 
these presents constituted, erected^ and incorporated, with per- 
petual succession and a common seal, with power to break, 
alter) or renew the same at discretion, and with the further 
authorities, powers, and privileges conferred, and subject to the 
conditions imposed by this Our Charter t And We do hereby 
accordingly will^ ordain^ give, grant, constitute, appoint, and 
declare as follows (that is to sayj : — 

Field of Operations of Company, 

I. The principal field of the operations of the British South 
Africa Company (in this Our Charter referred to as "the 
Company ") shall be the region of South Africa lying imme^ 
diately to tie north of British Bechuanaland, and to the north 
and west of the South African Republic, and to the west of the 
Portuguese Dominions.* 

Ooncessiona and Agreements made by Native Chiefs,^ 

2* The Company is hereby authorized and empowered to^ 
use, and retain for the purposes of the Company, and on the 
terms of this Oar Charter, the full benefit of the concessions 
and agreements made as aforesaid) so far as they are valid, or 
any of them, and all interests, authorities, and powers com- 
prised or referred to in the said concessions and agreements. 
Provided always that nothing herein contained shall prejudice or 
affect any other valid and subsisting concessions or agreements 

• See Ghreat Britain and Portugal, p. 681. 
t See List of Treaties, p. 187. 
175 



Digitized by 



Google 



29 Oct., 1889.] BRITISH SOUTa AFRICA CO. [No. 3T 

[Charter.] 

which may have been made by any of the chiefs or tribes 
aforesaid, 

District of Tati, Limits. 

And, in particular, nothing herein contained shall prejudice 
or affect certain concessions granted in, and subsequent to, 
the year 1880, relating to the territory usually known as 
the district of the Tati;* nor shall anything herein contained 
be construed as giving any jurisdiction, administrative or 
otherwise, within the said district of the Tati, the limits of 
which district are as follows, viz., from the p ace where the 
Shasi Biver rises to its junction with the Tati and Ramaquaban 
Rivers, thence along the Ramaquaban River to where it rises 
and thence along the watershed of those rivers. 

Acquisition of Territorial Rights, ^c, by Treaties, Ooncessio7is, 
^c, from Natives, 

3. The Company is hereby further authorized and em- 
powered, subject to the approval of one of Our Principal 
Secretaries of State (herein referred to as " Our Secretary of 
State *') from time to time, to acquire by any concession, agree- 
ment, grant, or treaty, all or any rights, interests, authorities, 
jurisdictions, and powers of any kind or nature whatever, in- 
cluding powers necessary for the purposes of government, and 
the preservation of public order in or for the protection of 
territories, lands, or property comprised or referred to in the 
concessions and agreements made as aforesaid or affecting other 
territories, lands, or property in Africa, or the inhabitants 
thereof, and to hold, use, and exercise such territories, lands, 
property, rights, interests, anthorities, jurisdictions, and powers 
respectively for the purposes of the Company, and on the terms 
of this Our Charter. 

Approval of Treaties, Concessions, Ac, hy Secretary of State.f 

4. Provided that no powers of government or administration 
shall be exercised under or in relation to any such last-men- 

* See map facing this page. This district belongs to '* The Tati Con- 
cession, Mining, and Exploration Company.'' 
t See List of Treaties, p. 187. 

176 



Digitized by 



Google 



MAP 

SHEWING THE POSITION 

OF THE 

District of Tati 

ALLUDED TO IN THE 

British South Africa Co^ Charter of 29 -Oct- 1889. 



Digitized by 



Google 



WAP SHEWING THE POSITION OFTHE DISTRICT OF TAT L 
ALLUDED TO IN THE BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA CO? CHARTER 0T29VJ OCT* 1889. 




A 
c^ 






Traotd^lram M^ Cxxmstarus Map of the. MaJbahili, MisTwrw 
AJSamanffwato CouiUrUs (Oct.1^1690.) 



N-T 



WynMi *Sor.s,'/M.kh.6^ 



■'••■■5igrtrzy'd bifQefogle 



No, 37] BBITISH SOUTH APEICA CO. [29 Oct., 1889. 

[Oliarter.] 

tioned concession, agreement, grant, or treaty, nntil a copy of 
snch concession, agreement, grant, or treaty, in such form and 
with snch maps or particulars as our Secretary of State ap- 
proves, verified as he requires, has been transmitted to him, 
and he has signified his approval thereof either absolutely or 
subject to any conditions or reservations ; 

District of Tati* 

And provided also that no rights, interests, authorities, juris- 
dictions, or powers of any description shall be acquired by the 
Company within the said district of the Tati as hereinbefore 
described, without the previous consent in writing of the owners 
for the time being of the concessions above referred to relating 
to the said ilistrict, and approval of Our Secretary of State. 

Oompany to he hound hy Treaty Stipulations, &c. 

5. The Company shall be bound by and shall fulfil all and 
singular the stipulations on its part contained in any such con- 
cession, agreement, grant, or treaty as aforesaid, subject to any 
subsequent agreement affecting those stipulations approved by 
Our Secretary of State. 

Status of Company to he British, 

6. The Company shall always be and remain British in 
character and domicile, and shall have its principal ofiice in 
Great Britain, and the Company's principal representative in 
South Africa and the Directors shall always be natural bom 
British subjects, or persors who have been naturalized as 
British subjects by or under an Act of Parliament of Our United 
Kingdom; but this Article shall not disqualify any person 
nominated a Director by this Oar Charter, or any person 
whose election as a Director shall have been approved by Our 
Secretary of State, from acting in that capacity. 

• See note, p. 170, 

177 N 3 



Digitized by 



Google 



29 Oct, 1880.] BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA 00. [Nq. 37 

[Charter.] 

SuhmisHon of Differences between Natives and Company to 
Decision of Secretary of State, 

7. In case at any time any difiFerence ariaeB between any 
chief or tribe inhabiting any of the territories aforesaid and 
the Company, that difference shall, if Our Secretary of State 
so require, be submitted by the Company to him for his de- 
cision, and the Company shall act in accordance with snch 
decision. 

Powers of Secretary of State. Dealings of Company with 
Foreign Powers, 

8. If at any time Our Secretary of State thinks fit to dissent 
from or object to any of the dealings of the Company with any 
foreign Power, and to make known to the Company any sug- 
gestion founded on that dissent or objection, the Company shall 
act in accordance with such suggestion. 

Powers of Secretary of State. Disputed Territorial Claims, 

9. If at any time Our Secretary of State thinks fit to object 
to the exercise by the Company of any authority, power, or 
right within any part of the territories aforesaid, on the ground 
of there being an adverse claim to or in respect of that part, 
the Company shall defer to that objection until such time as 
any such claim has been withdrawn or finally dealt with or 
settled by Our Secretary of State. 

10. Preservation of Peace and Good Order, 

11. Abolition of Slave Trade and Slavery, 

1 2. Traffic in Spirituous Liquors. 

13. Freedom of Religious Worship. 

1 4f, Administration of Justice, Local Laws and Customs. 

Right of Secretary of State to object to ProC'Cedings or System of 

Company. 

15. If at any time Our Secretary of State thinks fit to dis- 
sent from or object to any part of the proceedings or system of 
the Company relative to the peoples of the territories aforesaid 
or to any of the inhabitants thereof, ?n respect of slavery or 

178 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 37] BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA 00. [29 Oct, 1889. 

[Charter.] 

religion or the administration of justice, or any other matter, 
he shall make known to the Company his dissent or objection, 
and the Company shall act in accordance with his directions 
duly signified. 

16. Facilities for British Ships of War in Harbours of Com" 
pany. 

17. Annual Returns of Receipts and Expenditure to he made 
to Secretary of State, 

18. Officers of the Company, 

Flag, 

19. The Company may hoist and use on its buildings and 
elsewhere in the territories aforesaid, and on its vessels, such 
distinctiYe flag indicating the British character of the Company 
as Our Secretary of State and the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty shall from time to time approve. 

No Monopoly to he granted. Concessions for Railways, Banks, ^c, 
not deemed Monopolies, 

20. Nothing in this Our Charter shall be deemed to autho- 
rize the Company to set up or grant any monopoly of trade ; 
provided that the establishment of or the grant of concessions 
for banks, railways, tramways, docks, telegraphs, waterworks, 
or other similar uadertakiogs or the establishment of any 
system of patent or copyright approved by Our Secretary of 
State, shall not be deemed monopolies for this purposes. 

District of Tati.* 

The Company shall not, either directly or indirectly, 
hinder any Company or persons who now are, or hereafter may 
be, lawfully and peaceably carrying on any business, concern, 
or venture within the said District of the Tati hereinbefore 
described, but shall by permitting and facilitating transit by 
every lawful means to and from the District of the Tati, across 
its own territories or where it has jurisdiction in that behalf, 
and by all other reasonable and lawful means, encourage, 
• See note, j». 176. 
17y 



Digitized by 



Google 



29 Oct, 1889.J BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA CO. [No. 37 

[Ohartor.] 

assist and protect all British subjects who now are, or 
hereafter may be, lawfallj and peaceably engaged in tlie 
prosecution of a lawful enterprise within the said District of 
the Tati. 

21. Licences for killing Elephants and other €fame. Be- 
servation of Hunting Bights of Native Chiefs. 

Liability of Company. Jurisdiction. AdminiUraiion of Justice. 

22. The Company shall be subject to and shall perform and 
undertake all the obligations contained in or undertaken by Oar- 
selves under any Treaty, Agreement, or Arrangement between 
Ourselves and any other State or Power whether already made 
or hereafter to be made. In all matters relating to the ob- 
servance of this Article^ or to the exercise within the Company *s 
territories for the time being of any jurisdiction exerciseable 
by Us under the Foreign Jurisdiction Acts, the Company shall 
conform to and observe and carry out all such directions as may 
from time to time be given in that behalf by Our Secretary of 
State, and the Company shall appoint all necessary officers to 
pei*form such duties, and shall provide such Courts and other 
requisites as may from time to time be necessary for the 
administration of j usticct 

23. Share Capital of Company. 

Powers of the Company. 

24. The Company is hereby further specially authorized and 
empowered for the purposes of this Our Charter from time to 
time : — 

[Here follows a descriptive list of the powers conferred on 
the Company.] 

Deed of Settlement. 

25. Within one year after the date of this Our Charter, or 
such extended period as may be certified by Our Secretary of 
State, there shall be executed by the Members of the Company 
for the time being a Deed of Settlement, providing so far as 
necessary for :— 

[Here follows a description of the provisions to be inserted.] 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 37] BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA 00. [29 Oct., 1889. 

[Ohartar.] 

26. Deed of Settlement to he approi^ed. 

27. Deed of Settlement may he altered or repealed. 

28. Limited Liability of Members of the Company, 

29. Directors of the Company, 

30. Recognition of Charter by British Naval, Military, Consu- 
lar, and Colonial Officers. 

81. Construction of Terms of Charter most favourable to the 
Company, 

82. Validity of Charter. 

Reservation of Right of Crown to revise Charter after 25 years 
and at end of every year as regards Administrative and Public 
Masters, 

33. And We do farther ordain fl.nd declare tbat it shall be 
lawfal for Us, Onr heii^ and successors, and We do hereby ex- 
pressly reserve to Ourselves, Our heirs and successors, the right 
and power by writing under the Great Seal of the United 
Kingdom at the end of 25 years from the date of this Onr 
Charter, and at the end of every succeeding period of 10 years, 
to add to, alter, or repeal any of the provisions of this Our 
Charter, or to enact other provisions in substitution for, or in 
addition to, any of its existing provisions. Provided that the 
right and power thus reserved shall be exercised only in rela- 
tion to so much of this Our Charter as relates to administrative 
and public matters. 

Right of Crotdn io acquire Company* s Buildings and Works o7i 
Payment of Compensation. 

And We do further expressly reserve to Ourselves, Our 
heirs and sucdessoi^s, the right to take over any buildings or 
works belonging to the Company, and used exclusively or 
mainly for administrative or public purposes on payment to the 
Company of such reasonable compensation as may be agreed, or 
as, failing agreement, may be settled by the Commissioners of 
Our Treasury. And We do further appoint, direct, and declare 
that any such writing under the said Great Seal shall have full 
effect, and be binding upon the Company, its members, officers, 
and servants, and all other persons, and shall be of the same 

181 



Digitized by 



Google 



29 Oct., 1889.] BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA CO. [No. 37 

[Charter.] 

force, effect, and validihy as if its provisions had been part of 
and contained in these presents. 

Rights of Grown, Protection or Government of Territories, 

34. Provided always and We do further declare that nothing 
in this oar Charter shall be deemed or taken in anywise to limit 
or restrict the exercise of any of Onr rights or powers with 
reference to the protection of any territories or with reference 
to the government thereof should We see fit to include the same 
within Our dominions. 

Rights of Crown in event of Company not fulfilling its 
Engagements, 

35. And we do lastly will, ordain, and declare without pre- 
judice to any power to repeal this Our Charter by law belonging 
to Us Our heirs and successors, or to any of Onr Courts, Minis- 
ters or officers, independent of this present declaration and 
reservation, that in case at any time it is made to appear to Us 
in Our Council that the Company has substantially failed to 
observe and conform to the provisions of this Our Charter, or 
that the Company is not exercising its powers under the con- 
cesiiions, agreements, grants, and treaties aforesaid, so as to 
advance the interests which the Petitioners have represented 
to Us to be likely to be advanced by the grant of this Our 
Charter, it shall be lawful for Us, Our heirs and successors, 
and We do hereby expressly reserve and take to Ourselves, 
Our heirs and successors, tlie right and power by writing 
under the Great Seal of Our United Kingdom to revoke this 
Our Charter, and to revoke and annul the privileges, powers, 
and rights hereby granted to the Company. 



182 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 38] BRITISa SOUTH AFRICA CO. [1893, 1891. 

[LimitB.] 

No. 38.— Notes on the BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA 
COMPANY aiid NYASALAND. 1890, 1891. 

Limits of British Jurisdiction, 

On the 30th Jane, 1890, an Order in Council was issned, 
providing for the exercise of British jurisdiction in certain 
territories of South Africa, north of British Bechuanaland 
(see p. 336). The limits of this Order were declared to be : — 

" The parts of South Africa situate north of British Bechu- 
analand ; west of the South African Republic and of Matabele- 
land ; east of the German Protectorate ; and south of the River 
Zambesi ; and not within the jurisdiction of any civilized 
Power." * 

But this Order was repealed by another Order which wag 
issued on the 9th May, 1891,t ci^d which contained the following 
as being the limits of its operation : — 

" The limits of this Order are : the parts of South Africa 
bonnded by British Bechuanaland (see p. 336), the German 
Protectorate (see Great Britain and Germany, p. e')93), the 
Rivers Chobe and Zambesi, the Portuguese Possessions (see 
Great Britain and Portugal, Agreement, 11th June, 1891, 
p. 731), and the South African Republic (see p. 837). 

Nori'exiension of South Afrimn Bepuhlic into territories of British 
South Africa Company. 

^^ *^® 2nd Au gust. 1^890, a Convention was concluded between 
Great Britain and the South Africa Republic for the settlement 
of the affairs of Swaziland, in which it was recorded (Article 
X) that the Government of the South Africa Republic with- 
drew all claim to extend the territory of the Republic, or to 
enter into Treaties with any natives or native tribes to the 
north or north-west of the existing boundary of the Republic, 
and urdertook to aid and support, by its favouring influence, 
the establishment of order and government in those territories 
by the British South Africa Company, within limits of power 

* ir. T., vol. xviii, p. 156. 

♦ " Loirlon Gaxctte," 9th May, 1891. 

183 



Digitized by 



Google 



1800, 1891.] BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA CO. [No. 38 

[Nyaaalazid.] 

and autboritj set forth in the charter granted by Her Majesty 
to the said Company.* 

Concession to Company from Gungunkana^ King of Gazaland. 
On the 4th October, 1890, a concession was granted by 
Gangunhana (or Ungagunyan), King of Gazaland, whose ter- 
ritories are situated to the east and soath-east of Mashonaland, 
to Dr. A. Schalz, as represeatative of the British Sonth Africa 
Company. In this concession Gungnnhana boand himself, his 
SDCcessors, and nation not to enter into any Treaty of Alliance 
with any Chief, person. Company, or State, or to grafit any 
concession of land without the consent of the Company in 
writing, it being understood that this covenant should be con- 
sidered in the light of a Treaty of Alliance made between the 
said nation and the Government of Her Britannic Majesty 
Queen Victoria, the Company, on its part, undertaking and 
agreeing to protect the said King and nation from all outside 
interference or attacks, to support and maintain the said Chief 
and his lawful successors in the constitutional maintenance and 
exercise over his subjects of his powers and anthority, and to 
holds its servants liable for any ill-treatment or interference 
with any of the King's n.Q.tive subjects. 

Field of Company* 8 operations extended North of the Zambesi. 

Nyasaland. Mr, H. jBT, Johnston, C^B.y appointed PoliUcal 

Admiinistrator, 

On the 13th February, 1891, the British South Africa 
Company expressed its wish to extend the field of its opera- 
tions to the north of the Zambesi, and that Mr. H. H. Johnston, 
C.B., who had been appointed Her Majesty's Commissioner and 
Consul- General in Nyasaland, should be appointed Political 
Administrator throughout the Company's sphere north of the 
Zambesi. 

Before consenting to such extension, certain conditions were 
submitted by Her Majesty's Government to the Company for 
their acceptance, among which were the following : — 

That the charter of the South Africa Company should 

• H. T., Tol. XTiii, p. 165. 

184 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 38] BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA CO. [1890, 1891. 

[KyttaalazuL] 

extend over the territory under British influence north of the 
Zambesi, and south of the territories of the Congo Free State 
and the German sphere, under the following, among other, con- 
ditions : — 

Nyasaland. 

That the chartered territory should not include Nyasaland ; 
that the territory defined by that name would be bounded, 
where it adjoined the chartered territory, by a frontier which, 
starting on the south from the point where the boundary 
between the British and Portuguese spheres was intersected by 
the boundary of the conventional line of the Berlin Act, would 
follow that line to the point where it met the geographical line 
of the Congo Basin, and would thence follow the latter line to 
the point where it reached the boundary between the British 
and German spheres (see Great Britai¥ and Germany). 

The Company having accepted these conditions (5th March, 
1891) they were informed (2nd April, 1891) that the Secretary 
of State sanctioned the extension of the field of operations to the 
British sphere north of the Zambesi, exclusive of Nyasaland, the 
limits of which were defined in the Memorandum of Conditions, 
on the understanding that the provisions of the charter were 
strictly observed and that the conditions attached to the sanc- 
tion were duly respected. 

It was agreed between Her Majesty's Government and the 
Company that 10,0O0Z. a year should be paid by the Company 
to Mr. H. H. Johnston, to commence from the 1st February, 
1891, the date of his appointment as Imperial Commissioner in 
Nyasaland, for administrative purposes within the Company's 
sphere and Nyasaland, such sum to be appropriated at his 
discretion ; it being understood that Nyasaland included the 
Shire Highlands and Lake Nyasa with its shores, covering the 
area occupied by the various Scotch and other missions. 

British Protectorate over Nyassaland, 

On the 14ith May, 1891, a notification was issued, announcing 
the establishment of a British Protectorate over Nyasaland, 
now the Bi-itish Central Africa Protectorate (see Ntasaland). 

185 



Digitized by 



Google 



1890, 1891.] BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA CO. [No. 38 

[Treaties with Native Chieft.] 

A copy of this Notification was communicated to the British 
South Africa Company, 

African Lakes Company 

and to the African Lakes Company; and in consequence of 
certain Treaties having been concluded in 1885 by the African 
Lakes Company with native Chiefs of the Shire Highlands, 
and on Lake Nyasa, the British South Africa Company en- 
quired of Her Majesty's Government whether the validity of 
these Treaties was recognized, when they were informed (24th 
August, 1891) that " Sovereign rights ceded by Treaties in the 
Nyasaland Protectorate were now vested in Her Majesty, by 
reason of that Protectorate/* 

The African Lakes Company has ceded its land claims in 
the British Central Africa Protectorate to the British South 
Africa Company. 

Trade in Fire-arms^ Coinage^ Weights and Measures. 

On the 30th July, 1891, two Ordinances were issued by the 
British South Africa Company, one for regulating the trade in 
and delivery of firearms, and the other for regulating coinage 
and weights and measures, in each of which it was ordained 
that the limits of the Ordinance should be '' Mashonaland, that 
is to say, Fort Tali and an area 10 miles round that fort, and 
the territories north of the 22nd parallel of south latitude, but 
excluding the territory known as the disputed territory lying 
between the Shashi and Macloutsie Rivers, and all territories 
belonging to the Chief Khama of the Bamangwato and the 
territory known as the district of the Tati." 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo. 89] BRITISH souls AFRICA CO. [18W-U01 

No. QQ.— ABSTRACT OF TREATIES concluded mth 
Makololo, YiiOy and other Chiefs of the Shiri ffiaktands, 
1889—1891.* 

The following is a list of the Treaties concladed, between 
1889 And 1891^ in the name of Her firitannio Majesty, with 
Native Chiefs, containing engagenleintB bj thosd chiefs iiOt to 
oede their Territory o^ to oonclade Treaties with any other 
Power than Qreat Britain, and defining the bonndaries of their 
rdspeotir^ States t — 

14th August, 1889. Katunga's (Blantyre Port), Eiver 
Shir^, Makololo Chiefs (Masea, 
Mulilima, and Eatunga). 

I6th „ „ Katunga's, River Shir^, Makololo 

Chief (kampata). 

24th „ „ Yao Chiefs, Mudi, Blatityre (Skit6 

Highlands). Soohe and Kdilandi 
l}istricts. 

The bpandaries in the latter Treaty were thus defined : 
^* On the south, west, and north by the Makololo country, on 
the north-east by the lands of the Zomba Chiefs, and on the 
east by Kumpama's territory. 

21st September, 1889.t Makololo, Yao, and Machinga. 

British Protectorate. 

Sriitsh Protectorate over the Makololo^ Yao^ and Machinga 
OoUntries. 

" To all whom it may concern, 

"I hereby declare that the Makololo, Yao, and Machinga 
Countries, iHthin the liinita cited below» are, with the odilsent 
tod at the deiii^ (yf the Chiefs amd People^ plaoed nnddr the 
pix^tection of Her Most Oraoiouel Majesty the Qneeb of Great 
Britaiii and Irelilnd^ Empress ol Iiidia» D^fehdei* of the Faith, 

• Theatf TrefliieB fthould hftve Ifeen iotCft^d under the heading ^ MyttM- 
lund/' p. 811, as the Chartered Territory does not include Njasaland. flee 
p. 185. Various otlier Treaties liare been ooncludect with ^ati^e Chief t. 

f tt. T., rot irlti, ft). 100, 1»1. 

187 o 



Digitized by 



Google 



1889-1891.] BBITISH SOUTH AFRICA 00. [Mo. 89 

[TreaUes with Native Chitlk.] 

" Oiven at Mlomba, Makololo Country, this 21st day of 
September, 1889. 

John Buchanan, 
Eer Majesty's Acting Gofisulfar Nyassa, 

" The above Declaration applies to the countries included 
within the following boundaries : — 

*' Commencing on the left bank of the lower Shir6 Birer at 
its confluence with the Buo Biver, and following the Bug to 
where it takes its rise in the Milanj6 Mountains, thence the 
Milanje Mountains to the most southerly point of Lake Shirwa, 
and northward along its eastern shores, including the northern 
slopes of the Zomba and Malosa Mountains, to the upper Shir^ 
Biver ; and, on the right bank of the lower Shir^ Biver, com- 
mencing at the lowermost point of the Makololo country, as at 
present opposite Mpassa's (this point, however, is subject to 
rearrangement by Her Majesty's Government), and following 
the Shire at a distance of 50 miles inland from the river till it 
meets the Lisungwi River." 

John Buchanan, 
Her Majesty's Acting Consul for Nyassa, 

24th September, 1889. Mbewe. Makololo Chief, Mlanti 

(Biver Shir6). 
26th „ „ Chilomo (Buo). Makololo Chiefs 

(Sons of the late Chipatala) 

(Biver Shire). 
13th August, 1890. Wyanasa. Cession to Great 

Britain. 

The following document was signed by the Wyanasa 
Chiefs and others : " We, the undersigned Sub-Chiefs, Head* 
men, and representatives of the deceased Chipoka, acting 
for and on behalf of the Wanyassa people living within the 
territories embraced between the Buo Biver from its rise in 
the Milanje Mountains to the confluence of the Tuchila and the 
Mlosa Biver, and following the boundary of Chief Chikumbu's 
land as far as the Tuchila, as defined in Treaty made with him 

188 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 89] BBITISH SOUTH AFBIOA CO. [1880-1891. 

[TrMtiM with NatlTe Ohlefto.] 

on the 11th August, 1890, by John Buchanan, Esq., Her 
Majesty's Acting Consul for Nyassa, most earnestly beseech 
Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and 
Ireland, Empress of India, Defender of the Faith, &c., to take 
our country, ourselres, and our peoples under her special protec- 
tion, we solemnly pledging, and binding ourselves and our 
people, to obserre the following conditions : — 

1. That we give over all our country within the above 
described limits, all sovereign rights, and all and every other 
claim absolutely, and without any reservation whatever, to 
Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and 
Ireland, Empress of India, Defender of the Faith, &c., her 
heirs and successors, for all time coming/' 

14th September, 1890. Manica. Concession to British 

South Africa Company. 

30th „ „ Kazembe's, in Lnnda. 

Boundaries thus defined : " Bounded on the west by Lake 
Moero and the Luapala River; on the south by latitude 
10' 30' (or thereabouts) ; on the north by the Kalongwizi 
River and by latitude 9° 20' (or thereabouts) ; on the east by 
east longitude 30' (or thereabouts)." 

16th October, 1890. Nsama*s in Itawa. 

Boundaries thus defined : '' Bounded on the west by Lake 
Moero ; on the east bj Chungu*s country (east longitude 30^ 
or thereabouts) ; on the north by south latitude 8"* 25' (or 
thereabouts) ; on the south by the Kalungwizi River, and by 
south latitude 9** 20' (or thereabouts). 

15th June, 1891. Chikala. (Chief Kawinga.) 
Boundaries thus defined: '*0n the east, the east side of 
Lake Shirwa, thence to Lake Chiuta and Namalamba ; on the 
north, Masanje to Mfera at the River Shir6 ; on the west, 
Zineso's land and that of Mpimbi; and on the south, the 
boundary of Malemya." 

The following description was given by Yice-Consul 
Bachanan of King Eawinga's Country : " Eawinga's head 
village is perched at an altitude of about 4,500 feet above sea- 

189 o2 



Digitized by 



Google 



n Feb., 1808.] BBITIBH SOUTH AFRICA CO. [Mo. 80 

ktel on the northern fao6 hi the eastern end of Momit Ghikala. 
His people are scattered in small hamlets ronnd the baiies of 
the Mountains Ghikala and Chaoni, while his oonntty, embraoiog 
the northern half of Lake Shirwa, extends to Lakes Chiuta and 
Amaramba and across to the Upper Shir^ behind Zomba, 
forming: a large traot of almost nninhabited land, there being 
comparatively few people onteide the neighbourhood- of Ghikala 
and Chaoui/' 

(The British flag was hoisted at the principal Tillage in Chief 
Kawiliga of Ghikala conntry, 16th Jutie, 1B91.) 

2lst Jnly, 1891. Makanga and Machinjiri Ghiefs. Aet. 
Gessiofl to Great Britaia of Sorereigntj 
over strip of country along right bank 
of the Shir^ River. 

The boundaries were thus defined *' On the north by the 
former Portuguese boundary, which, starting from opposite the 
confluence of the Buo, ran due west to the water-parting be- 
tween the basins of the Zambesi and the Shir6 ; on the west, 
by the dividirg line of the said water-parting aloDg the range 
of the Makanga and Sena Mountains ; on the soath, by a 
straight line running latitadinally between the said water- 
parting and a point on the right baok of the River Shir^, 
opposite Ghiwanga, in about l?** 10' south latitude; and, on the 
east^ bj the centre of the course of the River Shire« inclading 
thus such islands and islets as lie to the west of the centre of 
the said river." (The British flag was hoisted 15th July, 
1891.) 

On the 11th June, 1891, a Treaty was signed between Great 
Britain and Portugal, defining their respective spheres of 
influence in Africa. (See Ghbat Brftain and Portugal.) 

On the 22nd February, 1893, it was publicly notified that 
the Nyasaland Districts would thenceforwat'd be knoi4ii as the 
" British Gentral Africa Protectorate." (See Ktasaland, p. 811.) 



190 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMORO ISLANDS. 

(Sbk FRANCE and COMORO ISLANDS.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



CONGO FREE STATE. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



CONGO FREE STATE. 



LIST OF TREATIES WITH FOREIGN POWERS, Ac. 



No. 
40. 



41. 



42. 
43. 
44. 



45. 



40. 
47. 

48. 



Austria -Hun- 24ith Dee., 1884. Deolarationg. Beoognition of Abbo- 

g&rj elation, Tnde, fto IQA 

.. Mth Feb., 1885. '< BerUn Aei." See Africa 
(General). 
2nd Juljr, 1800. *• Brustels Act.*' See Africa 
(aenenl). 
Belffinm . . 98rd Feb., 1886. Declarations. Beoogniiion of Asso- 
ciation, Ae 108 

„ iOth Feb., 188K. General Act of Berlin Conference 

("Berlin Act"). See Africa 
(General). 
8nd Jnlj, 1800. General Act of Brussels Conference 
(''Brussels AM.'') See Africa 
(General). 
.. Mth Feb., 1886. " Berlin Aet.*' See Afriea (G«Mfal). 
Oonffo . . 1st Aug., 1886. Circular. Vevtraliiy. Limits . • . . 198 

,, .. 1st Aug., 1888. Decree. Administrative Districts. • 201 

10th j^une, 1800. Decree. Ditto. Xastem Kwange . 2M 
2nd Julj, 1880. " Brussels Act.*' See Africa 
(Gkeneral). 
„ 22nd Deo., 1800. Tariff. Ba^m Zone. Congo Basin. 

See Afrioa (General). 
DMunavk . • §Brd Feb., 1886. ConrentioB. Reoognitien ef Asso- 
ciation, &c ( . . . . 206 

. . Mill Feb., 1866. <* Berlin Aet." See Africa (General). 
2nd July, 1800. «' Brussels Aet.*' See Africa 
(General). 
Franoe .. Apr.— May, 1884. Notes. Frenoh right of Pre-emption 207 
„ . . 6th Feb., 1886. Oonyentlon. Beeognition of Asso- 
ciation. Boundaries, kc 200 

6ih Feb., 1886. Additional CoftTention. Priyate Sta- 
tions and Properties 212 

.. fiOth Feb., 1886. "Berlin Aot." See Africa (GeMi«i). 
191 



Digitized by 



Google 



COXaO FEKE STATE. 
LIST OF TREATIES WITH FOREiaN POWERS, Ac. 

No. PA as 

49. France .. 23iid Nov., 1885. Protocol. Manyanga Region 213 

50. „ 22nd, 29th Apr., Notes. French right of Pre-emption 215 

1887. 

51. „ . . 29th April, 1887. Protocol. Oubangi Region 217 

— „ .. 2nd July, 1890. <' Bmssels Act." See Africa 

(Gkneral). 

— „ . . 14th Aug., 1894. Agreement. Boandariee. (Appendix.) 
53. Germany . . 8th Not., 1884. Convention. Recognition of Associa- 
tion, &c 219 

— „ .. 26th Feb., 1886. "Berlin Act." See Africa (General). 

— „ .. 2nd July, 1890. "Brussels Act." See Africa 

(General). 

53. Oreat Britain 16th Dec, 1884. Dechiration. Recognition of Asso- 

ciation, &c 221 

54. i> •• 16th Dec., 1884. Ck>nTention. Gonsnlar Jurisdiction, Ac. 228 

— „ .. 26th Feb., 1885. "Berlin Act." See Africa (General). 

— „ .. 2nd July, 1890. "Brussels Act." See Africa 

(General). 

— » • • I2th May, 1894. OonTention. Mutual Lease of Terri- 

tories, dec. (Appendix.) 

— n • • 22nd Jane, 1894. Declaration. Art. 8 of preceding 

Conyention withdrawn. (Ap- 
pendix.) 

55. Italy . . 19th Dec., 1884. Conrention. Recognition of Asso- 

ciation,^ 227 

_ „ . . 26th Feb., 1886. " Berlin Act." See Africa (General). 

— „ .. 2nd July, 1890. "Brussels Act." See Africa (General). 

56. Ziibexia .. 15tb Dee., 1891. Treaty. Commercial Intercourse, &c. 229 

„ .. 25th Aug., 1892. Adhesion to "Brussels Act" of 2nd 

July, 1890. (Note, p. 48.) 
67. Hetherlaada 27th Deo., 1884. OonTention. Recognition of Asso- 
ciation, &c 280 

— „ .. 26th Feb.. 1886. "Berlin Act." See Africa (General). 
_ „ .. 2nd July, 1890. "Brussels Act." See Africa 

(General). 
58. Portuiral . . 14th Feb., 1885. Conyention. Recognition of Amo- 

ciation, &c « 2S2 

_ „ .. 26th Feb., 1885. "Berlin Act." See Africa (General). 

_ „ .. 2nd July, 1890. "Brussels Act." See Africa 

(General). 
69. „ .. 25thMay,1891. Treaty. Lunda Region 284 

60. » •• 25th May, 1891. Conyention. Boundaries. Lower 

Congo ••••• 286 

-. „ .. 24th Mar., 1894. Declaration. Boundary. Lunda 

Region. (Appendix.) 

61. BuMia . . 5th Feb., 1885. Conyention. Recognition of Asso- 

ciation, &c 289 

192 



Digitized by 



Google 



CONGO FKEE STATE. 
LIST OF TEEATIES WITH FOREiaN POWERS, Ac. 

No. PAGB 

61. BnMU .. 26th Feb., 1885. " BerUn Act.'* See Africa (Genena). 
~ „ .. 2nd Julj, 1890. *' Bntsw^ls Act." See Africa 

(General). 

62. 8p*lA . . 7th Jan., 1886. Convention. Becognition of Aiao- 

ciation, &o. ••' 240 

— „ .. 26th Feb., 1886. " Berlin Act.*' See Africa (General). 
>- „ .. 2nd July, 1890. « BrusMle Act." See Africa 

(General). 

63. BwAml and lOih Feb., 1886. OonTcntion. Beoognition of Amo- 

Korwaj ciation, &c 242 

26th Feb., 1886. '< Berlin Act." See Africa (General). 

— „ 2nd July, 1890. '< BruMels Act." See Africa 

(General). 

— TorlMjr .. 26th Feb., 1886. "Berlin Act." Bee Afiioa (GenenJ). 

— „ 2nd Julj, 1890. '' BruaMle Act." See Africa 

(General). 

64. T7nitad8tatM 22nd Apr., 1884. Declaration. Becognition of A«6o- 

ciation, ko 244 

— „ 2nd July, 1890. ** Brusaela Act." See Africa 

(General). 

— y^nrtbftT .. 8th Not., 1886. ''Aocemion. Berlin Act.*' See 

iZanilbar. 

— „ .. 2nd Jnly, 1890. ^'Bruaeehi Act." See Africa 

(General). 



193 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 Dec, 1884.] CONOO AKD AUSTRIA-HUNaARY. [No. 40 

[Oonso.] 



No. ^.—DECLARATIONS exchanged between the Avstro- 
Hungarian Oovei^nment and the International Association 
of the Congo. Berlin, Hth Deceinher^ 1884. 

No Import or Transit Duties to he levied on Articles of Commerce 
or Merchandise.* 

Art. I. [Same os Article I of tba Couvfiition with Ghreat 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. fi4).] 

Bighi of A^^^^rO'Hungwria/n Subjects to utahUsh themtsiUtes in 
Territories of the Association. Protection of Life and Property, 
Religious Liberty, Hujhts (^ Nauiyationt Commerce^ and 
Industry. Bight to buy, selly and hire Lands, Houses, 8fe. 
IfationaL and Most Favoured Nation TrMoiment, Coasting 
Trade. 

Art. II. [Same as Artiol«. II of Convention with Ghreat 
Britain of 16th December, t884 (No. 84).] 

Oeneral Most-favoured-nation Treatment, 

Art. m. [Same as Article III of Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Afpointm.ent of Consuls. Consular Jurisdiction, Rights, and 

Privileges. 

It is understood that Austria-Hungary shall enjoy, in regard 
to the nomination of Consuls, their functions and Consular 
jurisdiction, all the rights and privileges which may be granted 
to any other State. 

Above Engagements extended to any Territory ceded by the 
Association, 

Art. IV. [Same as Article lY of Convention with Ghreat 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 64).] 

• See Berlin Act, 26th Febnuirj, 1885, p. 20, and BruMels Act, 2nd 
July, 1890, p. 48. 

194 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo. 40] OONOO AKD AtJfirrBU.BtrifG^ABT. [M D«0.| 1884. 

{pbhgo,} 
Auitro-Eungarian Becognition of Flag of the Association. 

AfiT. y. Aufliria^Hiuigarf , tekirig aognizkiide of tli« abdte 
•nfm^eiHelits and BympathiaiDg with th* humane aims of the 
Association,* recognizes its flaf^-^ft blue flflig with it gold Miar in 
the centre — as that of a friendly State. 

Done at Berlin^ th6 24th Deeember, 1684. 

STBAUCH. 

SZfiOHfeNYI. 

• On the Sdfd F«brtifl^y, lid$, it Mks khnoiiiic^ to thd Boriiii Confei'- 
0ilM> t1i«t ih« nSnM df the <' IntertiattobAl Ai«6oitttiiXi cyf tBe Congo" hid 
bfdii ohuifed tl> fthaft of the " IndetMndent StUta of the Congo/' 



195 



Digitized by 



Google 



28 Febi 1885.] CONGO AND BBLGIUM. [M 0. 41 

[Ckmco.] 



No. ^L— DECLARATIONS exchanged bettvem the Belgian 
OovemmeiU and the International Association of the Congo. 
Berlin, 23rd February, 1885. 

DedaraHon of the Association, 

The Iniemational AsBociatioii of the Congo declareB by these 
presents that, hj Treaties concladed with the legitimate 
SoTereigns in the basin of the Congo and its tribataries,* vast 
territories have been ceded to it with all the rights of sove- 
reignty, with a yiew to the creation of a free and independent 
State; 

Frontiers, Sfc. 

That Conventions mark ofi the frontiers of the territories of 
the Association from those of France (No. 47) and Portugal 
(No. 68), and that the frontiers of the Association are shown 
on the annexed map ; t 

Fla^ of the Association. * 

That the said Association has adopted as the flag of the 
State administered by it a blue flag with a golden star in the 
centre; 

No Duties to be levied on Qooda or Products imported or carried 
round the Cataracts, 

That the said Association has resolved not to levy any 
Customs duties on goods or products imported into its terri- 
tories or carried by the road which has been made round the 
cataracts of the Congo ; this resolution has been adopted to 
assist commerce to penetrate into Equatorial Africa ; 

Bight of Foreigners to buy^ sell, and lease Houses, 

That it insures foreigners who may establish themselves in 

* For List of Treaties, see p. 200. 

t This map wm not published with the Declaration ; but see General 
Map, facing p. 246. 

196 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 41] CONGO AND BELGIUM. [23 Feb., 1886. 

[Conffo.] 

its territories the right of buying, selling, or leasing lands and 
buildings therein situated, of establishing commercial houses, 
and oarrying on trade under the sole condition of obeying the 
law. 

General MoiUfavouredr-nation Treatment, 

It engages, moreover, nerer to grant the citizens of one 
nation any privilege whaterer without immediately extending 
it to the citizens of all other nations, 

Frevention of the Slave Trade, 

And to do all in its power to prevent the Slave Trade. 

In testimony of which the President of the Association, 
acting in its behalf, has hereunto affixed his seal and signa- 
ture. 

Berlin, the 23rd day of February, 1885. 

STBAUCH. 



Declaration of the Belgian Oovemment, 
Becognition of Association and its Flag, 

The Belgian Government takes note of the declarations of 
the International Association of the Congo, and by these 
presents recognizes the Association within the limits indicated 
by it, and recognizes its flag as on an equality with that of a 
friendly State. 

In testimony of which the Undersigpaed, being duly au- 
thorized thereto, have hereunto affixed their seal and signature. 

Berlin, the 23rd day of February, 1885. 

Comte AUGUSTE van dee STBATEN- 

PONTHOZ. 
Baron LAMBERMONT. 



397 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 Aug., 1886.] coxao. [Ho. 42 

[Oon«o. NetitrftUtyy Limits.] 

No. ^X— CIRCULAR of the Administratar-Geyieral of the 
De2^artvient of Foreign Affairs of tJie Independent State 
of the Congo^ declaring the Neutrality of that State, within its 
Limits as defined hy Treaties, Brussels, 1st August, 1885. 

(Tranriation.) 
Ueutraliiy. 
The Undersigned, Administrator- General of ttie Department 
of Foreign Affairs of the Independent State of the Congo, is 
chai^ged by the King, Sovereign of this State, to make known to 
his Excellency the Marquis of Salisbury, Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs in London, that ih conformity with Article X of 
the General Act of the Berlin Conference (No. l7), the Indepen- 
dent State of the Congo declares by these presents that it shall be 
perpetually neutral, and that it claims the adrantages guaran- 
teed by Chapter III of the same Act, at the same time assuming 
the duties which neutrality carries with it. The state (condi- 
tion) of neutrality shall apply to the territory of the Inde- 
pendent State of the Congo oomprised within the limits result- 
ing from the successive Treaties concluded by the International 
Association with Germany (No. 52), France (No. 47), and 
Portugal (No. 66), Treaties notified to the Berlin Conference 
and annexed to its Protocols, and which are thus determined,* 
namely : — 

To the North. 

A straight line starting from the Atlantic Ocean and join- 
ing the mouth of the riYer which flows into the sea to the south 
of Cabinda Bay, near Ponta Yennelha, at GabO'>Lambo ; 

The parallel of this latter point prolonged as far as its inter- 
section by the meridian of the confluence of the Culacalla with 
the Lucalla ; 

The meridian thus determined until it meets the Biver 
LuouUa ; 

The course of the Lucnlla to its confluence with the Chiloango 
(Luango Luce) ; 

* See map faeing p. 246. 

Ids 



Digitized by 



Google 



; w7i « i »«— ii i jii ■ ^ 



No. 42J CONGO. [1 Aug., 1885. 

[Conffo. ' Keutrality, Limits.] 

The River Chiloango, from the month of the Lucnlla to its 
most northern source ; 

The watershed between the Niadi-Qaillon and the Congo as 
far as the meridian of Manjanga ; 

A line to be determined which, while following as much as 
possible a natural division of the land, terminates between the 
station .of Manjanga and the cataract of Ntombo-Matalca, at a 
point sitaated on the navigable portion of the river ; 

The Congo as far as Stanley Pool ; 

The median line of Stanley Pool ; 

The Congo from a point to be determined above the River 
Likona-Nkundja. 

A line to be determined from this point to the 17th degree 
of longitude east of G-reenwich, following as much as possible 
the watershed of the Licona-Nkundja Basin ; 

The 17th degree of longitude east of Greenwich until it 
meets the 4th parallel of north latitude ; 

The 4th parallel of north latitude until it meets the 30th 
degree of longitude east of Greenwich. 

To the East, 

The 30th degree of longitude east of Greenwich up to 
!• 20' of south latitude ; 

A straight line drawn from the intersection of the 30th 
degree of longitude by the parallel of 1^ 20' of south latitude 
as far as the northern extremity of Lake Tanganyka ; 

The median line of Lake Tanganyka ; 

A straight line drawn from Lake Tanganyka to Lake Moero 
by 8"* 30 south laticude ; 

The median line of Lake Moero ; 

The watercourse which unites Lake Moero with Lake 
Bangweolo.* 

The western shore of Lake Bangweolo.* 

To the South. 
A line drawn from the southern extremity of Lake Bang- 
weolo until it meets the 24ch degree of longitude east of Green- 

* See Agreement, Great Britain and Congo Free State, 12th May, 1894. 
(Appewdix). 

199 V 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 Aug., 1885] CON<3K>. . [No. 42 

[Oong-o. Keutralityttliimlt».l 

wich, and following the watershed between the Congo apd the 
Zambezi ; 

The watershed of the basin of the Kassai between the 12th 
and 6th parallels of south latitude ; 

The 6th parallel of latitude to its intersection by the 
Quango ; 

The coarse of the Quango until it meets the parallel of 
Nokki : 

The parallel of Nokki until it meets the meridian which 
passes through the mouth of the River Uango-Uango ; 

The conrse of the Congo from the confluence of the River 
Uango-Uango to the sea. 

To the West. 

The Atlantic Ocean between the mouth of the Congo and 
the river which flows into the sea to the south of Cabinda Bay 
near Ponta Yarmelha. 

EDM. VAN EETVELDB. 

BFOBsels, 1st August, 1885. 



List ov Tiubatibs (Contsactb) between the Belgian Expedition to the 
Upper Congo and Native Chiefs, 1882—1884. 

SO Oct., 1882. Laafountchou and Cession. Villages and DUtricts. l^nd between the 
KiodokU. Rivera Nsoundon and Ntomb^ to their conflnenu, and 

the road leading from the village of Laofountclion of 
Lutele to that of Kimbanda. 

29 Oct., 1882. Selo Cession. Sovereignty. Villages and District. 

6 Jan., 1883. Falla Balla Cession. District. 

] Apr., 1884. M'Boma (King N6 Cession. Sovereign Rights. Villages and Lands. Sangne 
Pereira). (Manilumbi), Sara Ora. snd Chinqnella Goma (Gapitos), 

Lu^ala^Emboche (Manilombi), N'Boch. 
19 Apr., 1884. M'Boma (King Ne Cession. Sovereign Rights. Villages and Landi. ITBanza, 
Corado). Cbianda, Dimbo, Chincorda, N'San^a, LnUIS, Hak tan- 

dan, Jouco Deiieli (Capita), Sacra N*Jouka( Manilombi). 
19 Apr., 1884. Molnda (KelambA Cession. Sovereign Rights. Seven Villages (not named) , 
Zonlan). 

1 9 Apr., 1884. PaUa Balla Meaning of term " Ces«ion of Territory ** in Treaty of 6th 

January, 1883. "Suzerainty " not " Purchase of Soil." 

19 Apr., 1884. ITBoma (King N6 Cession. Sovereign Rights. Towns and Lands. M'Bonza, 

Canha or N4 KXomboa, Gala M'Boma, ITBoavalle (Uonilombi), 
Pereira). Louvongo, N'Souni, Mahunda (Capita). 

20 Apr., 1684 Molnda (Nelamt4 Cession. Bank of the Congo bordering his States on 

Zottlau). the South. (Land acquired by Foreign Houses ex- 

cepted). 

200 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 43] CONGO. [1 Aug., 1888. 

[Conflro. Administrative Districts.] 



No. 4!A.— DECREE of the King of the Belgians, Sovereign 
of the Congo Free State, defining the Administraiive 
Districts of the State of the Congo. Ostend, 1st August, 
1888. 

(Translation.) 

Leopold IF, King of the Belgians, Sovereign of the Inde- 
pendent State of the Congo, 

To all present and to come, greeting : 

Having re-examined our Decree of the 16th April, 1887,* 
considering that it is necessary to determine the limits of the 
Administrative Districts of the State ; 

On the proposition of oar Council of Administrators- 
General, 

We have decreed and do now decree : — 

Abt. I. The territory of the Independent State of the Congo 
is divided into eleven districts, administered by a Commissioner, 
assisted by one or several Assistants. 

AsT II. The limits of the districts are fixed as follows :-^ 

1. District of Banana. 

The western boundary of the State and its northern bound- 
ary as far as the meridian passing through the western extremity 
of Malella Creek ; then that meridian and the southern boundary 
of the State. 

2. The Distriet of Boma. 

The district of Banana ; the southern boundary of the State 
as far as the confluence of the River Ango-Ango ; the meridian 
passing through this confluence ; the northern boundary of the 
State. 

* For Decree on the Organisation of the local Gbremment and Powers 
of the €K>Temor>Oeneral see *' Bulletin Officiel d'Ctat Ind^pendant dn 
Congo," 1887, p. 49. 

301 p2 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 Aug., 1888.] CONOO. [Ho. 43 

[Conffo. Administrative Distriots.] 

3. The District of Matadi. ^ 

The district of Bo ma ; the southern boundary of the State 
until it meets the Loufou ; the Loufoa to its confluence with 
the Congo ; the Congo as far as its confluence with the River 
Ntombe above Issanghila ; the River Ntombe ; then the north- 
ern boundary of the State. 

4. The District of Cataracts. 

The district of Matadi ; the southern boundary of the State 
as far as Inkissi ; the Inkissi as far as its confluence with the 
Congo ; the boundary of the French Congo. 

6. The District of Stanley Fool. 

The district of Cataracts ; the southern frontier of the State 
as far as Quango ; the Quango as far as its confluence with 
Kassa'i ; the Kassaif as far as Kwamonth and the boundary of 
the French Congo. 

6. District of Ka^sai. 

The district of Stanley Pool; the 17th meridian east of 
Oreenwich; the western and northern crest of the basin of 
Lake Leopold II ; the crest of the River Ikatta as far as the 
meridian 23** east of Greenwich ; this meridian and the southern 
boundary of the State. 

7. District of the Equator, 

The districts of Kassa'i and Stanley Pool ; the Congo as far 
as the 1st degree of north latitude ; then a line following first 
the 1st parallel of north latitude and then the northern and 
eastern watersheds of the Rivers Lopori and Loulongo as far aK 
the Equator ; the Equator ; then towards the south a line to be 
determined terminating at the 3rd parallel of south latitude; 
this parallel. 

8. District of Ouhandji and Quelle. 

The district of the Equator ; the Oubandji and the northern 
boundary of the State ; then the 23rd meridian east of Green- 
wich. 

202 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 43] CONao. [1 Aug., 1888. 

[Conffo. AdministratiTO Distriota.] 

9. District of Arouwimi and Quelle, 

The eastern and northern boandaries of the Skate ; the 23rd 
meridian east of Greenwich as far as the eastern crest of the 
basin of the Lopori and of the Loalongo ; this crest until it meets 
the Equator ; the Eqnat^r ; then towards the north a direction 
to be fixed terminating at a line to be subsequently determined 
in the basin of the Arouwimi. 

10. District of Stanley Falls. 

The district of Arouwimi and Quelle ; that of the Equator ; 
a line to be determined, starting from the 3rd parallel of south 
latitude, terminating at a parallel to be subsequently fixed 
towards the 5th parallel of south latitude ; this parallel and 
the eastern boundary of the State. 

11. District of Loualaba. 

The districts of Kassai, Equator^ and Stanley Falls; the 
eastern, southern, and western boundaries of the State. 

Abt. 111. The limits of the districts can only be altered 
by us. 

The Governor- General can, however, when he thinks it fit, 
temporarily modify the territorial spheres of the District 
Commissioners. 

Art. IV. Our Administrator- General of the Department 
of the Interior is charged with the execution of the present 
Decree. 

Given at Ostend, 1st August, 1888. 

LEOPOLD. 
By the King-Sovereign : 
For the Administrator- General of the Department of the 
Interior, the Administrator- General of the Depart- 
ment for Foreign Affairs, 

Edm. van Eetvelde. 



[12. District of Eastern Kwango, added 10th June, 1890. 
See p. 204.] 



203 



Digitized by 



Google 



10 June, 1B0O.] CONao. [Mo. 44 

[Congo. Administrative Distrlotc 



No. ^.—DECREE of the King of the Belgian, Sovereign 
of the Congo Free State, creatitig an additionai Admini^ 
trative District of the CoTigo (Eastern Kwango), Brussels^ 
10th June, 1890. 

(Translation.) 

(Extract.) Preamhle. 

Taking into consideration the request of many Chiefs of the 
country, and the Treaty of 14th February, 1885, between the 
International Association of the Congo and Portugal (No. 58) ; 

On the proposition of our Council of Administrators- 
General, 

We have decreed and do now decree : 

District of Eastern Kwango, 

Abt. I. A 12th district which shall bear the name of 
" District of the Eastern Kwango ** is created. This district 
shall extend between the Kwango and the districts of Kassai 
and Laalaba. 

Abt. II. — Appointment of Commissioner. 

LEOPOLD. 

Brusself), 10th Jane, 1890. 



204 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 46] OONao AND DENMAEK. [28 Feb., 1886. 

[Con so. J 

No. 4.^,— CONVENTION between Denmark and the Inter- 
national Association of the Congo, Berlin, 2'ird Feh^uary, 
1885. 

Danish Recognition of Flag of Association, 

Art. I. The Royal Danisli Government recognizes tlie flag 
of the International Association of the Congo — a bine flag with 
a gold star in the centre — as the flag of a friendly State. 

No Import or Transit Duties to he levied.* 

Art. II. [To same purport as Article II of Treaty with 
Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54.)] 

Right of Danish Subjects to establish themselves in Territories of 
the Association, National and Most-favoured-nation Treat* 
ment. Protection of Persons and Property, Religion^ Navi* 
gation, Commerce, and Industry, Right to buy, sell, and hire 
Lands, Houses, and Mines* Forests and Coasting Trade. 

Art. III. [Same as Article III of Treaty with Great Britain 
of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54)]. 

General Most-favoured-nation Treatinent, 

Art. IV. [To same purport as Article IV of Treaty with 
Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Appointment of Constds, Consular Jurisdiction, Most-favoured* 
nation Treatment. 

Art. V. It is understood that Denmark will enjoy as regards 
the nomination of Consuls, their f auctions and Consular juris- 
diction, all the rights and privileges which are or may be 
granted to any other State. 

Above Engagements to extend to any Cession of Territory made by 
the Association, 

Art. VI. In case of the Association ceding any portion of 

* See also ''Berlin Act," 26th Februarj, 1885, p. 20; and "Brusselt, 
Act," 2nd July, 18d0, p. 48. 

205 



Digitized by 



Google 



23 Feb., 1886 J OONaO AND DENMARK. [No. 49 

[Oonffo.] 

the territory now or hereafter ander its Govemraent, the en- 
gagements contracted bj the Association under this Convention 
shall be mentioned in the Act of Cession and binding on the 
concessionnaire. Those engagements, and the rights accorded 
bj the Association to Denmark and Danish subjects, shall con- 
tinue to be in vigour after eveiy cession made to any new occu- 
pant of any portion of the said territory. 

Art. VIL — Convention to be ratified.* Execution of Convene 
Hon from Date of Exchange of Ratificatuma, 
Done at Berlin, the 23rd February, 1886. 

STRAUCH. 
DK VIND. 
• Ratified 15th August, 1885. 



206 



I Digitized by 

i 

i 



Google 



No. 48] CONao AND FRANCE. [April— May, 1884L 

[Frenoh Blffht of Pre-emption.] 

No. ^e.— EXCHANGE OF NOTES betwem the Congo 
Free State and France, respecting the right of Pre-emption 
of France over the Territory of the Congo Free State. 
April, May, 1884 * 

(1) The President of the International Association of the Congo to 

the French Minister for Foreign Affairs, 

(Translation.) 
Ar. le Ministre, Brussels, 2Zrd April, 1884. 

Tub International Association of the Congo, in the name of 
the Stations and Free Tenntories which it has founded in the 
region of the Congo and in the Valley of Niadi-Qaillon, formally 
declares that it will not cede them to any Power, except in 
virtue of special Conventions, which may be concluded between 
France and the Association, for fixing the limits and conditions 
of their respective action. Nevertheless, the Association, being 
desirous of giving a fresh proof of its friendly feeling towards 
France, engages to give her the right of preference if, throDgh 
unforeseen circumstances, the Association were compelled to 
sell its Possessions. 

STRAUCH. 
M, Jules Favre. 

(2) M. Jules Ferry y President of the Covncil, Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, to M, Strauch, President of the International Associa- 
tion of the Congo, at Brussels, 

(Translation.) 
Sir, Paris, 24th April, 1884. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of the 23rd instant, in which you, as President of the Inter- 
national Association, convey to me the assurances and guarantees 
destined to consolidate our relations of friendship and amity 
(bon voisinage) in the Congo region. 

I take note, with great satisfaction, of these declarations, 
and, in return, I have the honour to acquaint you that the 

* "Documents Diplomatiques. Affaires du Congo, 1884 — 1887." 
*' Documents Diplomatiques." 2nd Series. Oct. — Dec, 1884, vol. xii., 
dee also Exchange of Notes, April, 1887, p. 188. S. P., toI. Ixxyiii, p. 112. 

2i7 



Digitized by 



Google 



April-May. 1884.] CONGO AND PRANCE. [Ho. 46 

[French Bight of Pre-eaiption.] 

Prench Government undertakes to respect the stations and free 
territories of the Association, and to place no obstacle to the 
exercise of its rights. 

JULES FERRY. 

(Translation.) 

{^) M. Jules Ferry ^ President of the Council^ Minister/or Foreign 
AffairSf to the Ambassadors of the French Republic at Berlin^ 
London, Vienna, St. Petersburg, Madrid, Constantinople, 
Berne, and Boms ; to the Ministers of the French Bepublic at 
Copenhagen, Stockholm, Belgrade, Bucharest, Athens, Washing- 
ton, Tangier, TSkiS, Tehrdn ; to the Chargi d' Affaires of the 
French Bepublic at Munich, the Hague, and Pekin. 

Paris, Slst May, 1884. 

The President of the International Association of the Coogo 
addressed to me, on the 23rd of April last, a letter, of which I 
have the honour of sending you herewith a copy ; you will also 
find annexed hereto copy of the answer which I returned to hia 
communication. 

This correspondence sets forth the agreement concluded 
with us by the International Association, and according to the 
terms of which the Society engages to cede to no other Power 
than France the territories and stations established by her in 
the Congo region and in the Valley of Niadi-Quillou. We 
promise, in return, to respect the stations and territories of the 
Aissociation, and to place no obstacle to the exercise of its rights. 

The understanding, thus arrived at, shall have for its imme- 
diate effect to facilitate the operations of the Commissioner of 
the French Government in West Africa. It protects, for the 
future, the work pursued in these regions by the Government 
of the Republic against the intervention of a third Power who 
might take the place of the Association ; from this twofold point 
of view I did not hesitate to give my consent to it. I desired 
to acquaint you with the nature and object of these arrange- 
ments ; there is, moreover, no objection to your alluding to the 
foregoing information in your interviews. 

JULES FERRY. 

208 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 47] CONao AND FRANCE. [6 Feb., 1885. 

{Congo. Boundaries, Ac] 

No. ^1.— CONVENTION betv?een the Govemm^i of the 
French Republic and the International Association of the 
Congo, PariSy 5th February, 1885. 

(Translation.) 
Extension to France of Privileges conceded to other Countries, 

Aet. I. The International Association of the Congo hereby 
declares that it extends to France the privileges it has conceded 
to the United States of America, the German Empire, England, 
Italy, Austria- Hungary, the Netherlands, and Spain, in virtue 
of the Conventions which it concluded with those Powers respec- 
tively on the 22nd April (No. 64), 8th November (No. 62),^ 
16th (Nob. 53 and 54), 19th (No. 55), 24th (No. 40)," 
27th December, 1884 (No. 57), and 7th January, 1886 (No. 62), 
the text of which is annexed to the present Convention. 

General Most-favoured^nattoj^ Treatment. 

Aet. II. [To same purport as Article III of the Convention 
with Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Frontiers between the Possessions of France and those of the 
Association, 

Art. IIL* The Government of the French Republic and the 
Assooiation adopt as frontiers between their Possessions : 

The River Chiloaugo from the oceanf to its northernmost 
source; 

The water-parting of the waters of the Niadi Quilloo and 
the Congo as far as beyond the meridian of Manyanga : 

A line to be settled, which, following as far as possible some 
natural division of the land, shall end between the station of 
Manyanga and the cataract of the Ntombo Mataka« at a point 
situated on the navigable portion of the River ; 

* See Protocol (Manyanga Begion), 22nd NoYember, 1885, p. 218, and 
Protocol (Oubangi Region), 29th April, 1887, p. 217. 

t See Convention, between Portugal and the Awociation, 14th February, 
J 8S5, p. 232; and Convention between France and Portugal, 12th May, 
1(586, Article 2, p. 299. 

. 209 



Digitized by 



Google 



5 Feb., 1885 J CONGK) AND FRANCE. [No. 47 

[Oonffo. Boundaries., Ac,} 

The Congo up to Stanley Pool ; 

The centre of Stanley Pool ; 

The Congo up to a point to be settled above the Eiver 
Licona-Nkundja ; 

A line to be settled from that point to the 17th degree of 
longitude east of Greenwich, following as closely as possible 
the water-parting of the basin of the Licona-Nkundja, which 
is part of the French Possessions ;* 

The 17th degree of longitude east of Greenwich. 

Appointment of Boundary Commissioners. 
Art. IY. A Commission, composed of an equal number on 
each side of Representatives of the two Parties, shall be in- 
trusted with the duty of marking out on the spot a frontier 
line in conformity with the preceding stipulations. 

Settlement of Differences. 
In case of a difference of opinion the question shall be 
settled by Delegates who shall be named by the International 
Commission of the Congo. 

Conditional Recognition hy France of Neutrality of the Territories 
of the Association South of the Chiloango. 
Art. Y.* Subject to the arrangements to be made between 
the International Association of the Congo and Portugal as to 
the territories situated to the south of the Chiloango, the 
Government of the French Republic is disposed to recognize 
the neutrality of the Possessions of the International Associa- 
tion comprised within the frontiers marked on the annexed 
map,t conditionally upon discussing and regulating the condi- 
tions of such neutrality iti common with the other Powers 
represented at the Berlin Conference. 

French Recognition of Flag of the Association. 

Art. VI. The Government of the French Republic recog- 
nizes the flag of the International Association of the Congo — a 

• See Protocol, 29Lh April, 1887, p. 217. 

t This Map wm not published with the Conyention ; but lee Map 
facing p. 246. 

210 



Digitized by 



Google 



Wo. 47] CONGO AND FRANCE. [6 Feb., 1886. 

[Conffo. BoundariM, Ac] 

blue flag with a golden star in the centre — as the flag of a 
friendly Gbvernment. 

Done at Paids, the 5th February, 1885. 

(L.S.) JULES FERRY. 

(L.S.) OOMTE PAUL DE BORCHGRAVE D'ALTENA. 



[This Convention was ratified on the 12th March, 1885.] 



211 



Digitized by 



Google 



6 Peb», 1B85.] CONGO and France. [No. 48 

[Conffo. Private Statloiui and Properties.] 



No. ^B.— ADDITIONAL CONVENTION between Ffance 
and the International Association of the Congo, Paris, 
6th February, 1885.* 

(Translation.) 

Cession of Private Stations and Properties by Association to 
France, 

Only Article. — The International Association of the Congo 
cedes to France the stations and properties which she priyatelj 
possesses in the territories which, in consequence of the de- 
limitation agreed to by the Convention of this date, shall be 
found to belong to France. 

Steps shall be taken so that the transfer maj take place as 
soon as 



Appointment of Commissioners to estimate value, ^ 
A .Commission composed of Delegates of the Contracting 
Parties, in equal number on both sides, shall be charged with 
making an estimate of each of the stations. 

The estimates thus drawn up shall serve as a basis to deter- 
mine equitably the sum to be paid by the Government of the 
French Republic to the Association for the said cession. 
Done at Paris, on the 5th February, 1885. 

(L.S.) JULES FERRY. 

(L.S.) COUNT P. DE BORCHGRAVE D'ALTENA. 

* See aim Protocol, 22nd November, 1886, p. 213. 



212 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 49] CONOO AND FRANCE. [22 Nov., 1886 

[Consro. Manyanflra B«fflon.] 

No. 4t9,— PROTOCOL defining the Boundaries between the 
Congo Free SteUe and the Freneh Fosaessiona in the Region 
of Manyanga, Manyanga, 22nd Novernh^'^ 1 885. 

(Translation.) 

The Government of the French Republic, and the Congo 
State, in conformity with the provisions of the Convention 
signed at Paris on the 5th February, 1886 (No. 47), have 
deputed to proceed with the demarcation of the Boundaries of 
the Government of the Republic and those of the said State : 
the Government of the French Republic, M. Charles Rouvier, 
Lieutenant ot the Navy, &c., and the Congo State, M. Johlin- 
Dannfelt, Max, Lieutenant of Infantry in the Swedish Army, 
Chief of the Manyanga Division, who, after having communi- 
cated to each other their powers, have agreed upon the following 
stipulations : — 

The Boundary between the French Possessions and the Pos- 
sessions of the Congo Free State, towards Manyanga,* shall be 
fixed in conformity with the map annexed hereto, and which 
is as follows : — 

The bottom of the ravine whose communication with the 
Congo is situated at about 440 metres, and to the south 
43 degrees east of the Flagstaff of the station of the Congo 
Free State at Manyanga [«tc in original] ; 

The extension of this ravine until it meets the path leading 
from the station of Manyanga to the village of Nsonso ; 

This path until it reaches tbe Loufou ; 

The Loufou, descending the current for a distance of about 
400 metres ; 

A line drawn northwards leaving the villages of Nsonso to 
the west, and rejoining the path of Manyanga ; 

This path until it meets the first stream, an affluent of the 
River Ntimbo ; 

This stream until its confluence with the said Ntimbo ; 

This river as far as its westernmost source ; 

• See OonTentioQ, 6th Febmarj, 1886, page 213. 



Digitized by 



Google 



22 Nov., 1886.] CONaO AND FRANCE. [No. 49 

[Conffo. Manyanflra Beffion.] 

A cnryed line going northwards as far as the plateau of 
Konyanga, and then following the watershed until it meets the 
basin of the Lonaia to the north, and to the west of the village 
of Konmbi ; 

A line drawn to the bend of the Lonaia, near the village of 
Kilombon ; 

The River Lonaia as far as the village of Kaonga. 

The line thus determined leaves to the west, that is to say, 
on the Territory of the Congo Free State, the villages of Nsonso, 
Massangni, Nsanga, Kinkendo, and Eintombo, and to the east, 
that is to say, on French Territory, the cluster of habitations 
at Ntombo, the village of Nsome, the market of Manyanga, the 
villages of Kinsonia, Bondo, Konyanga, the market of Ko)iso, 
the villages of Mbango, Banza-Baka, Kiloumbou, and Kaonga. 

The difficulty of obtaining information beyond the Line thus 
determined has not admitted of the further prolongation of the 
Boundary line. 

In faith of which the respective Plenipotentiaries have 
signed the present Convention. 

Done at Manyanga, the 22nd November, 1885. 

M. JUHLIN.DANNFELT. 
CH. ROUVIER. 



2n 



Digitized by 



Google 



To fare puj/e 2J4. 

Map Annexed to Protocol between Congo and France. 
OF 22? November 1885. 



lUneraire de la Reconnaissance^ 
faite ajkiHord,deMar^yangajHnMr9ery& 
a. la iJUUrnunatum^de La -fronUmaHir 
Ja, Brance et I 'Etat independtuvt da^dnfo 



oKidfentfOy 



oa^mcmbif \ ^ 


W^^ 




•^ 




A 


• 


V** 


ILjuntoiJs^ 


^ 


t * 



Esh^XU^'Acooco-^ 



Limiu- adopter ptw lu 
CcTrun/sBton de deUirrtatttfii- 



FRENCH 
TERRITORY 




Digitized by 



E5^^ 



Map Annexed to Protocol between 
France and the Congo Free State, 

of 22^ yovemT?er 1885. 
(Manyanoa Region.) 



Digitized by 



/Google 



No. 50] CONaO AND FRANCE. [22 April, 1887. 

[Congo. Prenoh Biglit of Pre-emption. ] 



No. 50,— EXCHANGE OF NOTES between the Gango 
Free States and France, respecting the right of Pre- 
emption of France over the Territory of the Con^o Free 
State. 22nd, 29th April, 1887 * 

(Translation.) 

(1) M, van Eetveldsj Administrator- General of the Foreign Affairs 
of the Congo Free State, to M, BourSe, French Minister at 
Brussels, 

Brussels, 22iid April, 1887. 
The International African Association, when it conclnded 
the Arrangement of 1884 with the Government of the French 
Kepnblic (No. 46), which was confirmed by the letter of the 
5th Febrnary, 1885, did not intend, and conld not have in- 
tended, that in the event of the sale of its Possessions, the 
right of preference recognized to France before all other Powers 
conld be opposed to that of Belgiam, of which King Leopold 
was sovereign ; bnt it is evident that the Congo State conld not 
cede these same Possessions to Belgium wiihont imposing on 
her the obligation of recognizing the right of preference of 
France in event of she herself subsequently selling them. 

This explanation takes nothing from nor adds anything to 
the above-mentioned documents ; far from being in opposition 
to them, it only establishes their meaning. I am authorized to 
add that this is the meaning which was attached to them by the 
august founder of the International African Association when 
he sanctioned them. 

Van EETVELDE. 
• From " Documens Diplomatiques. Affaires du Congo," 1884—1887. 



215 



Digitized by 



Google 



29 April, 1887.] CONGO AND PBANOB. [Ho. 50 

[Congo. Frenoh Bight of Pre-emption.] 

(Translation.) 

(2) M. Bouree, French Minister at BrtisseU, to M. van Eetvelde^ 

Administrator- General of the Fmeign Affairs of the Congo 

Free State. 

Brussels, 29th April, 1887. 

On the 22nd April yon did me the honour of writing me a 
letter which had for its object to establish the fact that the 
International African Association, when it concluded with the 
French Government the Arrangement of 1884 (No. 46), which 
was confirmed by the letter of 6th February, 1885, did not 
intend, in the evenfc of its selling its Possessions, that the right 
of preference recognized to France before all the other Powers 
could be opposed to Belgium, of which King Leopold was 
sovereign. You, moreover, add that it was evident that the 
Congo State could not cede these same Possessions to Belgium 
without imposing on her the recognition of the right of pre- 
ference of France in the event of she herself selling them. 

On the other hand, you call attention to the fact that this 
explanation takes nothing from nor adds anything to the above- 
mentioned documents; that far from being in opposition to 
them, it only establishes their meaning, and that such is the 
meaning attached to them by the augast founder of the Inter- 
national African Association when he sanctioned them. 

In acknowledging the receipt of this communication, I am 
authorized to say that I take note, in the name of the Govern- 
ment of the Republic, of the interpretation which they contain 
and which you set forth as having always been the one which 
you attached to the Convention of 1884 (No. 46), in so far as 
this interpretation is not contrary to pre-existing international 
engagements. 

BOUREE. 



216 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 61] CONao AND FEANCE, [29 April, 1887, 

[Oonffo. Oabanffl Seflrlon.] 



No. hi.— PROTOCOL defamg the SmimUnts hctwem the 
Cowjo Fri-e Sink and Ike Fmwh Posaesskm^ in t!i€ Or/bmiffi 
SeffitM. Bramls, 29th April, 1887, 

(Traualation.) 

The Grjvernment of the Cougo Fi-ee State and the Govern 
raent of the French Republic, after eiaminiiig the work of the 
Cummissionoiti, wbo had been charged to t^xecute oo the spot &s 
far ns possiljle the tracing of the BoundarieB between their 
respective Possessions, have agreed to admit the folio viiig pro 
risionfi bs defimtively nettling the execution of the last para- 
graphs of Article III af the Convention of 5th February, 1885^ 
(No. 47) ; 

Bonndanj in tJw Ouhangi Begion. 
From its confluence TFith the Congo the Thalvreg of tha 
Oubangi ^hsH form the Boundaiy until its intersection hj th^ 
4ith parallel of north latitude. 

Congo Free State not to ea'ercise Political Action on rigid bank of 
the Oubm\gi ; nor Franee on left hank. 
The Congo Free State prom is en the GorerntneDt of the 
French Htpublic not to exercise anj political action on the right 
bank of the Onbangi, to the north of the 4th parallel Th& 
Govemnient of the French Ilepublic promises^ or her side, nob 
to exercise an J- political action on the left bank of the Ouhangi 
to the north of the same parallel, the Thalweg forming in botb 
cases the separation. 

Limits of Korthcr^i Boundary. 
In no case shall the north em Boundary of the Congo State 
descend below the 4th parallel of north latitnde, which is tlio 
limit already iw^inriied to it by Article V of the Convention of 
fith Febiuaiy, 1885 (No. 47). 

The two Governments have agreed to record these provisions 
in the present Protocol, 

217 Q 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



M April, 1887.] CONGO AND FBANCE. [No, 61 

[Conffo. Oabanffi Beglon.] 

In faitH of which the Undersigned, duly authorized, haye 
signed it, and have affixed their seals. 

Done at Brussels, the 29th April, 1887. 

The Administrator General of The Envoy Extraordinary 
Foreign Affairs of the Congo and Minister Flenipoten- 
Pree State, fiary of the French Republic 

at Brussels, 

EDM. VAN EETVELDE. A. BOURlfiE. 



218 



Digitized by 



Google 



IKLM' JUiSSSP 



Ho. 62] CONGO AND aEBMANY. [8 Hof ., 18M. 

LConiro.l 

No. b2.— CONVENTION lelween tlie German Empire and 
the Intei'national Association of the Congo. Berlin, 8th 
November^ 1884.* 

(Translation.) 
No Import or Transit Duties to he levied. 

Art. I. The International Association of the Congo engages 
Bot to levy any daty on articles or merchandize imported 
directly or in transit into its present or f ature possessions in the 
basins of the Congo and the Niadi-Kwila, or into its possessions 
situated on the Atlantic Ocean. This exemption from duties 
especially applies to merchandize and articles of commerce 
which are carried by the roads made round the cataracts of the 
Congo. 

Bight of German Subjects to establish themselves in Territories of 
the Association, Protection of Person and Property, Be- 
ligion^ Navigation^ Trade, and Manufactures. National and 
Most-favoured-nation Treatment. Bight to buy, sell, and hire 
houses, ^c. Coasting Trade. 

Art. II. [To same purport as Article II of the Conventioa 
with Great Britain of 16th December, 1884. No. 54.] 

General Most-favoured-nation treatment. 

Art. III. [To same purport as Article III of the Convention- 
with Great Britain of 16th December, 1884. No. 54.] 

Above Engagement to extend to any Cession of Territory by the 

Association. 

Art. IV. In the event of the cession of the present or future 
territory of the Association, or of any part of it, the obligations 
contracted by the Ajssociation towards the German Empire 
shall be transferred to the occupier. These obligations and the 
rights granted by the Association to the Gorman Empire and 

* See also Berlin Act, 26th February, 1886, p. 20, and Brussels Act, l^nd 
July, 1890, p. 48. 

219 



Digitized by 



Google 



8 Hot., 1884.] CONGO AND GERMANY. [No. 52^ 

[Oonff9.] 

its sabjects shall remain in force after eyery cession as far as 
regards each new occupier. 

Oerman recognitio7i of Flag of the AMociation. 

Akt. V. The German Empire recognizes the flag of the 
Association — a bine flag with a golden star in the centre — as 
that of a friendly State. 

German recognition of Frontiers of Congo State, 

Art. VI. The German Empire is ready on its part to 
recognize the frontiers of the territory of the Association and of 
the new State which is to be created, as they are shown in the 
4innexed map.* 

Ratifications, 

Art. YII. This Convention shall be ratified and the ratifica- 
tions shall be exchanged with the least possible delay.f 

This Convention shall come into force immediately after the 
exchange of the ratifications. 

Done at Berlin, the 8th November, 1884. 

Count V. BBANDENBOURG 
STRAUCH. 

• ThiB map was not published with the ConTeniion, but see Map facing 
11.246. 

t Batifled 27th Norember, 1884. 



220 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 53] CONGO AND aBEAT BRITAIN. [16 Dec^ 1884. 

[Congo.l 

No. G&.— DECLARATIONS exclmnged letwcen the Govern- 
nient of Her Britannic Majesty and the Intemaiicmal 
Association of the Congo. Berlin, 16th Deceinher, 1884.* 

Declaration of the Association, 
The International Association of the Congo, founded by His 
Majesty the King of the Belgians, for the purpose of promoting 
the civilization and commerce of Africa, and for other humane 
and benevolent purposes, hereby declares as follows : — 

Treaties with States in basins of the Congo and the Niadi- 

Kxoilu^ ^c. 

1. That by Treaties with the legitimate Sovereigns in the 
basins of the Congo and of the Niadi-Kwiln, and in adjacent 
territories upon the Atlantic, there has been added to it territory 
for the use and benefit of Free States established, and being 
established, in the said basins and adjacent territories. 

Adnlinistration of Interests vested in the Association. 

2. That by virtue of the said Treaties, the administration of 
the interests of the said Free States is vested in the Associa- 
tion. 

Flag. 

3. That the Association has adopted as its standard, and 
and that of the said Free States, a blue flag with a golden star 
in the centre. 

^0 Customs duties to be levied on linports.f 

4. That with a view of enabling commerce to penetrate into 
Equatorial Africa, the Association and the said Free States 
have resolved to levy no customs duties upon goods or articles 
of merchandize imported directly into their territories or 
brought by the route which has been constructed around the 
cataracts of the Congo. 

* Batified, 9th Maj, 1885. See aUo Convention of same date, p. 223. 
t See also Berlin Act, 26th February, 1885, p. 20, and Brusseb Act, 
2nd July, 1890, p. 48. 

221 



Digitized by 



Google 



16 Dec, 1884.] OONOO AND GREAT BRITAIN. [No, 53 

[Ccmffo.] 

Religious Liberty. EigJiis of Navigation, Commerce, and 
Industry. 

5. That the Association and the said Free States gnaratee 
to foreigners established in their territories the free exercise of 
their religion, the rights of navigation, commerce, and industry ; 

Right to Buy, Sell, Let and Hire Lands, Houses, Mines, and Forests. 

And the right of buying, selling, letting, and hiring lands, 
buildings, mines, and forests, on the sole condition that they 
shall obey the laws. 

Prevention of the Slave Trade and Suppression of Slavery. 

6. That the Association and^the said Free States will do all 
in their power to prevent the Slave Trade and to suppress 
slavery. 

Done at Berlin, the 16th December, 1884. 

(On behalf of the Association), 

STRAUCH. 



Declaration of Her Britannic Majesty* s Government. 
British recognition of Flag of the Association. 

The Government of Her Britannic Majesty declare their 
sympathy with, and approval of, the humane and benevolent 
purposes of the Association, and hereby recognize the flag of 
the Association, and of the Free States under its administration, 
as the flag of a friendly Qovemment. 

(On behalf of Her Majesty's Government), 

EDWARD B. MALET. 



222 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 54] CONGO AND GBEAT BBITAIN. [16 Dec, 1884, 

[Ck)nffo. Consular Jnrisdiotion, fto.] 

No. M,.— CONVENTION between Her Britannic Majesty's. 
Government and the International Association of the Congo^ 
Berlin, 16th December, 1884.* 

Whereas the Government of Her Britannic Majesty have 
recognized the flag of the International Association of the 
Congo, and of the Free States under the administration, as the 
flag of a friendly Government. (No. 53.) 

And whereas it is expedient to regulate and define the rights 
of British subjects in the territories of the said Free States, and 
to provide for the exercise of civil and criminal jurisdiction 
over them, in manner hereinafter mentioned, until sufficient 
provision shall have been made by the Aasociation for the ad- 
ministration of justice among foreigners. It is hereby agreed 
ad follows : — 

No Import or Transit Duties to be levied.f 
Abt. I. The International Association of the Congo under* 
takes not to levy any duty, import or transit, on articles or 
merchandize imported by British subjects into the said terri- 
tories, or into any territory which may hereafter come under 
its government. This freedom from custom-house duties* 
shall extend to merchandize and articles of commerce which 
shall be transported along the roads or canals constructed, or ta 
be constructed, around the cataracts of the Congo. 

Bight of British Subjects to establish themselves in Teri-itories of 
the Association, 
Art. II. British subjects shall have at all times the right of 
sojourning and of establishing themselves within the terri- 
tories which are or shall be under the government of the said 
Association. 

Protection of Persons and Property, Beligion, Navigation^ Gom^- 
mercey and Industry. Mostfavoured-nation treatment. 

They shall enjoy the same protection which is accorded to 
* See also DeclarationB of same date, p. 221. 

t See also Berlin Act, 26th Febraarj, 1885, p. 20, and Brussels Act, 
Slid July, 1890, p. 48. 

223 



Digitized by 



Google 



16 Dec, 1884.1 OONaO and OBEAT BRITAiy, [No, 54 

[Conffo. Consular Juriadioticm, fto.] 

the subjects or citizens of the most favonred nation in all 
matters which regard their persons, their property, the free 
exercise of their religion, and the rights of navigation, com- 
meixse, and industry. 

Bight to Bdy, Selly Let, or Hire Lands, Houses^ Minea^ and Forests^ 
Coasting Trade. 

Especially they shall have the right of baying, of selling, 
of letting, and of hiring lands and buildiDgs, mines, and forests, 
situated within the said territories, and of founding houses of 
commerce, and of carrying on commerce and a coasting trade 
under the British flag. 

General Mod-favoured-nation treatment. 

Art. III. The Association engages itself not to accord any 
advantnges whatsoeyer to the subjects of any other nation with- 
out the same advantages being extended to British subjects. 

Appointment of Consuls. 

Art. IV. Her Majesty the Queen of Great Bntain and 
Ireland may appoint Consuls or other Consular Officers to reside 
at ports or stations within the said territories, and the Associa^ 
tion engages itself to protect them. 

British Consular Jurisdiction ; Civil and Criminal. 

Art. V. Every British Consul or Consular officer within 
the said territories, who shall be thereunto duly authorized by 
Her Britannic Majesty's Government, may hold a Consular 
Court for the district assigned to him, and shall exercise sole 
and exclusive jurisdiction, both civil and criminal, over the 
persons and property of British subjects within the same, in 
accordance with British law. 

Laws of Free States to he observed hy British Subjects. 

Art. YI. Nothing in the last preceding Article contained 
shall be deemed to relieve any British subject from the obliga- 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 64] CONGO AND GREAT BRITAIN. [16 Dec, 1884. 

[Conro. Ooiuralax Jiuifldlotioii» fto.] 

lion to observo the laws of the said Free Stetes applicable to 
foreigners ; 

Infractions of Laws hy British Subjects justiciable by British 
Consular Court. 

Bnt any infraction thereof hy a British subject shall be 
jnsticiable only by a British Consular Court. 

Offences against Person or Property of British Subjects by Inhaibit" 
ants of Free States punishable by Laws of Free States, 

Art. VII. Inhabitants of the said territories who are subject 
to the government of the Association, if they shall commit any 
wrong against the person or property of a British subject, shall 
be arrested and punished by the authorities of the Association 
according to the laws of the said Free States. 

Administration of Justice. 

Justice shall be equitably and impartially administered on 
both sides. 

Jurisdiction in Civil Cases. 

Art. YIII. a British subject, having reason to complain 
against an inhabitant of the said territories, who is subject to 
the government of the Association, must proceed to the British 
Consulate, and there state his g^evance. The Consul shall in- 
quire into the merits of the case, and do his utmost to arrange 
it amicably. In like manner, if any such inhabitant of the said 
territories shall have reason to complain against a British sub- 
ject, the British Consul shall no less listen to his complaint and 
endeavour to settle it in a friendly manner. 

Settlement of Disputes. 

If disputes take place of such a nature that the Consul can- 
not arrange them amicably, then he shall request the assistance 
of the authorities of the Association to examine into the merits 
of the case and decide it equitably. 

225 



Digitized by 



Google 



16 Dec, 1884], CONaO AND GREAT BBITAIN. [No. 54 

[Cons>o. Ck>n«ular Juricdiotioxi, Ac] 

Recovery of Debts. 

Art. IX. Should any inhabitant of the said territories, who 
is subject to the goyernment of the Association, fail to dis- 
charge any debt incurred to a British sabject, the authorities 
of the Association will do their utmost to bring him to justice, 
and to enforce recovery of the said debt; and should any 
British subject fail to discharge a debt incurred by him to any 
such inhabitant, the British authorities will in like manner do 
their utmost to bring him to justice, and to enforce recovery of 
the debt. No British Consul nor any authority of the Associa- 
tion is to be held responsible for the payment of any debt con- 
tracted cither by a British subject, or by any inhabitant of the 
said te^tories, w^ho is subject to the government of the Asso- 
ciation. 

Above Engagements to apply also to any Cession of Territory. 

Art. X. In case of the Association being desirous to cede 
any portion of the territory now or hereafter under its govern- 
ment, it shall not cede it otherwise than as sabject to all the 
engagements contracted by the Association under this Conven- 
tion. Those engagements, and the rights thereby accorded to 
British subjects, shall continue to be in vigour after every 
cession made to any new occupant of any portion of the said 
territory. 

Ratifications. 

This Convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall 
be exchanged w^ith the least possible delay.* It shall come into 
operation immediately upon the exchange of ratifications. 

Done at Berlin, the 16th December, 1884. 

EDWARD MALET. 
STRAUCH. 
* Eatifications exchanged at Brussels, 9th May, 1886. 



226 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 66J CONGO AND ITALY. [19 Dec, 1884^ 

[Oonso.] 



No. bb.— CONVENTION between Italy and the Iritsr- 
national Association of the Congo, Berlin^ 19th December ^ 
1884. 

^0 Import or Transit Duties to he levied in the hcisins of the Congo 
or of the Niadi Kwilu. 

Art. I. [To same purport; as Art. 1 of the Convention with 
Great Britain, 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Bight of Italian Subjects to establish themselves in Territories of 
the Association, Protection of Persons and Property, Religion, 
Rights of Navigation^ Commerce, and Industry, National and 
Most-favoured-nation Treatment. Bight to buy, sell^ and hire 
Lands, Houses, Mines, and Forests. 

Art. II. [Same as Art. II of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

General Most-favoured-nation Treatment, 

Art. III. [To same purport as Art. Ill of the Convention 
with Great Britain of 16tli December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Appointment of Consuls, 

Art. IY. His Majesty the King of Italy may appoint 
Consuls or other Consular officers to reside at ports or stations 
within the said territories, and the Association engages itself to 
protect them there. 

Italian Consular Jurisdiction, 

Art. V. [Same as Art. V of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Laws of Free States to be observed by Italian Subjects, Infractions 
justiciable by Italian Consular Court, 

Art. VI. [Same as Art. VI of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

227 



Digitized by 



Google 



19 Dec, 1884.] CONGO AND ITALY. [No. 6S 

[Oonffo.] 

Offences against Person or Property of Italian Subjects by Subjects 
of Free States, and punishable by Laws of Free Stages. Ad- 
ministration of Justice. 
Art. VII. [Same as Art. VII of the Convention with Great 

Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).l 

Jurisdiction in Civil Gases. Settlement of Disputes. 

Art. VIII. [Same as Art. VIII of the Convention with 
Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Recovery of Debts. 
Art. IX. [To same as Art. IX of the Convention with 
Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Above Fngagements to apply also to any Cessions of Territory. 

Art. X. [Same purport as Art. X of the Convention with 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Prevention of the Slave Trade and Suppression of Slavery. 

Art. XI. The Association and the Free States undertake to 
do all in their power to prevent the Slave Trade and suppress 
Slavery. 

Italian Recognition of Flag of the Association. 

Art. XII. The Italian Government, sympathising with and 
approving the humanizing and civilizing aim of the Association, 
recognizes the flag of the Association and of the Free States 
placed under its government — a blue flag with a gold star in 
the centre — as the flag of a friendly Government. 

Art. XIII. — Convention to be ratified. Ratifications to be ex- 
changed as soon as possible.* 

Art. XIV. — Operaiion of Convention on exchange' of Ratiftca' 
tiow. 

Done at Berlin, the 19th December, 1884. 



STRAUCH. 
LAUNAY. 



• Ratified 14th June, 1S86. 
228 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 56] CONGO AND LIBEEIA. [15 Dec, 1891. 

[Conffo.] 



No. 56. — TREATY between Liberia and the Congo Free 
State. 15th December, 1891. 

IRatiJications exchanged 22nd August, 1893.] 

Aet I. — Friendship. 

Art. II. — Freedom of Commerce. Both Parties reserve JUght 
of Concessions to Companies or Indivixiuals for working of Natural 
Products. Equal Bights with Nationals as regards Personal Pro- 
perty and Succession Duties. Mosi-favpured Treatment as regards 
all other Rights or Privileges to Foreigners. 

Art. III. — Shipping Dues^ Tonnage, 8fc., same a« on Nationals. 

Art. IV. — Exemption from Tonnage Dues, and Most-favoured- 
nation Treatment respecting Clearance Dues in certain cases. 

Art. V. — Protection of Vessels and Officers. Beciprocity in 
Cases of Shipwrecks. 

Art. VI. — Recognition of Corporations. 

Art. VII. — National or Most-favoured-nation Treatment in 
regard to Property, Restrictions or Taxes. 

Art. VIII. — Freedom of Religion. 

Art. IX. — Most-favoured-nalion Treatment as regards Privi- 
leges, Sfc, of Consular Agents. 

Art. X. — Naiional or Most-favoured-nation Treatment re- 
specting Importation, Bondage, Transit, and Exportation of 
Goods. 

Art. XT. — Equal Treatment as regards above. 

Art. XII. — Right to any Favour respecting Customs or Trade 
granted to a Third Power, on similar Conditions. 

Art. XIII. — Will submit Differences to Tribunal of Arbi- 
tration. 

Art. XIV. — Extradition Treaiy to be concluded. Most- 
favoured-nation TreatTnent in the meanwhile. 

Art. XV. — Right to take Employment in the Territory of the 
other. 

Art. XVI. — Reciprocity in Slave Trade Suppression. 



229 



Digitized by 



Google 



11 Dec, 1884.] CONaO AND NETHEBIiANDS. [No. 67 

[Conffo.] 

No. bl.— CONVENTION between tlie Netherlands Govern- 
ment a7id the International Association of the Congo. 
Brussels, 21th Beceviler, 1884. 

(Translation.) 

No Import or Transit Duties to he levied. 

Art^ I. [Same as Art. I of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Right of Netherland Subjects to establish themselves in Territories 
of the Association, Protection of Persons and Property. 
Navigation^ Commerce, and Indtistry, National and Most- 
favoured-nation Treatment, Bight to buy, sell, let, or hire 
Lands, Houses, Mines, and Forests. Coasting Trade. 

Art. II. [Same as Art. II of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54),] 

Oeneral Most-favoured-nation Treatment. 

Art. III. [Same as Art. Ill of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54.)] 

Appointment of Consuls. 

Art. IV. [Same as Art. IV of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Netherland Consular Jurisdiction. Civil and Criminal. 

Art. V. Until a form of judicial procedure has been 
organized in the Free States of the Congo, and such organiza- 
tion has been notified by the Association, every Dutch Consul 
or Consular Officer within the said territories, who shall be 
thereunto duly authorized by the Government of His Majesty 
the King of the Netherlands, may hold a Consular Court for 
the district assigned to him, and shall exercise sole and exclu- 
sive jurisdiction, both civil and criminal, over the persons and 
property of Dutch subjects within the same, in accordance 
with Dutch law. 

280 



Digitized by 



Google 



■ ^^1. imiJiLii 



Ho. 57] CONGO AND NETHERLANDS. [27 Dec, 1884. 

[Conffo.] 

Laws of Free States to he observed by Netherland Subjects, Iiu 
fractions justiciable by Netherland Consular Court. 
Akt. VI. [Same as Art. VI of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th Deceniber, 1884 (No. 54;.] 

fences against Person or Property of Netherland Subjects by 
Inhabitants of Free States, punichable by Lafvs of Free States, 
Administration of Justice. 
Art. VII. [Same as Art. VII of the Conveptioij with Great 

Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Jurisdiction in Civil Cases. Settlement of Disputes. 
Abt. VIII. [Same as Art. VIII of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. j54).] 

Recovery of Debts. 
Art. IX. [Same as Art. IX of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th Peoemjjer, X884 (No. 54).] 

Above Engagem&nts to apply also to any Cessions of Territory. 
Art. X. [Xo same purport aa Art. X of tb.e Convention with 
Great Britain of 16tJ;i December, 1884 (No. 54),] 

Prevention of the Slave Trade and Suppression of Slavery, 
Art. XI. [Same as § 6 of the Declai-ation with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 53).] 

Netherlan^ recognition of Flags of the Association. 
.AfVf. XII. The Government of the Netherlands, sy-mpa^ 
tbising wijbh the hnn^anizing and civilizing aims of the Associa- 
tion, recognizes the flag of the Association and of i;he Free 
States placed njider its administration — a blue flag with a gold 
star in the centre — ^as the flag of a friendly Gt)vemme»t. 

Convention to be ratified and Ratifi^caiions exchanged as soon as 
possible. Execution of Convention from date of Exchange of 
Ratifications.* 
Done at Brnssels, the 27th December, 18^4. 

STRAUCH. 

L. GERICKE. 

• Hati-fied loth Jannarr, 1885. 

231 K 



Digitized by 



Google 



14 Feb., 1885.] CONaO AND PORTUaAL. [No. 68 

[Boundaries. Oabinda.] 

No. BB.— CONVENTION between Portugal and the Inter- 
national Afiso^.iatio7i of the Co'^/fo respecting BounAaries^ 
&c. Berlin, l^th February, 1885. 

(Translation.) 

AhT. I. The International Association of the Congo hereby 
declares that it extends to Portugal the privileges it has con- 
ceded to the United States of America, the German Empire, 
England, Italy, Austria- Hungary, the Netherlands, Spain, 
France, and the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, in 
virtue of the Conventions which it concluded with the Powers 
respectively on the 22nd April (No. 64), 8th November (No. 
52), 16th, 19th, 24th, and 27th December (Nos. 53, 54, 55, 40, 
and 57), 1884, 7th January (Ng. 62), and 6th and lOih 
February (Nos. 47 and 63), 1885, certified copies of which the 
Association engages to transmit to the Gk)vernment of his 
Mosj; Faithful Majesty. 

Oeneral Most-favoured-nation Treatment. 

Art. II. [To same purport as Art. II of the Conventian 
>vith Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Frontiers between Portuguese Possessions and those of the 
Association. Enclave of Cabinda, 

Art. III. The International Association of the Congo and 
His Most Faithful Majesty the King of Portugal and the 
Algarves adopt the following frontiers between their posses- 
sions ill West Africa, namely : — 

To the north of the River Congo (Zaire) the right frontier 
joining tl^e mouth of the river which empties itself into the 
Atlantic Ocean, to the south of the Bay of Kabinda, near 
Ponta Vermelha, at Cabo-Lombo ; 

The parallel of this latter point prolonged till it intersects 
the meridian of the junction of the Cuiacalla with the Luculla; 

The meridian thus fixed until it meets the River Luculla; 

The course of the I^ucalla to its junction with the Chiloango 
(Luango Luce) ; 

5^32 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 68] CONaO AND PORTUGAL. [14 Feb., 1886. 

[BoundaxleB. Cabinda.] 

The course of the Congo (Zaire) from its mouth to its 
junction with the little River TJango-Uargo ; 

The meridian which passes by the month of the little River 
TJaugo- LTango between the Datch and Portuguese factories, so 
as to leave the latter in Portuguese territory, till this meridian 
toaches the parallel of Nokki ; 

The parallel of Nokki till the point where it intersects the 
River Kuango (Cuango) ; 

From this point, in a soatherly direction, the course of the 
Kuango (Cuango). 

[Altered by Convention of 25th May, 1891. (No. 60.)] 

Art. IV. A Boundary Commisnon to he appointed. In ca^e 
of a Difference of Opinion, Question to he settled hy Delegates. 
[See Convention, 25tih May, 1891 (No. 60).] ' 

Conditional Recognition hy Portugal of Neutrality of Possessions 
of Association. 

Art. V. His Most Faithful Majesty the King of Portugal 
and the Algarves is inclined to recognize the neutrality of the 
possessions of the International Association of the Congo con- 
ditionally upon discussing and regulating the conditions of suoh 
neutrality in common with the other Powers represented at 
the Berlin Conference (No. 17). 

Portuguese Recognition of Flag of Association. 

Art. VI. His Most Faithful Majesty the King of Portugal 
and the Algf^rves recognizes the Flag of the International 
Association of the Congo, a blue Flag with a Golden Star in 
the centre, as the Flag of a friendly Government. 

Art. VII, Convention to be ratified.* 

Berlin, 14th day of February, 1885. 

STRAUCH. 

MARQUIS DE PESAFIEL. 

ALPH. DE COURCEL. 



* Ratified 14th August, 1886. 

233 R 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



25 May, 183L] CONOO AND POBCuaAL. [No. 50 

[OoxLKo. Lunda Koffioa.] 



No. 59. — TREATY between Portugal and the Independent 
State of the Congo, respecting the Delimitation of their 
respective Spheres of Sovereignty and Influence in the 
Region of Lunda. Lisbon^ 2^th May, 1891. 

(TraDslation.) 

His Majesty the King of Portogal and the Algarves and 
His Majesty the King Sovereign of the Independent State of 
the Congo, animated with the desire to draw more closely, 
throngh good neighbourly relations and perfect harmony, the 
bonds of friendship which exist between the two conn tries, 
have determined to draw tip for this purpose a special Treaty 
for the delimitation of their spheres of Sovereignty (Soaver- 
tiiiiete) and influence respectively in the region of Lunda, and 
have named the following as their Plenipotentiaries : — 

[Here follow the names of the Plenipotentiaries.] 

Delimitation between the Fowessions of Portugal and those of the 
Congo Free State in the region of Lunda, 

Art. I. In the region of Lunda, the Possessions of His 
Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves, and His 
Majesty the King of the Belgians, Sovereign of the Inde- 
pendent State of the Congo, are defined in the following 
manner : — 

1. By the Thalweg of the course of the Cuango, from the 
6th degree of south latitude to the 8th degree ; 

By the 8th parallel to its intersection by the River Kuilu ; 
By the course of the Kuilu in a northerly direction, as far 
as the 7th degree of south latitude. 

By the 7th parallel as far as the River Cassai. 

2. It is agreed that the definitive tracing of the line of 
demarcation of the Territories comprised between the 7th and the 
8th parallel of south latitude from the Cuango to the Cassai, 

234 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 69] CONGO AND PORTUaAL. [25 May, 1891. 

[Oonffo. Iiunda Beslon.] 

flball be executed later on, taking into account the configuration 
of the land and the limitu of the Native States. 

1. The States of Maxinge (Capenda) and Cassassa, the 
northern frontier of which runs along the 8th parallel from the 
right bank of the Guango to the course of the Kuilu, the State of 
Amacundo (Caungula), which has for its western limit the right 
bank of the latter stream, and which extends to the 7th parallel, 
as well as the State of Mataba ( Ambinge), which extends towards 
the same latitude, and terminates on the left bank of the Cassai, 
shall remain under the Sovereignty of His Majesty the King of 
Portugal and the Algarves. 

2. The States of Mussuco (Cambongo) and Anzovo, the 
southern frontier of which runs along the 8th parallel from the 
Cuango to Kuilu and the States of Cassongo (Muene Puto), 
Tupeinde (Muata Cumbana), and Turnba (Mat Munene) shall 
remain subject to the Sovereignty of His Majesty the King 
Sovereign of the Independent State of the Congo. 

3. By the Thalweg of the Cassai from the point where this 
river meets the line of demarcation, mentioned in the preceding 
paragraph, to the mouth of that one of its affluents which 
originates in Lake Dilolo, and by the course of this affluent as 
far as its source. 

The region to the west of the Cassai shall belong to Portugal ; 
the region to the east to the Independent State of the Congo. 

4. By the watershed dividing the waters of the Zaire and 
those of the Zambesi, as far as its intersection by the 24th 
meridian east of Greenwich. 

Abt. II. — Botmdary Commission to he AppoitUed. 
Abt. Til. — Mutual Protection of Persons and Property of re- 
spective Subjects. 

Art. IV. — Reference to Arbitration of Disputes arising out of 
present Treaty, 

Art. V, — Treaty to be Eatified, Batificationsto be Exchanged 
at Lisbon,* 

Done at Lisbon, the 25th May, 1891. 

(L.S.) CARLOS ROMA..DU BOB AGE. 
(L.SO E DE GllELLE ROGIEO. 
* Ratifications exchanged at Lisbon Ist August, 1801. 
235 



Digitized by 



Google 



25 May, 1891.] CONGO AND PORTUGAL. [No 80 

[Conffo. Boundaries. Lower Oon^ro.] 

No, QO.— CONVENTION letween the Independent State of 
the Congo and Portugal^ for the Settlement of certain diffir- 
culties with regard to their Frontiers in the Lower Congo. 
Brussels, 25th May, 1891. 

(Translation.) 
His Majesfcj the King- Sovereign of the Independent State 
of the Congo and His Most Faithful Majesty the King of 
Portugal and the Algarves, being convinced on the one hand 
of tLe great ntility, as much in the interest of the two States as 
in that of the work of ciyilization and progress in Africa, of 
assariiig for themselves an easier, a more cordial, and therefore 
a more efficacious co-operation in the realisation of their humani- 
tarian and civilizing designs ; and animated, on the other hand, 
with an equal desire to draw closer the friendly relations exist- 
ing between the two States, have decided to appoint Pleni- 
potentiaries, furnished with the necessary powers, to discuss, 
conclude, and sign a Convention for the settlement in a friendly 
and direct manner of certain differences and difficulties which 
have arisen on the occasion of the work of delimitation foreseen 
in Article IV of the Convention concluded at Berlin on the 14th 
February, 1885 (No. 58) between Portugal and the Inter- 
uatirnal Association of the Congo; and have appointed in this 
capacity and for this purpose. 

[Here follow the names of the Plenipotentiaries.] 

Boundary between Portuguese Possessions and those of the Free 
State of the Congo, 
Art. I. His Majesty the King- Sovereign of the Independent 
State of the Congo and His Most Faithful Majesty the King of 
Portugal and the Algarves adopt, partly with a view to rectify- 
ing and partly with a view to determining more precisely the 
Boundaries of their Possessions or adjacent Territories in "West 
Africa, laid down in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th 
(last but one) paragraphs of Art. Ill of the Convention con- 
cluded at Berlin between Portugal and the International Asso- 
ciation of the Congo of the 14th February, 1885, (No. 58) the 
delimitations laid down in the two following articles, numbered 

II and III. 

236 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. eOJ CONGO AND PORTuaAL, [25 May^ 1891/ 

[Oonaro. Boundaries. Oabinda; I^o^er donffo.] 

Enclave of Gahinda* 

Abt. II. The portion of the Boundary laid down in the 2nd 
3rd, 4th, and 5th paragraphs of Art. Ill, of the above-mentioned 
Convention of the 14th Febraary, 1885 (No. 58), is replaced 
by tho broken line described as follows :; — 

A straight line joining a point taken on the t)each, 300 miles 
to the north of the principal house of the Dutch Factory of 
Lnnga, at the moutb of the Bivnlet Lunga in the lagoon of the' 
same name. 

The course of the Rivulet Lunga, as far as MfilloUgo Pool j— ^ 
the villages of Congo, N'Conde, Jena, &c., remaining to the 
Independent State of the Congo, and those of Cabo Lombo^ 
M'Venho, Tabe, Jangy, Taly, Spita Gagandjime, N'Goiso, M'To^ 
Fortalaza, Sokki, &c., to Portugal. 

The courses of the Rivers Venzo and Lulofe, as far as the 
source of the latter on the slope of Mount Nime-Thiama , 

The parallel of this source, as far as its intersection by tho 
meridian of the confluence of the Luculla, and the river called 
by some WZenze, and by others Culla-Calla ; 

The meridian thus determined until it meet^ the Rivex' 
Luculla ; 

The course of the Luculla, as far as its confluence with th^ 
Ckiloango (Luango-Luce)« 

Lower Congo and Nokki. 

Aet. m. The partial definition of Boundaries laid down in 
the 6th, 7th, and 8th paragraphs of Article III of the above- 
mentioned Convention of the 14th February, 1885 (No. 58), 
is interpreted, defined and rectified in the following terms: — 

In the River Congo (Zaire) and from its mouth to tlie 
parallel, passing 100 metres to the north of the principal honse 
of the Domingos de Souza at Nokki, the line separating the 
waters belonging respectively to the two States shall be the 
middle line of. the channel of navigation generally followed by 
vessels drawing a large amount of water, which line actually 
leaves to the right, and comprises between it and the right bank 
of the river, notably and amongst others, the fluvial islands 
named Bulanbemba, Mateba, and Princes Isles ; and leaves o 

237 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 May, 1891.] CONGO AND PORTUGAL. [No, 60 

[Conffo. Boundaries. Iiower Con^o.] 

ils left and comprises between it and the left bank of the river 
notably and amongst others, the fluvial islands known by the 
iiames of Balicoco and Sacran Ambaca Isles, and from the inter- 
section of this median line by the above-mentioned parallel, this 
same parallel as far as its intersection by the left bank of the 
river ; 

At Ifokki the Boundary shall follow a straight line, joining 
this latter point on the left bank of the Congo (Zaire) to 
another point taken 2,000 metres to the east of the same bank 
on the parallel passing by the foundations of the house of the 
Nokki Residency, which is actually in course of construction ; 

From this latter point the Boundary shall follow this same 
(parallel of the I)'okki Residency as far ad its intersection by the 
River Kuango (Cuango). 

All the fluvial islands of th6 Congo (2aire), mentioned by 
name or not in the body of the present article, but situated as a 
matter of fact, some Ibetween the median line of the actual 
chanhel of navigation and the right bank of the river, the other 
islands situated between this same line and the left bank, belongs 
definitively and independenUy of all eventual displacement of 
the channel, the former to the Independent State of the Congo, 
and the latter to Portugal. 

Art. IV. — Fiscal Arrangements, 

Art. V. — Status quo to he maintained pending marking out of 
new Boundary Line on the spot-. 

Art. Vf . — Reference to Arbitration of any Dispntes arising out 
of present Convention. 

Art. VII. — Convention to he Ratified, Ratifications to he 
Exchanged loithin Three Months,* 

Done in duplicate at Brussels, the 25th day of the month of 
May, 1891. 

(L.S.) EDM. VAN. EETVELDE. 

(L.S.) DE MACEDO. 
On the 9th February, 1891, an Agreement was signed between the Congo 
Free State and Portugal providing for a Conyentional Importation Tariff in 
their respective Dominions in the basin of the Congo : but it was replaced 
by an Agreement which was signed on the 8th April, 1892, respecting 
Customs Duties in the Western Congo. 

• Batifioations exchanged at Lisbon 1st August, 1891. 
2^8 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mapto Illustrate the: Bouhdary between 
THE Congo State & Portuguese Possessions as Defined 

BYART.2&3 OF the CONVENTION OF 2S" MAY l89l . 



Digitized by 



GooQie 



Map to Illustrate the Boundary Between 
AS Defined by Art. 2 and 3 oi 




Digitized by 



Google 



rHE Congo State am d Portuguese Possessions 
THE Convention of 25^" May 1891. 




Digitized by 



Google 



Map TO Illustrate THE Boundary between 

THE Congo State & Portuguese Possessions as Defined 

BY_Afvr2A3oF THE Convention of 2S^ May I89i. 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 61] CONGK) AND RUS3IA. [5 Feb., 1885. 

[Oongo.l 

JBfO. 6L — CONVENTION between the Ruman Empire arid 
the International Association of the Congo, Bnissek, 5th 
February, 1885. 

No Import or Transit Duties to he levied. 

Aet. I. [Same as Arfcicle I of Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54;.] 

Bight of Russian Subjects to estahllsh themselves in Territories of 
the Association, Protection of Persons and Property. Reli- 
gious Liberty, Rights of Navigation, Convnufrcey and Industry. 
National and Most-favoured-nation treatment. Right to huy^ 
selly lety and hire Houses, Mines, and Forests, 

Art. II. [Same as Article II of Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

General Most-favourednation treatment. 

Art. III. [Same as Article III of Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Appointment of Consuls. Russian Consular Jurisdiction. 
Abt. IY. It is understood that Russia shall enjoy, as regards 
the nomination of Consuls, their f auctions and Consular juris- 
diction, all the rights and privileges which may be accorded to 
any other State. 

Agreement to include any Cessions of Territory m^de by the 

Association^ 
Art. V. [To same purport as Article X of Convention with 
Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Russian recognition of Flag of Association. 
Art. VI. [To same purport as Declaration with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 53).]. 

Done at Brussels, the 5th February, 1885% 

CoMTK BLOUDOFP. 
Barok BEYENS. 
239 



Digitized by 



Google 



7 Jan., 1885 3 CONao AND SPAIN. [No. 02 

[OOQffO.] 

No. Q2.— CONVENTION between Spain and the Inter- 
national Association of the Congo, Brttssels, *Ith January 
1885. 

No Import or Transit Ihities to he levied. 

Art. I. [To same purport as Article I of the Convention with 
Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Hlght of Spanish Subjects to establish themselves in Territories of 
the Association, Protection of Persons* and Property, R-eli' 
gious Liberty. Rights of Navigation, C&mmercei and Industry. 
National and Most^fa1)oured^nation treatment. B/ight to huy^ 
sell, let, and hire Lands, Houses, Mines, and Forests. 

Art. II. [Same as Article! II of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th I^^ecember, 1884 (No. 54).] 

General Most^favowred^nation treatmenU 

Akt. III. [Same as Article III of the Convention with Gfeat 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No- 54).] 

Appointment of Consuls. 

Art. 1Y* [Same as Article IV of the Conventioh M\i)i Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No- 54).] 

Spanish Consular Jurisdiction, 

Afit. V; [To same purport as Article V of the Conreutioti 
with Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54); 

Laws of Free States to be observed by Spanish Subjetts. 

Art. VI. [Same as Article VI of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Offences against Person or Property of Spanish Subjects by Inhabit* 
ants of Free States punishable by Laws of the Free States* 

Art. VIl. [Same as Article VII of the Convention with 
Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] ' 

240 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho 62] CONGO AND SPAIN. [7 Jan. 1885. 

[Oonffo.] 

Jurisdiction in Civil Oases, Settlement of Disputes, 
Art. VIII. [Same as Article VIlI of the Convention with 
Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Recovery of Debts, 

Art. IX. [Same as Article IX of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Above Engagements to apply also to any Territory ceded by the 
Associations, 

Art. X. [Same as Atiicle X of the ConventiflTn with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Prevention of the Slave Trade and suppression of Slavery, 

. Art. XI. [Same as Aji^icle 6 of the Declaration with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 53).] 

Spanish recognition of Flag of the Association. 

Art. XII. [Same as British Declaration of 16th December, 
1884 (No. 53).] 

Convention to be ratified and Ratifications to be exchanged as 
expeditiously as possible. 

Art. XIII. Execution of Convention from date of exchange 
of Ratifications,* 

[Same as Article X of the Convention with Great Britain 
of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Done at Bmssels, the 7th January, 1885. 

CoMTE PAUL DE BORCHGRAVE D'ALTENA. 
RAFAEL MERRY DEL VAL. 

• Batifled 16th AprU, 1885. 



^4l 



Digitized by 



Google 



10 Feb., 1886.] CONaO and SWEDEN AND NORWAY. [No. 63 

[Congo.] 

No. ea.— CONVENTION between the United Kingdoms of 
Sweden and Norvoay and the Iniem/ttiorud Association of 
the Congo, Berlin, 10th February, 1885. 

Recognition by Sweden and Norway of Flag of the Association, 

Art. I. [To same purport as British Declaration of I6th 
December, 1884 (No. 53).] 

No Import or Transit Duties to be levied. 
Art. II. [Same as Article I of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Bight of Swedish and Norwegian Subjects to establish themselves 
in the Territories of tJie Association. Protection of Persons and 
Property, Religious Liberty. Rights of Navigation, Commerce, 
and Industry. National and Most-favoured^nation treatment^ 
Right to buy, sell, let, and hire Lands^ Houses^ Mines, and 
Forests. 
Abt. in. [Same as Article II of the Convention with Great 

Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

General Most-favoured-nation treatment. 

Art. IV. [Same as Article III of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Appointrnent of Consuls. 
Art. V. [Same as Article IV of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. B4).] 

Swedish and Norwegian Consular Jurisdiction. 

Art. VI. [To same purport as Article V of the Convention 
with Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Laws of the Free State to be observed. Infractions justiciable by 
Swedish and Norwegian Consular Court. 

Art. VII. [Same as Article VT of the Convention with Great 
Britain of IGth December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

242 



Digitized by 



Google 



No 63] CONaO AND SWEDEN AND NORWAY. [10 Feb., 1865. 

[Oonffo.] 

Offences against Person or Property of Swedish and Norwegian 
Subjects hy Inhabitants of Free States punishable by Laws of 
the Free States. Administration of Justice. 

Art. VIII. [Same as Article VII of the Convention with 
Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Jurisdiction in Civil Gases. Settlement of Disputes. 

Art. IX. [Same as Article VIII of the Conyocation with 
Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Becovery of Debts. 

Art. X. [Same as Article IX of the Convention with Great 
Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Prevention of tJie Slave Trade, Suppression of Slavery. 

Art. XI. [Same as Article VI of the Declaration with 
Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 53).] 

Above Engagements to apply equally to any Territories ceded by the 

Association. 

Art. XII. [To same purport as Article X of the Convention 
with Great Britain of 16th December, 1884 (No. 54).] 

Ratifications. 

Art. XIII. This Convention shall be ratified, and theBatifi- 
catiors shaU be exchanged with the least possible delay.* 

It shall come into operation immediately upon the exchange 
of Ratifications. 

Done at Berlin, the 10th day of February, 1885. 

STRAUCH. 
BILDT. 



[Turkey was a Signatory Party to the Berlin Act, of 26th 
February, 1885 No., 17, p. 20, and to the Biussels Act, of 
2nd July, 1890, No. 18, p. 48 ] 

• Ratified 11th May, 1885. 
243 



Digitized by 



Google 



22 April, 1884.] CONGO AND UNITED STATES. [Ho. 84 

[Congo.] 



No. Q^— DECLARATIONS exchanged between the United 
States of America and the Intemortional Association of the 
*Congo. Washington, 22nd April, 1884, 

Declaration of the Association. 

The International Association of the Congo hereby declares 
that by Treaties with the legitimate Sovereigns in the basins 
of the Congo and of the Niadi-Kialam and in adjacent terri- 
tories upon the Atlantic there has been ceded to it territory for 
the use and benefit of Free States established and being estab- 
lifihed under the care and sapervision of the said Association 
in the said basins and adjacent territories, tq Tfrhioh cession 
the said Free States of right succeed. 

Flag. 

That the said International Association has adopted for 
itself and for the said Free States, as their standard the flag of 
the luitemational African Association, being a blue flag with 
a golden star in the centre. 

No Import Duties to be levied,* 

That the said Association and the said States have resolved 
to levy no Custom House duties upon gqods or articles or mer- 
chandize imported into their territories or brought by the route 
which has been constructed around the Congo cataracts ; this 
they have done with the view of enabling commerce to pene- 
trate into Equatorial Africa. 

Right to Buy, Sell, or Lease Lands and Buildings. 

That they guarantee to foreigners settling in their terri- 
tories the right to purchase, sell, or lease la^ds and buildings 

• See also Berlin Apt, 2(;lU February, 1885, p, 20, and BrusselB Act, 
2nd Jul J, 1890, p. 48. 

244 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. M] CONaO AND UNITED STATES. [M April, 1884. 

[Oongo.] 

sitoated therein ; to establish commercial houses, and to carry 
on trade apon the sole condition that they shall obey the laws. 

MosUfavoured-natton Trealm&ni, 
They pledge themselves, moreover, never to gittnt to the 
citizens of one nation any advantages without immediately 
extending the same to the citizens of all other nations ; 

The Slave Trade. 

And to do all in their power to prevent the Slave Trade. 

In testimony whereof Henry S. Sanford, duly empowered 
therefor by the said Association, acting for itself and for the 
said Free States, has liereunto set his hand and affixed his 
seal this 22nd day of April, 1884, in the city of Washington. 

(L.S.) H. S. SANFORD. 



Dbclauation of the Unitbd Statbs. 

Recognition of Flag af the Association. 

Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, Secretary of State, duly em« 
powfired therefor by the President of the United States of 
America, and pursuant to the advice and oonsent of the Senate, 
heretofore given, acknowledges the receipt of theforpgoingl^otir 
fication from the International Aflsociation of the Congo, and 
declares that, in harmony with the traditional policy of the 
United States, which enjoins a proper regard for the commer- 
cial interests of their citizens, while at the same time avoiding 
interference with controversies between other Powers as well as 
alliances with foreign nations, the Government of the United 
States announces its sympathy with and approval of the 
humane and benevolent purposes of the International Asso- 
ciation of the Congo, administering, as it does, the interests 
of the Free States there established, aod will order the officers 
of the United States, both on land and sea, to recognize the 

245 



Digitized by 



Google 



22 April, 1884.] CONGO AND UNITED STATES. [Mo. 64 

[Oongo.] 

flag of the International African Aflsociation as the flag of a 
friendly Government. 

In testimony whereof he has hereunto set his hand and 
affixed his seal this 22nd day of April, a.d. 1884, in the city of 
Washington. 

(L.S.) FREDERICK T. FRELINGHUTSEN. 



[See al«o Berlin Act, 26th February, 1886, p. 20, and Brussels 
Act, 2nd Jaly, 1890, p. 48.] 



246 



Digitized by 



Google 



Map of 

CENTRAL AFRICA 

Shewing the Free Trade Zone, 
THE Geographical Basin of the Congo, 

AND THE Boundaries of the 
International AssoaATioN of the Congo. 

as -reco gnv^ed, Iry certain Jjvcdy Rnvers. 

1885. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Map of 
CENTRAL AFRICA 

Shewing the Free Trade Zone, 
THE Geographical Basin of the Congo, 

AND THE Boundaries of the 
International AssoaATiON of the Congo. 

as -reco gnh^sd. Jjy certain, Jhecub^ JRcnvers. 

1885. 



Digitized by 



Google 



DAHOMEY. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



DAHOMEY. 



LIST OF TREATIES, Ac. 



No. 

eS 1847-1893. 

— 1864. 

— 19 May, 1868. 

— 19 April, 1878. 

— 3 Oct., 1890. 

— 7 June, 1892. 

— 3 Dec, 1892. 



— 6 Dec, 1892. 

— 6 Jan., 1894. 



DAHOMEY AND FRANCE. 

Page 
Notes on Dahomey, Kotonou, Wbydah, Forto Novo, &c. 243 



Cession 
Treaty . 
Treaty . 



Arrangement. . 
Notification . . • 
Proclamation. • 



General Order. 
Declaration . . . 



Dahomey to France of " la plage de 

Kotonou." 249 

Cession to France of " le territoire de 

Kotonou" 249 

Confirmation of Do. Cession of 

Kotonou to France 2 19 

French Protectorate of Porto Noto. . 253 

French Blockade of Slave Coast 254 

French Protectorate over Kingdom of 
Dahomey, with exception of certain 

defined Territories 248 

France. LimitB of Whydah 218 

Submission to France App. 



DAHOMEY AND GREAT BRITAIN. 

— 8 Mar., 1847. Treaty Permission to British Subjects to hoist 

Dahomian Flag in conjunction with 
British Flag over their Factories. . 249 

— 8 July, 1876. Notification... British Blockade of part of Dahomian 

Coast ( Whydah, &c) 253 

DAHOMEY AND PORTUGAL. 

— 5 Aug., 1885. Treaty Portuguese Protectorate over Coast 

of Dahomey 263 

— 21 Jan., 1886. Notification... Portuguese Protectorate over Coast 

of Dahomey 253 

— 22 Dec, 1887. Notification... Portuguese Protectorate withdrawn. 

(See also Dahomey and France, Ar- 
rangement respecting Porto Novo 
and Kotonou, 3rd October, 1890, 
p. 253, and G-reat Britain and 
Franre, Arrangement 30th August, 

1889, p. 558.) 258 

247 S 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



1847 -1893.] DAHOMEY. [No. 65 

[Whydah. Kotonou, fto.] 

No. 05.— Notes on DA HOMEY {Kotonou, Whydah, Porto 
Novo,&c.\ 1847—1893. 

The Kinpfdom of Dahomey is now nnder the Protectorate of 
the French Republic, with the exception of Whydah and certain 
other territories, which were declared by a French Notification 
issued on the 3rd December, 1892, to be annexed to France. 

French Protectorate over Dahomey, with the exertion of Whydah, 
8fc., which are annexed to France, 

The following is a Translation of that Notification : — 
(Translation.) 
** In the name of the French Republic : 

"We, Brigadier- General, Commander-in-Chief of the French 
Settlements of Benin, Knight Commander of the Legion of 
Honour. 

" In virtue of the powers conferred upon us, 

" We declare : 

**That King Behanzin Ahy-Djere has been deposed from 
the throne of Dahomey, and has been banished for ever from 
this country. 

" That the Kingdom of Dahomey is, and remains, placed 
under the exclusive Protectorate of France, with the exception 
of the Territories of Whydah, Savi, Avrekete, Godomey, and 
Abomey-Kalavy, which constituted the ancient Kingdoms of 
Ajuda and Jacquin, which are annexed to the Possessions of the 
French Republic. The limits of the annexed Territories are : 
to the west, th^ River Aheme ; to the north and to the east, 
the River Savi and the north-east frontiers of the Territory 
of Abomey-Kalavy ; to the south, the Atlantic Ocean." 

Done at Porto Novo, 3rd December, 1892. 

A. DODDS. 

Limits of Whydah, 

By a General Order issued on the 6th December 1892, the 
limits of the region of Whydah were declared to be : ** to the 
north, the Marsh of Co ; to the east, the western limits of the 

248 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 66] DAHOMEY. [1847-1893. 

[Kotonou. Whydah.] 

Territories or Rouinto, Abomej-Kalavy and of Godomey, 
which are attached to the region of Kotonou ; to the sonth, the 
Gulf of Benin ; to the west, the River Aroh." • • # 



Kotonou, Cession to France of " la plage de Kotonou.^^ 
Kotonou.— Towards the end of the year 1864, the Kirg of 
Dahomey ceded to France the " la plage de Kotonoa."* 

Cession to France of ^^ le Territoire de Kotonou.^* 
On the 19th May, 1868, a Treaty was signed between Francb 
and Dahomey, by which King Gl^gl6 ceded to France " le Ter- 
ritoire de Kotonou,*' the limits of which were therein defined,t 
and on the 19th April, 1878, another Treaty was signed, by 
Art. VII of which this concession was confirmed in the follow- 
ing words: — 

" Art. YII. Ili confilrmation of the cession already made, 
H.M. King Giggle abandons, in full Sovereignty (" en toute 
propri6t6 ") to France, the Territory of Kotonou, with all the 
rights appertaining to it, without any exception or reserve 
whatsoever, according to the limits herein determined : to the 
south, by the sea ; to the east, by the actual boundary between 
the two Kingdoms of Porto Novo and Dahomey ; to the west, 
at a distance of 6 kilos, from the Territory of the Elder Regis, 
situated at Kotonou on the seashore ; to the north, at a distance 
of 6 kilos, from the sea, measured perpendicularly in direction 
of the coast." 

WhydaJi, 

Whtdah. — The Fort of S. Joao Baptista d'Ayuda (or 
Whydah) was mentioned in the Portuguese Constitution of 
4th April, 1838, as being one Qf the Colonial Possessions of 
Portugal. J 

On the 8th March, 1847, a Treaty was concluded between 
Great Britain and Dahomey, by which permission was given 
to British subjects to hoist the Dahomian flag in con- 

• De Clercq, T. 18, p. 866. 
t „ „ p. 868. 

% S.P., Tol. xxvii, p. 759. 
249 



Digitized by 



Google 



1847—1893.] DAHOMEY. [No. 85 

[Whydah. Kotonou, ito,"] 

junction with the British flag over their factories,* which was 
confirmed by a subsequent Treaty (12th May, 1877). f 

In December, 1851, Commodore Bruce, acting under in- 
structions from Her Majesty's Government, and with the 
object of suppressing the Slave Trade, formally announced that 
all the ports and places (except Badagry) situated in the Bight 
of Benin, from longitude 1° to 4® 30' east of Greenwich (which 
included the port of Whydah), would be blockaded from the 
1st January, 18524 On this announcement being publicly made 
known, the Lieutenant commanding a Portuguese schooner of 
war on the station claimed, on behalf of his Government, the 
exception of the port and district of St. John Baptist of 
Whydah, from the effects of the blockade ; but to this applica- 
tion Commander Strange, of Her Majesty's ship " Archer," 
replied that he was not aware of any territory being claimed by 
the Portuguese in that neighboarhood. The Portuguese officer, 
nevertheless, still asserted that there was such a territory ; 
that there had always been a Governor of the fort appointed by 
the Portuguese authorities ; and that, the late Governor being 
dead, he had brought one from St. Thomas to be installed in 
the vacancy. Shortly after this the Portuguese flag was dis- 
played from a flagstaff on shore, and a salute of seven guns 
fired, which was returned by the Portuguese schooner of war. 

Commander Strange thereupon referred the matter to the 
British V ice-Consul at Whydah, Mr. Fraser, who, in answer to 
certain categorical questions put to him, replied : That there 
was " a padre, a drummer boy, and one man who occasionally 
walked about the town in a kind of military costume, with four 
broad red stripes upon his arm " ; and that these people were 
all blacks. 

Ho also stated that he had received a letter from the King 
of Dahomey's cha-cha (Signer Isidore de Souza) styling him- 
self " Lieutenant- Colonel, Governor, civil and military, of the 
district of the Portuguese Fort, John Baptist of Ajuda," and 
demanding, in the name of the Queen of Portugal, an authentic 

• H.T., vol. xii, p. 33. 
t H.T., vol. liv, p. 46. 
X S.P., vol. ili, p. 602. 
250 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. ad] DAHOMEy. [1847—1893. 

EWhydaK] 

copy of the docnment forwarded to the King of Dahomey 
assigning the reasons foi* establishing the blockade, and thereby 
stopping legal commerce; to which he (Mr. Fraser) replied 
" that he was wholly onacqaainted with the fact df a Portuguese! 
Governor residing in the place." 

Vice- Consul Fraser further stated, in reply to other queries 
put by Commander Strange : — 

That the four individuals above mentioned were the only- 
ones spoken of as being connected with the Portuguese Fort. 

That these officials had never, to his knowledge, claimed the 
said fort and district as Portugaese tei-ritary, independent of 
the King of Dahomey ; adding that the Dahomian laws neither 
gave nor sold land, although they granted peifmission for its 
being used for the time being t 

That no such claim had ever been, or was ever likely to be^ 
recognized either by the Yervogar of Whydah or by the King* 
of Dahomey ; and 

That the extent of the territory claimed by Portugal was 
about half a mile. 

But the French Government also remonstrated against the 
blockade of Whydah, as affecting French interests, and ad- 
dressed an official note to the British Government, explaining 
the circumstances under which the French fort in the town of 
Whydah was originally established by the French Government^ 
and how it was afterwards made over to a French merchant 
named Bregis, which circumstancei it was stated, caused the 
French Government to take a particular interest in the estab- 
lishment of M. Bregis, and to regard it in the light of a posses'' 
sion of France. 

To this remonstrance the British Govemnient replied, that 
it appeared to them that the claim of France to exercise the 
right of assuming the actual occupation of the French fort at 
Whydah was not such a claim as would entitle the French 
Government to object to the blockade of Whydah by an 
adequate British force; because Her Majesty's Government 
believed that that Town itself belonged to the King of Dahomoy, 
and that although both Great Britain and France formerly occu- 
pied forts there, which were now commercial factoiies, yet that 

251 



Digitized by VjOOQ 16 



1847—1893.] DAHOMEY. [No. 85 

[Whydtth.] 

tbere eitisted between ibose forts and the sea a space of 
territory of at least a mile in width, belonging to Dahomey. 

On the 13th Pebrnary, 1852, an Anti-Slave Trade engage- 
ment was concluded between Commander Forbes and the King 
of Dahomey, and on the 15th Jnne following the blockade of 
Whydah was raised. 

On the same day a letter was addressed by Commodore Bmce 
to the King of Dahomey, informing him that Whydah and all 
the other ports of his Dominions were no longer blockaded. 

Commodore Wilmot visited the King of Dahomey at Abomey 
in December, 1862, and January, 1863, and in one of his re- 
ports he gave a description of the conn try and of its resonrces.* 
With refei'Cnce to Whydah, he said that there were three 
forts or factories there, one English, one French, and one 
Portuguese ; that the French was in excellent repair, and did 
great credit to the French gentleman who carried on business 
there ; that the Portuguese fort was then inhabited by mission- 
aries of that nation ; and that the English one was the resi- 
dence of the Wesleyan missionary ; but, he added, that no one 
had any territorial rights in the place, and that the King of 
Dahomey reigned snpreme. 

Consnl Burton also paid a visit to the King of Dahomey in 
May and June, 1863, and, as he passed through Whydah, he also 
gave a fnll description of the place. 

He said it was in a dilapidated and ruinous condition — the 
200 Portngnese and Spaniards who were resident there in 1840 
having dwindled down to a dozen. 

He described the old foreign factories or " forts " as being 
four in number, and as belonging to the French, Portuguese, 
English, and Brazilian, and he said they were all in a melan- 
choly condition except the first ; but he added that the Mission 
Apostoliqne de Dahomey was busily engaged in restoring their 
quarters ; that the Portuguese fort and the Brazilian fort also 
showed signs of approaching repairs ; but he made no allusion 
to the French or Portuguese possessing any territorial rights in 
the place. 

* S.P., vol. liv, p. 354. 
202 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 65] DAHOMEr. [1847-1893. 

[Whydah. Porto Novo. Kotono.] 

British Blockade of Whydah, 8fC, 

On the 3rd Jalj, 1876, a Notification was issued by the 
Commander of the British Naval Force on the West Coast of 
Africa Station to the effect that '' that portion of the sea coast 
of the Kingdom of Dahomey which was comprised betw^een 
the meridian of 2" 35' oast longitude and the eastern shore of 
the channel leading into the Whydah Lagoon at Great Popo, on 
the meridian of 1° 54' east longitude, including the ports of 
Cutanee or Appi Vista, Godomey or Jackin, and Whydah, was 
placed in a state of blockade/'* 

Establishment, and withdrawal, of Portugiiese Protectorate over 

Coast, 
On the 21st January, 1886, the Portuguese Minister in 
London (M. d*Autas), notified to the British Government that 
Portugal had, in virtue of a Treaty concluded on the 5th 
August, 1885, taken the coast line of the Kingdom of Dahomey 
under her protection ; but on the 22nd December, 1887, it was 
annonnced that Portugal had withdrawn her Protectorate from 
over this territory.f 

French Protectorate of Porto Novo, 
PoETO Novo. — On the 3rd October, 1890, an Arrangement 
was concluded between France and Dahomey, by which the 
King engnged to respect the French Protectorate of the King- 
dom of Porto Novo, and to abstain from all incnrsions on the 
territories forming part of that Protectorate ; at the same time 
recognizing the right of France to occupy Kotonou indefinitely. 
The French Government, on its part, engaged to take sach 
action, in regard to the King of Porto Novo, as would prevent 
any legitimate cause of complaint being made'in future by the 
King of Dahomey; and further engaged to pay an annual sum, 
in no case exceeding 20,000 fr. (in gold or silver), by way of 
compensation for the occupation of Kotonou. 

Disputes, however, shortly afterwards arose between the 

• S.P., vol. Ixvii, p. 530. 
t Sec p. 47. 

2r>3 



Digitized by 



Google 



1847-1893J DAHOMEY. [No. 65 

[Whydah. Porto Novo. Kotono.] 

two countries with regard to the non-falfilment of the stipula- 
tions of this Agreement, and war ensued. 

French Blockade of the Slave Goa^st. 

On the 7th June, 1892, a notification appeared in the 
** London Gazette," to the effect that, for the pui-pose of pre- 
venting the importation of arms and ammunitions of war into 
Dahomey, the French had blockaded that portion of the Slave 
Coast which was confined within the following limits (which 
included Whydah) : " the limit of the French and German 
Possessions of the Popos* (6* 14' 16" of north latitude, and 
0** 40' 36" of longitude west of Paris) and the eastern limit of 
the French Possession of Porto Novo," which, according to the 
arrangement between England and France of the 10th August, 
1889, Art. IV, § 1 (No. 110), was fixed on the coast by the line 
of the meridian passing through Ajarra Creek. 

French Protectorate of Dahomey* 

Oh the termination of the war, a Proclamation was issued 
on 3rd December, 1892 (as stated above), announcing that the 
Kingdom of Dahomey had been placed under the Protcctx)rato 
of France ; 

French Annexation of Whydah, Sfc* 

With the exception of Whydah and certain other terri- 
tories, which were declared to be annexed to France within 
certain defined limits. 

Hostilities were, however, resumed in June, 1893 ; but on 
the 5Lh January, 1894, the Princes, Chiefs, and inhabitants of 
Dahomey made their submission to France. (See Appendix.) 

• See Prolocol, France and Qennanj, 24th Dec, 1886, p. 293. 



254 



Digitized by 



Google 



DENMARK. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



DENMAKK. 



LIST OF TREATIES, Ac. 



DEISTMARK AND GREAT BRITAIN. 

No. Fago 

66 17 Aug., 1850. Conyention. Cession of Forts and FossessioDs 

on the Gold Coast 25C 

— 26 Feb., 1885. "Berlin Act." See Africa (aeneral). 

— 2 July, 1890. "Brussels Act." See Africa (General). 



DENMARK AND CONGO FREE STATE. 

See Congo and Denmark. 



255 



Digitized by 



Google 



17 Aog., 1850J DExNMARK. [No. C6 

[Ceasion of Danish Gold Coast Possessions to Great Britain.] 

No, 66.— Notes on DENMARK Danish Forts and Posses- 
sions on the Gold Coast, 

Denmark has no longer anj Possessions in Africa, bnt she 
was one of the Signatory Powers to the Berlin Act of 26th 
February, 1885 (No. 17), as well as to the Bmssels Act of 2nd 
July, 1890 (No. 18) ; she has also entered into Treaty 
Arrangements with the Congo Free State (No. 45). 

By a Convention dated 17th Angnst, 1850,* the Danish 
forts and Possessions on the Gold Coast were ceded to Her 
Britannic Majesty for the snm of £10,000. 

The following are extracts from that Convention : — 

Preamble, 

*' Hts Majesty the King of Denmark having offered to cede to 
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland all the forts and Possessions belonging to 
the Crown of Denmark, sitnated on that part of the coast of 
Africa which is called the Gold Coast, or the Coast of Guinea, 
and Her Britannic Majesty having resolved to accept that offer, 
their said Majesties have named as their Plenipotentiaries to 
conclude a Convention for carrying such cession into effect, that 
is to say : " 

[Here follow the names of the Plenipotentiaiies.] 

Cession of Banish Forts and Territo^-ial Eights on the Oold Cocsi, 
or Coast of Ovinea, 

" Abt. I. In consideration of the sum of £10,000 sterling, to 
be paid by Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland to His Majesty the King of Denmark, 
on the exchange of the Ratifications of the present Convention,! 
Uis Danish Majesty cedes to Her Britannic Majesty, to be pos- 
hessed by Her Britannic Majesty, her heirs and successors, in 
full property and Sovereignty, all the forts belonging to the 
Crown of Denmark, which are situated on that part gf the Coast 

• H. T., vol. ix, p. 236. 

t Batifications exchanged at London, 11th September, 1850. 

?50 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 66] DENMARK. [17 Aug., 1860. 

[Danish Forts, &o. Gold Coast.] 

of Africa called the Gold Coast or the Coast of .Gainea, and 
which comprise Fort Christianflborg,* Fort Augnstaborg^f Fort 
Fredensborg.JFort Kongensteen,§ and Fort PrindsenRteen,|| with 
theii* appurtenances and all the guns and stores contained 
therein, together with all other Possessions, property, and terri- 
torial rights whatever belonging to His Danish Majesty on the 
said coasf The exact extent of the Possessions thus ceded 
was not at that time clearly defined; but, on the 9th May, 
1887, the Kings and Cbiefs of the country of Aquamoo signed 
a Declaration acknowledging that they and their country 
formed part of the Protectorate of Her Majesty the Queen of 
Great Britain and Ireland on the Gold Coast, and that they 
were subject to the jurisdiction and authority of Her Majesty, 
and declaring that they had that belief inasmuch as their' 
country of old enjoyed similar protection from His Majesty the 
King of Denmark, who, they said, they understood had ceded 
his right and title to their country to the British Crown in 
1850. 

On the 1st July, 1890, an Agreement was entered into 
between Great Britain and Germany, for defining their respec- 
tive spheres of influence on the Gold Coast and in other parts 
of Africa (No. 129) ; and on the 14th Apt-il, 1893, a f ui-ther 
agreement was entered into between the two countries for 
defining the limits of their respective spheres from the Gulf of 
Guinea into the Interior (No. 131). 

• Fort Christiansborg (Accra), 
t Fort Augustaborg (Adda). 
J Fort Fredcnsborg (Fingo). 
§ Fort EongenBteen. 
II Fort PrindBensteen (Quetta). 



:b7 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



EGYPT. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 67] BGyPT. tl^-isSS. 

[BoQudarlos.] 

No. Ql.— Notes on the JBaundariea of SG YPT. 1840-^1894. 

On the 15tli July, 1840, a Convention was concluded between 
Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Turkey for the 
pacification of the Levant, by which it was agreed that the 
administration of the Pashalik of Egypt should be granted to 
Mehemet AH and his descendants.* 

On the 13th February, 1841, a Firman was addressed by 
the. Sultan, Abdul Medjed, to Mehemet Ali, Pasha of Egypt, 
in which the boundaries of Egypt were thus defined : — 

*' I grant unto thee the .Government of Egypt within its 
ancient boundaries, such as they are to be found in the map 
which is sent unto thee by my Grand Vizir now in office, with 
a seal affixed to it."t 

This map was not published with the Firman, nor is a copy 
of it now forthcoming, but in the Fro-Memorid which apcom- 
panied a note addressed by Fakhri Pasha, then Egyptian 
Minister of Justice, to the Italian Agent and Consul- General at 
Cairo (M. de Martino), in July, 1881,;^ it was said that in the 
Firman of 13th February, 1841, the frontiers of the Egyptian 
territory on the West Coast of the Bed Sea were limited to the 
Bay of Roway, in 21** 05' north latitude. 

On the same day (13th February, 1841) another Firman 
was issued by the Sultan, conferring upon Mehemet Ali the 
government of the Provinces of Nubia, Dafiir, Kordofan, and 
Sennaar, with their Dependencies beyond the limits of Egypt ; § 
but the boundaries of those Provinces were not defined. 

Massowah, Suakin, Sfc. 

In May, 1865, another Firman was issued by the 
Snltan Abdul Aziz, assigning to Ismael Pasha, then Viceroy 
of Egypt, the administration of the ports of Massowah 

• S.P., Tol. xxviii, p. 342. 
t S.P., Tol. lix, p. 671. 

: Pari. Fbper, « Egypt, No. 18 (1882)," p. 68. 

§ '< Legislation Ottomane,*' Part II, p. 186. See also A^jreement, Oreat 
Britain and Genoany, 16th KoTember, 1808, Art. 4^ p. 68a 

i»9 T 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



1886-1877.] EOTFT. [No. 67 

[Boundariea.] 

and SnaJdn, in conjunction with the Mndirate of Taka;* and 
in another Firman from the Saltan, dated 27th May, 1866 
(12 Moharem, 1283), modifying the order of snocession and 
granting farther privileges to the Viceroy, it was said, "I 
have determined that, henceforth, the' Government of Egypt, 
with the territories which are annexed to it, and its Depen- 
dencies, with the Kaimakamates of Saakin and Massowah, 
shall he transmitted to the eldest of thy male children, and in 
the same manner to the eldest sons of thy 8accesflors."t (^^ 
also Somali Coast.) 

In 1870 an Egyptian Governor was appointed over the Coast 
from Saez to Cape Gaardafui. 

In the Pro-Memorid which accompanied the Note from 
Fakhri Pasha to the Italian Agent and Consal- General at 
Cairo, of Jaly, 1881, already referred to, it was stated that this 
Firman comprised all the west coast of the Bed Sea, from the 
Bay of Roway as far as the Straits of Babel Mandeb. 

On the 8th Jane, 1873 (13 Reibal Akhar, 1290),J another 
Firman was iesned by Saltan Abdnl Aziz to the Khedive of 
Egypt, in which it was stated that the Egyptian saccession 
extended to *Hhe Khedivate of Egypt and its Dependencies, 
with the Ela'imakamates of Saakin and Massowah and their 
Dependencies." 

Somali Coast. 

On the 7th September, 1877,§ an Agreement was entered into 
.between the British and Egyptian Governments for the con- 
ditional recognition by Her Majesty's Government of His High- 
ness's jarisdiction, nnder the Sazerainty of the Sablime Porte, 
over the Somali Coast as far as Ras Hafoan. It contained 
the following stipalations relating to territorial Possessions : — 

Egyptian Jurisdiction over Somali Coast. Bulhar and Berhera^ 

Free Ports, 
^' Art. I. Subject to the stipalations contained in Article Y 
of this Agreement, the Government of His Highness the 

• H.T., Tol. XV., p. 141. 

t S.P.. Tol. M, p. 1167; H.T., Tol. xir, p. 1025. 
: H.T., Tol. xiv, p. 1029. 
§ H.r., vol., xnii, p. 359. 
2G0 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 67] EaTPT. [7 Sep., 1877. 

[Boundarlea.] 

Khedive engages that from the date of the coming into force of 
the present Conrention,* and of the consequent formal recog- 
nition by Hec Majesty's (Jovemment of His Highness' jurisdic- 
tion over the Somali Coast, Bnlhar and Berbera shall be 
declared free ports (if steps to this effect haye not already been 
taken). 

No Monopolies to be granted nor Impedimenta offered to Trade. 
CusUmis Dues at TajourUfi Zeila, and other ports. British 
Subjects^ Commerce^ and Navigation. Most-favoured-nalion 
Treatment. 

Non-cession of Somali Territory to any Foreign Power. 

Art. II. His Highness the Khedive engages for himself and 
his successors that no portion of the territory, to be thus for- 
mally incorporated with Egypt under his hereditary rule, shall 
ever be ceded to any foreign Power. 

Art. III. — Appointment of British Consular Agents. Privi- 
leges, ^. Most-favoured-nation Treatment. Exclusion of Egyp- 
tians and Natives from such Offices. 

Art. rV. — Suppression of the Slave Trade, and maintenance 
of Order. 

Assurance to he given by the Sultan as to non-cession of any 
portion of the Somali Coast to any Foreign Power. 
Art. V. The present Agreement shall definitiyely come into 
operation so soon as His Imperial Majesty the Sultan shall 
have given a formal assurance to Her Majesty's Government 
that no portion of the territory of the Somali Coast, a territory 
which, together with all other countries incorporated with 

• S. P., Tol. IxxT, p. 1176. Thia Agpreement was included in a collection 
of Conrentioni and other document* relating to the suppression of the 
SUve Trade, published at Cfciio in 1880. See Pari. Paper, " Slaye Trade,'' 
No. 1 (1886) ; H. T., toI. xtSu, p. 869. 

t See France and Africa (East Coast), p. 274. 

261 



Digitized by 



Google 



1877-1881.] EGYPT. [No. 67 

[Boundaries.] 

Egypt and forming an integral part of the Empire, shall be 
recognized by His Imperial Majesty as a dependency of Egypt^ 
shall more than any other portion of Egypt, or of the ooontries 
placed under His Highness' hereditary rule, be ceded on any 
pretence whatever to any foreign Power.* 

Non-cession hy the Khedive of Egypt of Jus Rights and 
Privileges to others. 

On the 2nd August, 1879,t another Firman was issued by 
Sultan Abdul Hamid II to the Khedive of Egypt (Tewfik Pasha), 
confirming the privileges which had already been granted to 
His Highness and to former Viceroys, and conceding others 
"within the ancient limits and comprising the territories 
annexed thereto." 

In this Firman it was declared that the Khedive could not, 
under any pretext or motive whatever, hand over to others, 
either wholly or in part, any of the privileges granted to Egypt, 
and entrusted to him, and which were an emanation of the 
prerogatives inherent to the Sovereign power; nor any part 
of the territory. In an o£Bcial Note addressed on the same 
day by Sawas Pasha to Her Majesty's Ambassador at Constan- 
tinople, it was explained that this passage in the Firman only 
related to the rights, privileges, and prerogatives which had 
been previously and personally granted to the Khedive of 
Egypt. 

Bastem Soudan. Massowah^ Suakin^ 8fc. 

On the 30th November, 1881, J an Egyptian Decree was issued 
constitating the Eastern Soudan, comprising the Houdiriat of 
Taka, the Governorships of Suakin and of Massowah, Senhit, 
and Kalabit, with their Dependencies, including the Bedouins of 
El Dabaina, a separate Governorship, independent of the 
Gk>vemor- Generalship of the Soudan, the Governorship of the 
Coasts of the Bed Sea being attached ('' rattach^ '') thereto.f 

On the 2nd December, 1883, the Commander of H.M.S. 

* No such assurance has vet been given by the Saltan (September, 
1894). 

t H. T., voL XV, p. 581. 
t 8. P., vol. Ixxii, p. 689. 

262 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. on SGTFr. [1883Hi^l884il 

[BooadMriM*! 

"Ranger" informed the Governor- General of Eastern Soudan 
that he had received information that Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment had decided to maintain Egyptian anthoritj at Snaking 
Massowahy and the Bed Sea Ports.* 

Suakin. 

On the 6ih Febroary, 1884, the 1 British Government 
announced its intention of protecting Suakin. - 

Abandonment by Egypt of the Somali Coast, 

In May, 1884, it was decided that the Egyptian Authorities 
and troops should be withdrawn from Harrar ; to be followed 
by the retirement of the Egyptians from the whole of the 
coast which they had theretofore occupied from the Straits of 
Bab-el-Mandeb to Bas Hafoun, including the ports of Tajourah, 
Zeyla, and Berbera. 

Khartoum was captured by the Mahdi, 26th January, 1885 
(see " State Papers," vol. Ixxvi, p. 716) ; and Dongola was 
evacuated by Egypt 5th July, 1885 (see ''State Papers," 
vol. Ixrvi, p. 712). 

The Porte had exercised, for a considelrable period, rights of 
sovereignty over the territory between Bab*el-Mandeb and 
Zeyla, which, though never fonnaDy admitted by the British 
Government, had not been practically disputed ; but the claims 
of the Sultan to sovereignty over the Somali tribes between 
Zeyla and Bas Hafoun had been repeatedly denied by Her 
Majesty's Government, and the Porte had never accepted the 
condition under which Her Majesty's Government were prepared 
to admit their sovereignty under the Convention of 7th Septem- 
ber, 1877,t between the British Grovemment and the Khedive. 

The abandonment of the Somali Coast by the Egyptian 
Government put an end to the Convention of 7th September, 
1877, by which the jurisdiction of Egypt over this ooast was 
conditionally recognized by Great Britain ; but which had never 
been carried into effect in consequence of the Sultan having failed 
to comply with the condition contained in one of its articles. 

• S. P., ToL IxxT, pp, O0&-^8O6, and roL Ixxri, pp. 686—780. 
t Page 260. 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884-1988«1 EGYPT. [No. 37 

[Boundaries^] 

The Soudan* 
' In July, 1884, the Egyptian Qovemment determined to 
abandon the Sondan, when orders were sent to evacnate Kassala, 
Senhit, Amadib, Oalabat, and Girri. 

French Posseisums, 

Oa the 2l8t September, 1884, a Treaty was concluded be- 
tween France and Tajurah, for the cession to France of the 
territory of the Sultan of Tajurah from Bas Ali to Gubbed 
Kharab ; and, on the 14th December, of the same year, certain 
fhrther cessions of territory were made by the Sultan of 
Tajurah to France. fSee Fiiancb and Apeica (East Coast), 
p. 267.) 

Italian Occupation of Maasowah. 

On the 8rd February, 1885, the Italians occupied Massowah. 
(See Abyssinu, &c.) 

Italian right of Sovereignty over the Danakil Coast, 
On the 9th December, 1888, a Treaty was concluded be- 
tween the King of Italy and the Sultan of Aussa and Head of 
the Danakils, by which the Sultan recognized the whole of the 
Danakil Coast from Amphila to Bas Dumeira as an Italian 
Possession. (See Abtssiiyia and Italy, p. 11.) 

Anglo-French Boundary Agreement, 
On the ^ February, 1888, an Exchange of Notes took plac^ 
between the British and French Gt>vemmenis, with regard to 
their respective rights in the Gulf of Tajoura and on the Somali 
Coast. (See Appendix.) 

French Protectorate over Coasts of Qulf of Tajurah^ including the 
Mussa Islands and Islet of Bah, 
By this Agreement, the British Government recognized the 
protectorate of France over the coasts of the Gulf of Tajurah, 
including the Mnssa Islands (over which the British flag had 
l>een hoisted in December, 1884t), and the Islet of Bab. 

* For Lieut.-Colonel Stewart's Heport on the Boundaries, &c. of the 
Soudan, see Pari. Paper, "Egypt, No. 11 (1885)." 
t S. P., vol. Ixxvi, p. 681. 

264 



Digitized by 



Google 



'^WW^ 



No. 67] EarPT. [1889-1802. 

[BooadMries.] 

British Protectorate over the Somali Coast. 

On the 20tli Julj, 1887,* a notiBcation was issued to the 
Powers, in pursuance of the General Act of the Conference of 
Berlin of 26th February, 1885 (No. 17), that the Somali 
Coast, from Bas Jiburti to Bunder Ziadeh, had been placed 
under British Protection. (See Somali.) 

British Jurisdiction over the Somali Coast, 

On. the 13th December, 1889, an Order in Council was 
passed in which it was stated, Section III (1), that, subject to 
certain provisions, it should apply *' to the places and' terri- 
tories for the time being comprised in the Protectorate of the 
Somali Coast, from Ras Jiburti on the South Coast of the en- 
trance to the Bay of Tajoura eastwards, to and including 
Bunder Ziadeh, on the 49th meridian of longitude east of 
Greenwich, as notified on the 20th July, 1887."t This Order, 
however, has not yet been put into operation. 

Italian Sphere of Influence Inland, 

On the 15th April, 1891, ^ a Protocol was signed between 
the British and Italian Governments, recognizing the fact that 
the Italian sphere of influence inland commenced at Bas 
Elasar, on the western shore of the Bed Sea and extended 
to the Blue Nile. (See Great Britain and Italy, p. 667.) 

Boundaries of Egypt confirmed. 

On the 22nd March, 1892 (27th Chaban, 1309), a new Firman 
of Investiture was addressed by the Sultan to His Highness the 
Khedive (Abbas Hilmi), in which the boundaries of Egypt were 
thus alluded to : — " In consequence of the decree of Providence, 
the Khedive Tewfik Pasha being deceased, the Khediviate of 
Egypt, within its ancient limits, as indicated in the Imperial 
Firman, dat«d 2 Rebi-ul-Akhir, 1267, a.h. (13th February, 

* For the Tiews of Turkey on the BritiBh occupation (30th June, 188») 
and the Tiews of France (8th July, 1885), see "State Papers,'* vol. Ixxti, 
pp. 709, 712. 

t H.T., vol. xviii, p. 92. 

J Parl.Papor, "Egypt, No. 2 (1886)," p. 7. 

265 



Digitized by 



Google 



1893-1894:] EGYPT. [No. « 

[BoimdMiflS.] 

1841), as also on the Map annexed ta ihe nAid Firman, and the 
territories annexed in conformity with the Imperial Firman, 
dated 15Zilhidje, 1281, a.h. (May, 1865), has been conferred on 
yon, in virtue of my Imperial Irad^, dated 7 Djemazi-nl-Akhir, 
1309." 

Sinai Penintula, 

It was explained, in a telegram addressed by the Ghrand 
Vizir to the Khedive, on the 8th April, 1892, that the Sinai 
Peninsula, that is to say, the territory bounded to the east by a 
line running in a south-easterly direction from a point a shoH 
distance to the east of El-Arish to the head of the Ghilf of 
Akaba, was to be continued to be administered by Egypt. 

The fort of Akaba lies to the east of this line. 

Basin of the Upper Nile. 

On the 12th May, 1894, an Agreement was entered into 
between the British Government and the Congo Free State 
respecting East and Central Africa, to which Notes were added 
declaring that the claims of Turkey and Egypt in the Basin of 
the Upper Nile were not ignored. (See Great Britain and 
Belgium, Appendix.) 

[See also Somali Coast.] 



2«6 



Digitized by 



Google 



FRANCE. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



FRANCE. 



LIST OF TREATIES, 4c. 



FRANCE AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). 
No. Page 

68 U Mar., 1862. Treaty. France and Danakils. Geasion of Obock, &c., 

to France. Bas All to Baa Dumeirah 209 

69 26 Bee., 1880. French Notice respecting LimitB of Obock 272 

70 9 Apr.i 1884. Treatj. France and GK>bad. Friendship, &c 273 

71 21 Sept., 1884. Treaty. France and Tajurah. Cession of Tajurah to 

France. Gubbed-Eharab, &c ••«.. 274 

72 18 Oct., 1884. Act. Cession by Sultan of Tajurah to France of 

Ghubbed-Eharab, Basali, and Sagallo 276 

73 14 Dec., 1884. Act. Cession by Sultan of Tajurah to France of 

Territory between Adaeli and Ambado • 277 

11 Feb., 1885. Notification. Annexation of Danakil and Somali Coasts. 

Bas Ali to Gubbet Kharab Note 274 

FRANCE AND AFRICA (GENERAL). 

26 Feb., 1885. " BerUn Act.*' See Africa (aeneral). 
2 July, 1890. " Brussels Act." See Africa (General). 

FRANCE AND AFRICA (WEST COAST). (Senegal, Gaboon, 
(NuNRz), Casaman^a, Niger, Guinea Coast, Fhenoh Congo, Ac.) 

74 1819—1891. List of Treaties with Native Chiefs 278 

— 26 Oct., 1891. Notification. French Protectorates on lyory Coast. (See 

Great Britain and France.) 

FRANCE (ALGERIA). 

75 ISdO— 1841. Note. French Occupation of Algiers 287 

FRANCE (COMORO ISLANDS). 

76 21 April, 1886. Conyention. France and Anjouan (Johanna). 

French Protectorate 291 

-^ 26June,1886. Notification. France. Protectorate. Comoro Islands .292 

77 16 Oct., 1887. Conyention. France and Anjouan (Johanna). 

Amendme&t of Conyention of 2lBt 
April,1886 292 

FRANCE AND CONGO. 

See Congo and France. 



Digitized by 



Google 



FBAKCE. 
[List of Treaties, *o.] 

No. Page 

FRANCE AND DAHOMEY, 

See Dabomeyt 



PRANCE AND GERMANT. 

78 24 Bee.) 1886. Protoool. Boundaries. Biufira Bay. Slate Coast; 

Togo. Porto Seguro and Little Popo. Senegambia. 
Southern Biyers District, &c •••••««^»,»«»* 298 

79 . 1. Feb.» 1887. Fioote-YerbaL Boundaries. • Slare Coast 297 

»^ ISMar., 189i, Agreemeikt. Boundaries. CameroonsProfcectoimteaiid 

French Congo. Spheres of influence in region of Lake 
Chad App. 



FRANCE AND GREAT BRITAIN. 
See Great Britain and France. 

FRANCE AND LIBERIA. 

See Liberia and France. 

FRANCE AND MADAGASCAR. 

See Madagascar and France. 

FRANCE AND MOROCCO. 
See Morocco and France. 

FRANCE AND PORTUGAL. 

80 12 May, 1886. Conyeution. Boundaries. Ghiinea, Fouta-Djalkm, 

Con^i Angola, Mojnm^bique •»»«!•• •••••«»• •»•••• 298 

FRANCE AND TUNIS. 
See Tunis and Fnuioe. 
- Mar., 1894r. Protocol. Boundaiy. Lunda •« ••••••• App* 

FRANCE AND ZANZIBAR. 

' - See Zanzibar and France. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ko.68] FBANOB AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). [U Mar., 1862. 
[I>anakil«» OmsIoii of Obook, ^c, to France.] 

No. Q9.— CONVENTION between France and the Danakik, 
for the Cession of Obock and its TeiTitory to France, Paris, 
nth March, 18G2.* 

(Translation.) 
Betwibn the Minister, Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs of His Majesty the Emperor of the French, and Diny- 
Ahmed-Aboubekr, delegated by Mohammed ben Mohammed, 
Snltan Diny-Konllon ; Emir, Aly-Ibrahim Abonbekr ; Chahim, 
Saltan Loheita, Chief of the Tribes of the Danakils, Adalys 
and Debenets, and invested with their Full Powei«, it has been 
oonclnded and agreed as follows : — 

Abt. I. Peace and Friendship tvith Danakil Tribes on Coast of 
Adel. 

Cession of Obock^ ^c, to France, Bos Aly to Bos Bumeirah. 

Aet. II. The Danakil Chiefs, notably Snltan Diny, cede to 
His Majesty the Emperor, the harbour, roadstead, and anchor- 
age of Obock, situated near Cape Ras Bir, with the plain ex- 
tending from Has Aly to the sonth, as far as Ras Dnmeirah to 
the north. 

Price to be paid for Cession, 

Art. III. This cession is made in consideration for the 
price stipulated and agreed of 10,000 "talaris," namely, 
50,500 francs. 

Art. IV. — Payment to be made in two Instalments, 

Gwirantee of Cession by Danakil Chiefs, 

Art. v. This cession is conjointly guaranteed by Danakil 
Chiefs, namely: Saltan Mohammed ben Mohammed, Saltan 
Diny-Koullon ; Osman, Aly-Ibrahim Abonbekr ; Chahim, and by 
Sultan Loheita, Chief of the Debenet Tribes, represented by their 
Envoy, Diny Ahmed- Abonbekr. 

• ThiB Conyeniion was signed in Arabic, and the French yerrion given 
by T>e Cleroq is not certified as being an authentic translation. De Cleroq, 
ziv, 519. See French Notice of 25th December, 1880, p. 272. 



Digitized by 



Google 



11 Mar., 1862.] FRANCE AND AFEICA (EAST COAST). [No. 68 
[DanakiU. CoMion of Obook, fto., to Franco.] 

Interior Arrangements, Rivera and Forests, 

Art. Vr. The above-named Chiefs engage, separately and 
conjointly, to facilitate by all the means in their power, the 
relations of the French established at Obock, with the interior 
of the country by land or water, by ascending the course of the 
Rivers Anazo and Haonatch. 

They cede to them the right of cutting in the forests the 
wood necessary for their nso, and that of availing themselves of 
the fresh water springs and streams which exist on the coast in 
proximity to Obock. Reservoirs of water may be established, by 
common consent, at any places where it is deemed necessary, 
without any demand for indemnity being made ior these estab- 
lishments. 

Art. VI r. — Pasturage. 

Art. YllL—Salt, 

Non-cession of Territory to other Towers. 

Art. IX. The Chiefs of the Danakils and of the other inde- 
pendent tribes on the coast of Adel bind themselves by a 
formal engagement to commnnicate to the French authorities 
established at Obock, every proposal for a cession of territory 
which may be made to them by a Foreign Government. They 
engage, conjointly and separately, to reject every overture made 
to them which has not received the assent of the Government of 
His Majesty the Emperor of the French. 

Done at Paris, on the 11th March, of the year of Grace, 
1802. 

(L.S.) THOTJVENEL. 



Marks and Seals of 



Diny-ben-Sultan-Mohammbd- 
HuHED, son of the late 
Sultan Mohammed. 

The Vizir Mohammed, son of 
Sultan Hummed. 

The Emir El Hadj Aboubeke. 

Idrahim Chahim. 
270 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ioiajcev.270, (No Map wos attoj^uA to JhtTreaJfyef II^Mardt18S2,} 



13" 



Map SHEvyiNC the Position of Obock and 
Surrounding Country ceded to France. 



By TreaiywiJth the BcuUdls of 11^ March. 1862 




J3- 



IT 



(Fronv the AdmiraJty Chxxrt) 



W 



WyMR ftSQns.l!:<,Uth,63,C«rt«r U»«.Jf// 



Digitized by 



Google 



Map SHEWING the position of Obock 
& surrounding Country ceded to France 

hy the Ireaty wUh the Jkuiakils of 
n^ March 1862. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 68] FBANOB AND AFRICA (EAST COAST) . [11 Mar., 1882. 
[Danakils. CeMion of Ooubont-Xharab to France.] 

Gouhout-Khardb.* 

Additional Aeticle. — ^In the erent of the harbour, road- 
stead, and anchorage of Obock being acknowledged to be unfit 
to contain a ship of great tonnage, Diny- Ahmed engages, in the 
name of Cheikh Alj- Ibrahim Aboubekr-Chahim, and of the 
Chiefs mentioned in the Treaty, to cede, at the price stipulated 
in Article III, the harbour, roadstead, and anchorage of 
Goubout-Kharab, or any other, with the territory belonging to 
it, and under all the conditions inserted in the present Treaty. 

Done at Paris, 11th Marcb, 1862. 

(L.S.) THOUVBNEL. 

(L.S.) DINY-BEN-STJLTAN-MOHAMMED. 

* See also Act signed by Sultan of Tajurah, 18th October, 1884, p. 276. 



271 



Digitized by 



Google 



25 Dec. 1880.3 FBAKCE AND AFRICA (EAST COAST.) [No. 68 

[Obook.] 



No. eO.— FRENCH NOTICE respecting limit of French 
Possessions at Obock* 25th December, 1880. 

(Translation.) 

As demands for concessions of territory at Obock (on the 
Red Sea (sic)) are freqnently received by the Depai*tment for 
Marine and Colonies, we think it usefnl to make known to the 
pnblic the nature of the replies which are invariably returned 
to applications of this kind : 

The Treaty of 11th March, 1862 (No. 68), enacting the 
cession of this point to France, contains no indication of the 
limits of onr po8ses8]on,t ai^d we have, moreover, done nothing 
np to the present time to secnre our Sovereignty over this 
country. 

It would, therefore, be impossible to indicate the land capable 
of being ceded, and still less to delimitate it. Under these 
circumstances, the Mai'ine Department is unable to grant con- 
cessions. It can do no more than leave to persons who may 
attempt to found a settlement at Obock, the whole responsi- 
bility of choosing the site to be occupied by them, with the 
reservation that this occupation, essentially precarious and re- 
vocable, shall cease on the first demand. It is well understood, 
however, that no indemnity shall be due to the parties interested, 
in the event of their being evicted for reasons of public utility 
or military interest. 

• " Joiimal Officiel," 26th December, 1880. 

t At the time this Notice was iBsued, the Treaty of 11th March, 1862, 
had not been published by De Clercq. See Tome, xir (1886), 513. 



272 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 70] FBANCB AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). [0 April, 1884. 
[aobad (Obock).] 

No. 10.— TREATY between France and the Sultan of Gdbad 
Obock, 9th Apnl 1884* 

(Translation.) 

Between M. Lagnrde (A.M.J.L.), Commandant of Obock, 
acting in the name of the Frencli Government, and Olimi.'d 
Lo'itah, acting in his own name, and in the names of the Chiefs 
under his orders, the following Treaty has been concluded : — 

Art. I. — Friendship with Sultan of Oohad. 

Art. II. — Protection of French Caravans. 

Art. III. — DiUies on Caravans. 

Art. IV. — French Travellers may Sink Wells. 

Art. V. — Acquisition of Freehold Property by French. 

Art. VI. — Settlement of Disputes between French and Natives. 

Art. VII. — Engagement of Sultan to conclude no Convention, 
and to Sign no Treaty, without the Consent of the Chief of the 
Colony of Oboclcy who shall Countersign any Document of this 
Nature. 

Art. VIII. — In Case of Dispute, the Fretich Text of Treaty 
alone to be appealed to. 

Done at Obock, on the 9th April, 1884. 

(Seal of Ohmed Lo'itab.) 
LA GARDE. 

• •* De Cleroq," toI. xir, p. 848. 



273 V 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



ai Sept., 18813 FRANCE AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). [Ho. 71. 
[Cession of Tajnrah to France.] 



No. 71. — TREATY between France and Tajurah^for Cession 
of Tajurah and its Dependencies to France. Obock, 21st 
September, 1884* 
[Appro7ed and sanctioned by Prencli Decree of 22nd Angost, 

1885.t] 
(TraDslation.) 

Between M. Lagarde (A.M.M.J.L.), Commandant of Obock, 
acting in the name of the French Government, and Hamed- 
ben-Mohamed, Sultan of Tajurah, who rules from Bas-Ali to 
Oubbed-Kharab, the following Treaty has been concluded : 

Art. I. — Friendship, 

Art. II. — Sultan Hamed gives his Country to France in order 
ihat she may protect it against all Foreigners, 

Art. III. — French Government not to alter Laws established 
in Sultan Hamed^s country. 

Art. IV. — Engagement of Sultan Hamed and his Successors 
to assist the French in building Houses and purchasing Land, 

Art. V. — Engagement of Sultan Hamed to sign no Treaty with 
4iny Foreign Powers without the Assent of the Commandant of 
Obock. 

Art. VI. — Monthly Fayment of 100 ** thalaris " to be made 
to Sultan Hamed and of 80 " thalaris " to the Vizir, 

Art. VII. — In Case of Dispute^ French Text of Treaty alone 
to be appealed to. 

(Sultan of Tajurah's Seal.) 
LA GARDE, 
Commandant of Obock. 



• The concluaioii of this Treaty was officially notified to the British 
OoTemmcnt by the Fivsnch Ambassador in London, en 11th February, 1885. 
{See Appendix.) 

t De Clercq, vol. xiv, p. 418. 

274 



Digitized by 



Google 



-> M<ifit was aitai'hed to the TreaJfy of 21^ September 1884-,) to fac^ -page 2'24. 



Map shewing Territory ceded to France, 
BY THE Sultan ofTajourah. 



By Trenty of 21'^ Sep'^ 1884^. 







(trojn Admiraliy Chart of the Jted Sea - Sheet 5.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Map shewing Territort 
CEDED TO France 

BY THE Sultan of Tajourah, 

21^Sqpteiniber188«. 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 71] FRAXCE AXD AFRICA (EAST COAST). [21 Sept, 1884. 
[Cession of Tajnrah tp France.} 

[Before the conclusion of the above Treaty between 
France and Tajurah, a Treaty was signed by Captain Robert 
Moresby, of the Indian Navy, on the part of the Hononrablo 
East India Company, and the Snltan of Tajarah, 1840, which 
contained the following engagement on the part of the 
Sultan* :— 

'* Art. IV. Sultan Mahomed-ben-Mohammed, of Tajowra, 
engages at all times to respect and regard the friendly advice 
of any authorized person belonging to the British Govern- 
ment, and agrees not to enter into any other Treaty or Bond 
with any other European nation or person without, in the first 
instance, bringing the subject to the notice of the Government 
authorities at Aden, so that the same may in no ways prove 
detrimental to his Friends, the English, or their Commerce- 
In return for these conditions, the British Government will 
observe the interests of the State of Tajowra, and do all in 
their power to assist in improving their commercial resources. 

"Art. VIT. In entering into any Bond or Treaty, or 
trading with either Earopean or other Powers, Sultan Mahomed- 
ben-Mohammed engages that no Bond or Treaty shall be 
acceded to, or acquiesced in, by him which will, either at the 
present, or at future period, prove detrimental or injurious to^ 
the interests of the British, either in political or commercinl 
point of view, and in return for such agreement, the Englisli? 
promise that they will act in no manner which may have an 
evil tendency towards the State of Tajowra." 

A Deed was at the same time signed by the Sultan for tho 
sale of the island of Mussa to the British Government."}*] 

No Protest, however, was made by Great Britain against 
the conclusion of the Treaty between France and Tajurah of 
21st October, 1884-. 

• H.T., Tol. xiii, p. 6. 
t H.T., Tol. xiii, p. 7. 



275 



Digitized by 



Google 



^ 



18 Oct., 1884.] FRANCE AND AFEICA (EAST COAST). [No. 72 
[Tajorah. CeBslon of Ghibbet Kharab to France.! 



No. 72. — ACT signed by the Sultan of Tajurahfor the Cession 
to France of Eas-Ali, Sagallo, and Cubbed Kharab. Hth 
October, 1884. 

[Approved and sanctioned by Frencli Decree of 22nd An gust, 

1885.*] 

(Translation.) 

I, Saltan of Tajurali, give to France, in Friendship, Has 
All, Sagallo, and Rood-Ali (Gnbbed Kharab). 

(Seal of Sultan Hamed-Ben^Mohamet.) 
Witnesses : 

(Seal of Sultan Loitah.) 
(Seal of the Vizir.) 

LA GARDE, 
Commandant of Chock, 
. BELLANGER, 
Commander of the " Seigneley,^^ 

• *'De Clercq" vol. xiv, p. 423. See also Additional Article to the 
Treaty between France and the DanakiLs of 11th March, 1862, p. 269, and 
Law (12th AugTiBt, 1885) for the Organization of the Colony of Obock, and 
the establishment of a French Protectorate over Tajurah and neighbouring 
territories. '* De Clercq," vol. xiv, p. 611. 



276 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 78] FKANCB AND AFRICA (BAST COAST). [U DeC., 1884. 
[Tajiirah. Cessions to Franoe. Adaeli to Axnbado.] 



No. 73. — ACT signed ly the Sultan of Tajurah for the 
Cession to France of the Territory comprised between Adaeli 
and Aiiibado. Obockj 14th Deceviber, 1884. 

[Approved and sanctioned by French Decree of 22nd August, 

1885.*] 

(Translation.) 

Hamed, Sultan of Tajnrah, having given to the French 
Government his territory as far as the place called Adaeli. 

I, Hamed-Laita, do the same thing, and I give to the said 
Government from' Adaeli to Ambado. 

Obock, 14th December, 1884. 

(Signature and Seal of Hamed, Sultan of Tajurah and of 
Brahim, Vizir of the same place, who bear witness to the 
authenticity of the said declaration.) 

(Signature and Seal of Hamed- Laita, who certifies to the 
authenticity of what he has said.) 

LA GARDE, 
Commandant of Obock, 
OGHSLEHAGLER, 
Military Interpreter^ 

• " De Clercq," vol xir, p. 429. 



277 



Digitized by 



Google 



1810—1848.] FEANCB AND ATEICA (WEST COAST). 

CNati^e Ohieft.] 



[No. 74 



No. 1^—LIST OF TREATIES concluded hy France with Native Chiefs 
in Africa, relating to Sovereignty, Protection, itc. 1819 to 1890.* 



No. 


Place. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Art. 


Where to be found. 


1 


Wallo .. 


8 May, 1819 . 


French Sovereignty .. 


2 


De Clercq iii, 202. 


2 


Trarzas . . 


7 June, 1821. 


»> » • • 


3 


11 


iii, 270. 


3 


Bracknas 


25 „ „ . 


iy ti * * 


8 


11 


iii, 278. 


4 


Boud'hie 


24 March, 1837 


11 11 •• 


— 


11 


iv, 364. 


6 


Touabo . . 


15 Aug., „ 


„ Protectorate . . 


— 


11 


iv, 381. 


6 


Toubaboucany . . 
Boud'hie 


17 „ 


11 11 • • 


— 


11 


iv,382. 


7 


3 April, „ 


„ Sovereignty . . 


— 


ii 


iv, 416. 


8 


G arrowa jB 


14 Dec., 1888 


i> 11 • • 


1 


11 


XV, 319. 


9 


Gaboon . . 


9 Feb., 1839 . 


)) 11 • * 


1 


11 


iv,445. 


10 


Hou and Dhiogn^ 
BiBsey.. "1 
• Dingavare 
. Sandignery J 


17 Dec., „ 


11 11 


1 


11 


iv, 613. 


11 


21 „ „ 


n 1* • • 


1 


11 


iv, 614. 














12 


Soumboudon . . 


23 „ „ 


ii 11 •• 


1 


ii 


iv, 615. 




Pacao . . 


23 „ „ 


„ Exclusive Sight 
to Trade 


2 






13 


Garrowajs 


7 Feb., 1842 . 


„ Sovereignty I 














Exclusion of Foreign- ■ 


1 


11 


iv, 610. 


14 


Grand Bassam . . 


19 „ „ . 


ers J 
French Sovereignty 1 














Exclusion of Foreign- • 


1 


11 


iv, 615. 


15 


Gaboon . • 


18 March, 1842 


ers J 
French Sovereignty . . 


1 


11 


iv, 616. 


16 


Batanga. . 


SO „ 


11 11 














Exclusion of Foreign- > 


1 


11 


iv, 617. 


17 


Banger Rirer .. 


20 April, „ 


ers 
French Sovereignty 














Exclusion of Foreign- - 


1 


11 


XV, 339. 


18 


Cape Mount . . 
(Fanama) 


9 March, 1843 


ers 
French Sovereignty .. 


— 


>i 


T,6. 


19 


Quaben . . 


27 April, „ 


n It • • 


— 


11 


v,48. 


20 


Assinie .. •• 


4 July, „ 


M n • • 


— 


11 


V, 100. 


21 


Grand Baseam . . 


7 March, 1844 


|} » • • 


3 


11 


V, 162. 


82 


Assinie .« 


26 „ „ 


f» It •• 


1 












Exclusion of Foreigners 


2 


11 


v,163. 


23 


Gaboon . . 


28 „ „ 


French Sovereignty . . 


— 


11 


V, 165. 


24 


11 • • • • 


1 April, „ 


»> »» • • 


1 


11 


XV, 341. 


26 


AkayiUe., 


22 „ 


It ti • * 


1 


11 


XV, 342. 


26 


Gaboon . . 


6 July, „ 


11 11 • • 


— 


11 


V, 192. 


87 


1, • • • • 


7 

• »> »» 


i» 11 • • 


— 


>t 


V, 193. 


28 


Bondou . . • . 


23 Aug., 1846. 


>» • • 


1 


»» 


V, 400. 


29 


Gaboon • • 


19 Oct., „ 


»» »» • • 


I 


S.P. XXXV, 579. 


80 


„ •• •■ 


1 Aug., 1846. 


11 11 • • 


— 


De Clercq XV, 347. 


31 


NalouB •• 


27 July, 1848 . 


>i It • • 


— 


11 


V, 618. 




(Rio Nunez) 













* See also Liet of tome of these Treaties in S.P., toI. Izxr, p. 340. 
278 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo..' 


74] FBANCE AND APEICA (WEST COAST) 


• 


[1849-^1860. 


CNaUva OMefti.1 




No. 


Place. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Art. 


Where to be found. 


82 


Landonmans •• 
(Bio Nunez) 


— April, 1849 


French SoTcreignty . . 


— 


DeClercq v, 626. 


33 


Boud'hi^ 


4 Feb., 1850. 


f> » • • 


~" 


» Ti, 1. 


34 


Samatite 


26 March, 1851 


» >» • • 


— 


„ vi, 98. 


36 


Cagnut .. 


25 „ 


>f »» • • 


2 


„ vi, 98. 


36 


Piquini-Bassam 


24 Feb., 1852 . 


Exclusion of Foreigner! 


1 
2 


„ vi, 169. 


87 


Jack Country . . 


20 April, „ . 


French Sovereignty . . 


1 


„ XV, 389. 


38 


Adfce .. 
(Trade Town) 


22 „ „ . 


» »» • • 


~~~ 


„ XV, 390. 


39 


Mophy (Trade 
Town) 


22 „ „ . 


»> >i • • 


~~ 


„ XV, 392. 


40 


Adjaconty (Trade 

Leflegny and 

Ceogo 
Adam or Jack 


22 „ „ . 


>» »» • • 


— 


„ XV, 892. 


41 


24 „ „ . 


M >» • • 


— 


„ XV, 393. 


42 


25 „ „ . 


>» >» • • 





„ XV, 393. 




Lahon 










43 


Tiarrha . . 


7 May, „ . 


»> >> • • 





„ XV, 393. 


44 


Af agon or Great 
I Tory Town. 
Afagon Bodou 
or Abreby 


10 „ 


M »> 




„ XV, 394. 


45 


Adouin .. 
(Half iTory 
Town) 


17 „ „ . 


»l >l • • 




„ XV, 394. 


46 


Comaesie 


19 M 


}) yi * * 


— 


„ XV, 394. 


47 


Cape Esterias . . 


18 Sept., „ . 


99 >» • • 


1 


» Ti, 217. 


48 


Ebremon • . 


10 Oct., 1863 . 


>l »» • • 


— 


„ Ti, 385. 


49 


Jack- Jack 


15 „ „ . 




— 


„ vi, 386. 


50 


Palmas .. 


8 Feb., 1865 . 


Cession of Land for 
French Factory 


1 


„ Ti, 497. 


51 


Great Elobey . . 


23 April, „ . 


French Sovereignty . . 


1 


„ XV, 396. 


52 


B. Kitafiue or 


25 March, 1857 


>» » • • 


1 


„ xr, 397. 




Bio Cas^ini 




„ exclusive right 
of Commerce 


2 




53 


Trarzas .. 


20 May, 1858 . 


„ Sovereignty . . 


1 


„ vii, 388. 


54 


Bondou . . ' 


18 Jan*?, „ . 


„ Protectorate . . 


1 


„ vii, 410. 


55 


Farabana and 


18 Aug., .„ . 


Exclusion of Foreigners 


1 


„ vii, 447. 




Niagala 




French Protectorate .. 


3 






(Bambouk) 










56 


Bondou . . 


18 „ ., . 


„ Sovereignty . . 


1 


„ vii, 448. 


67 


G-ooy . . 


19 „ „ . 


>i i» • • 


— 


„ vii, 448. 


58 


1 Congnaro 1 
\ Souna . . J 


9 Jan., 1859 . 


» >» • • 


— 


„ vii, 577. 


59 


Toro 


10 April, „ . 


„ Protectorate . . 


3 


„ vii, 584. 


60 


Fonta . . 


15 Aug., 1869 . 


French Protectorate . . 


1 


„ vii, 634. 


61 


Bamga .. 


10 Sept., „ . 


»> »» • • 


1 


„ vii, 638. 


62 


N'Lomp.. 


6 April, 1860. 


„ Suzerainty 


— 


„ viii,42. 


63 


Thiong .. 


5 May, „ . 


>» it • • 


— 


„ viii,47. 


64 


Wagaram . . 


6 >i » . 


» i» • • 


— 


„ vui,47. 


65 


Caseinol . . 


16 1} it • 


11 11 •• 


— 


„ viii,47. 


66 


Blio and Ba!er . . 


15 June, „ . „ Sovereignty • • 


— 


„ Tiii,49. 


67 


Cavour .. •. 


17 „ „ . „ Suzerainty •. 


— 


„ viii, 58. 


68 


Al-Hadji-Omar, . 


18 Aug., „ . 


f „ Protection •• 


— 


„ viii, 80. 



279 



Digitized by 



Google 



186C— 1871.] FRANCE AND AFRICA (WEST COAST). 

[ITative Chieft.] 



[Ho. 74 



No. 


Place. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Art. 


Where to be found. 


69 


Elobey .. 


17 Oct., 1860 . 


French Sorereignty . . 
Exclusion of Foreigners 


— 


De01ercqxv,461. 


70 


Cayor . . 


1 Feb., 1861 . 


French Protection 


8 


„ viii, 161. 


71 


Souna . . 


14 Feb., 1861 . 


French Sovereignty . . 
Exclusion of Foreigners 


1 
2 


„ viii, 167. 


72 


Sine Saloum 


8 March, 1861 


French Sovereignty •• 


2 


Ann. S^n^g., 409. 


73 


Cayor . . 


2 Feb., 1862 




4 


408. 


74 


Cape Lopez, and 


1 June, „ 


» »» 


1 


DeClercqTiii,4l3. 




R. Nazare 




Exclusion of Foreigners 


2 




75 


Forgny .. 


2 Dec, „ 


Frencli Suzerainty 
Exclusion of Foreigners 


1 
3 


Ann. S^n^g., 451. 


76 


Toro . . 


26March,1863 


French Sovereignty . , 


1 


DeCleroq viii, 576. 


77 


Damga .. 


9 Aug., „ 


)i }> • • 


— 


„ XV, 470. 


78 


Fouta . . 


10 „ 


}i II * * 


— 


„ XV, 471. 


79 


Toro .. 


1 Sept., „ 


a »i • • 


.. 


„ viu, 613. 


80 


Cayor , . 
fDjolof.. ^ 
Cayor •• 


4 Dec, „ 


„ Suzerainty 


2 


„ viii, 619. 






f Right of French "I 






81 


< Sine •• 
Baol .. 
(^Saloum 


— Oct., 1864.. 


alone to make set- • 
t tlementa J 


2 


Ann. S^n^., 410. 


82 


Bagnouls 


8 March, 1865 


French Suzerainty 


2 


„ 452. 


83 


Ouonkon « . 


20 „ „ 


ft 11 * * 


2 


453. 


84 


Soura . . 


20 „ „ 


II jf • • 




453. 


85 


Tapelan and 
Athioune 


20 „ „ 


n >» • • 




458. 


86 


Athioune 
— Finto 


16 April, „ 


>» >i • • 




„ 455. 


87 


Yolas .. 


17 „ „ 






455. 


88 


Guimbering 


30 „ „ 


„ Sovereignty . . 




456. 


89 


Moreah . . 


22 Not., „ 


„ Suzerainty •• 




De Clercq ix, 414. 


90 


NalouB .. 


28 „ „ 


II » • • 




Ann. Seneg., 465. 


91 


Do 


1 Dec, „ 


„ Sovereignty . , 





466. 


92 


Forgny .. 


2 „ ,. 


„ Protection 
ETclusion of Foreigners 


8 
8 


457. 


93 


Colibante 
(Balmadon) 


3 Jan., 1866 


French Suzerainty 


2 


454. 


94 


Landoumas 


21 ,. „ 


9> it • • 


1 


DeCleroq ix, 476. 


95 


Rio Pungo 
Danger River . . 


15 Feb., „ 




1 


„ ix, 477. 


96 


14 Dec, „ 


„ Sovereignty . . 




„ XV, 346. 


97 


Moreah . . 


30 „ „ 


„ Suzerainty 


2 


„ ix, 682. 


98 


M'Goumbi and 
M'Dombai 


10 May, 1867 


»i i» • • 


1 


„ XT, 499. 


99 


Seikiani . . 

(Danger Riyer) 
Camma and 

R^mbo 


17 Oct., „ 


„ Protectorate .. 


6 


„ XV, 684. 


100 


14 Jan., „ 


„ Sovereignty •. 


1 


11 X, 21. 


101 


Beriby . • . . 


4 Feb., „ 


II II * ■ 


1 


X, 61. 


102 


Bilogn^ • • 


14 „ „ 


„ Protectorate •• 




„ XV, 535. 


103 


Jack- Jack 


2 „ 1869 


„ Sovereignty . . 


1 


„ XT. 535. 


104 


Half Jack 


^ ii ii 


)i II * * 


1 


„ XV, 587. 


105 


Little Basaam . . 


7 


II t9 * * 


1 


„ XV, 637. 


106 


Conessi-Amsa .. 


16 ,, „ 


II II * * 


1 


„ XV, 537. 


107 


Ymalaia. • 


20 Aug., „ 


II II •■ 





„ XV, 589. 


108 


Cayor • • 


12 Jan., 1871 


11 11 •• 


I 


1, xii, 481. 



280 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 74] 



FEANCE AND AFEICA (WEST COAST). 
[KatiTe Ohle&.] 



[1873-^883. 



No. 


Place. 


Date. 


SubjecU 


Art. 


Where to bo found. 


109 


Benito .. 


14 March, 1873 


French Sovereignty . . 


1 


DeClercqxv, 563. 


110 


Boung^, &c. 


23 Aug., „ 


tf 


it •• 


— 


„ XV, 565. 


111 


Boung^, &c. 


23 „ 1874 


a 


y* 


— 


„ XV, 565. 


112 


Bio Fongo 


15 Feb., 1876 


i> 


Suzerainty 


1 


Ann. Sen^g., 469. 


113 


Sine 


13 Sept., 1877 


» 


Protection 


1 


412. 


114 


Fouta . . 


24 Oct., „ 


» 


a • • 


8 


DeClercq xv, 575. 


115 


Forr^cariah 


17 Jan., 1878 


ii 


Suzerainty 


1 


„ XV, 578. 


116 


KhasBO .. 


26 Sept., „ 


tt 


»» • • 


— 


Ann. S^n^g., 438. 


117 


Samo 


3 April, 1879 


t> 


Protectorate .. 


1 


DeClercqxv, 607. 


118 


Cayor . . 


10 Sept., „ 


»> 


i> •• 


1 


„ xii, 481. 


119 


rMacbadongon"! 
' Beteadongon > 
I Farimboula J 


3 April, 1880 


it 


» • • 


1 


/ Ann. du S6n^g., 
1 1890-91, 74. 


120 


Foiilaflongon . . 


16 „. „ 


» 


11 


1 


„ „ 79. 


121 


Haback.. 


21 „ „ 


>> 


Suzerainty and 
Protectorate 


1 


DeClercq xii, 549. 


122 


Kita . . 


25 April, 1880 


»> 


Protectorate . . 


1 


„ xvii, 2. 


123 


>» • • • • 


25 „ 


i* 


Sovereignty , . 


— 


„ xvii, 4. 


124 


Candiah. • 














Maneah . . 


20 June, „ 


ty 


Suzerainty and 


1 


„ xii, 569. 




Tombo, Ac. 






Protectorate 






125 


Makoko.. 


10 Sept., „ 


If 


Sovereignty 


— 


„ xiv, 75. 


126 


»» • • • • 


3 Oct., „ 


)i 


i> • • 


— 


„ xiv, 76. 


127 


Gndongon 


12 March, 1881 


n 


Protectorate . . 


1 


„ xrii, 5. 


128 


Gomon .. 


15 „ „ 


» 


i» • • 


1 


Ann. du Sen^g., 
1890-91, 75. 


129 


Bagniakadongon 


16 „ „ 


» 


»» •• 


— 


De Clercq xvii, 7. 


130 


Bammako . . 


27 April, „ 


»» 


i> •• 


1 


Ann. du Sen^g., 
1890-91, 82. 


131 


Lower Manding 


27 „ 


i> 


»i • • 


1 


81. 


132 


Bour^ ., 


8 May, „ 


ty 


»> • • 


1 


83. 


134 


Fouta . . 


16 „ 


1) 


»i • • 


1 


DeClercqxv, 623. 


135 


Manding 


20 „ 


»» 


a • • 


— 


„ xvii, 9. 


136 


Fouta Djallon 


5 July, „ 


ty 


»i •• 


1 


„ xv,626.» 


137 


Beledongon 


26 Oct., „ 


>» 


i» •• 


1 


„ xviii, 251. 


138 


Sirimana 


1 Nov., „ 


11 


a • • 


1 


„ xviii, 253. 


139 


Killa .. 


3 11 )} 


}i 


» • • 


1 


„ xviii, 258. 


140 


Kamana. . 


5 „ 


»> 


»» • • 


1 


„ xviii, 254. 


141 


Makhana 


8 }) )} 


)) 


>i • • 


1 


„ xviii, 254. 


142 


Tambaoxira 


8 )} a 


» 


ii • • 


1 


„ xviii, 254. 


143 


Niagala and Siri- 
mana 


13 „ 


>» 


a • • 


1 


„ xviii, 255. 


144 


Gangaran . • 


15 Feb., 1882 


}} 


Protectorate • . 


1 


„ xviii, 263. 


145 


Yocine .. 


18 March, „ 


Tr^e 


Suzerainty .. . 
exclusively rc- 


1 
6 


„ XV, 642. 








served to French 






146 


Balmadou and 


7 April, „ 


French Suzerainty 


1 


„ XV, 643. 




Souna 




yy 


i> * * 


4 




147 


Pakao .. 


11 „ 


i> 


« 


1 
5 
1 


„ XT, 644. 


148 


Bafing .. 


14 Dec, „ 


i* 


Protectorate . . 


„ XV, 686. 


149 


Cayor . . 


16 Jan., 1883 . 


ii 


Suzerainty 


1 


Ann. Sen%, 92. 


150 


N*Diainbour .. 


2 Feb., „ 


i> 


a • • 


1 


DeClercqxv, 691. 


151 


Baol ., 


8 March, „ 


yy 


Protectorate . . 


1 


„ XV, 698. 


152 


Loango . . 


12 „ „ 


i> 


„ and 
Suzerainty 


1 


„ xiv,307.t 



• S.P., Tol. IxxT, p. 336. t S.P., Tol. lixT, p. 558. 
281 



Digitized by 



Google 



18£3.1 



IBAKCE Am) AFRICA (WEST COAST). 



[No. 74 



No. 


Place. 


Date. 


Hubject. 


Art. 


Where to be found. 


158 


Ba^inta 
MfiLlimba • . 


18 April, 


1883 


French Sovereignty . . 


1 


Deaercqxviii,243. 


154 


19 „ 


)) 


fi 11 * * 


4 


„ xiv,809.» 










Non-adminion of For- 


1 




155 


Nossombougon . . 


20 „ 


f> 


eigners 
French Protectorate . . 


1 


„ xviii, 263. 


156 


Koumi .. 


24 „ 


ft 


** )* ■ • 


1 




, xviii, 265. 


157 


Banoko .. 


24 „ 


»> 


„ Sovereignty . . 


— 




, XV, 697. 


168 


» • • • • 


25 „ 


»» 


» II • • 


— 




XV, 697. 


159 


Dampa .. 


iMay 


>» 


„ Protectorate . . 


1 




„ xviii, 239. 


160 


Mourdiari 


5 „ 


)) 


II I) • • 


1 




, xviii, 241. 


161 


Dionkoloni 


13 „ 


)) 


11 II ■ ■ 


1 




, xviii, 242. 


162 


Segala . • 


15 ,, 


)} 


II If • • 


1 




, xviii, 242. 


163 


Doirebougon . . 


22 ,, 


)) 


II n • • 


1 




„ xviii, 243. 


164 


Nouko . . 


22 „ 


11 


II II * * 


1 




, xviii, 243. 


165 


Bramaja 


14 June, 


» 


„ Suzerainty and 

Protectorate 
II ti II 


1 


Ann. S^n^g, 478. 


166 


Negro Point . . 


21 „ 


n 


1 


DeClercqxiv,318.t 




fGreat Popo,' 
1 &c. 












167 


-j Little Popo y 

Porto Seguro 
lAgw6 .. ^ 


19 July, 


»» 


„ Protectorate . . 


1 


„ XV, 702. 


168 


rOnladEly 
I.OnladA'id 


9 Aug., 


ft 


„ Sovereignty . . 


3 


r Ann. du S^n^g., 
1 1889, 84. 


169 


Mangoni6 and 
Boung4 


10 „ 


»> 


II II • • 


1 


DeClercqxv,703. 


170 


Bou6 .. 


10 „ 


)) 


II II • • 


— 


„ XV, 703. 


171 


Central Fouta . . 


14 ,. 




„ Protectorate . . 


1 


„ xviii, 246. 


172 


Ignoumba 


17 „ 


»> 


„ Sovereignty . . 


1 


„ XV, 704. 


.173 


Ebocko.. 


24 „ 


)) 


II 11 • • 


1 


„ xiv, 314. 


174 


Cayor . . 


28 „ 


a 


II II • • 


1 


„ XV, 705. 


175 


r Ban gone 

\ Betimbe j ' 


5 Sept., 


»» 


f „ Suzerainty and! 
1 Protectorate / 


— 


II XV, 707. 


176 


Ebocko . . 


5 „ 


>j 


„ Sovereignty . . 


— 


„ xiv, 315. 


177 


Benito .. .. 


3 Not., 


)i 


• • 


1 


„ xiv, 315. 


178 


Firdou .. 


3 „ 


}) 


„ Suzerainty and 
Protectorate 


1 


„ xviii, 247. 


179 


Tambaoura 


8 „ 


11 


„ Protectorate . . 


3 


„ xviii, 249. 


180 


Benito . . 


9 „ 


11 


,, Suzerainty 




„ XV, 707. 


181 


„ . . • • 


9 „ 


*> 


Non-ce«8ion of Territory 
to Foreign Firms 


— 


1, XV, 707. 


182 


♦» • • • • 


10 „ 


„ 


French Suzerainty 





1. XV, 707. 


183 


Lobe .. 


13 „ 


)) 


„ Protectorate . . 





„ XV, 710. 


181. 


Dambo .. 
r Niongc6 
• Tonanjibe 
I Digneba 


15 „ 




II II • • 


— 


II XV, 711. 


185 


15 .„ 


» 


„ Suzerainty 





,1 XV, 712. 














186 


Campo .. 


19 „ 


>i 


„ Protectorate . . 


— 


„ xiv, 316. 


187 


Marcabougnn . . 


24 „ 


>» 


II II • • 


1 


„ xviii, 265, 


188 


Diebedoiigon . . 


25 „ 


11 


II II • • 


1 


„ xiv, 317. 


189 


Central Fouta . . 


27 „ 


» 


II II • • 


— 


Ann. du S^n6g., 
1888, 82. 


190 


Eroune . . 


14 Dec., 


)i 


„ Sovereignty ,, 


— 


DeClercqxiv,319. 


191 


Batas .. 


15 „ 


It 


„ Protectorate . . 


.- 


1, XV, 716. 


192 


N'aoT^.. 


15 „ 


» 


„ Suzerainty 


— 




„ xiv, 819. 



• S.P., vol. Ixxv, p. 340. t S.P., vol. ixxv, p. 841. 

282 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 74] 



FEANCE JiSD AFRICA. (WB3T COAST). 
[Native Ohl«fli.] 



[1888-1885. 



No. 


Place. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Art. 


Whereto be found. 


193 


Bapoukons 


23 Dec., 1883 


French Sorereigntj" . . 


_ 


DeClercqxiv,321. 


194 


Rio Pongo 


23 Jan., 1884 


»l 19 ' • 


1 


ti 


xviii, 257. 


195 


Bapouakons 


25 „ 


11 


y^ Protectorate • . 


— 




xiv, 322. 


19C 


Lakata .. 


26 „ 


11 


„ Sovereignty . . 


1 


II 


xiv, 322. 


197 


Nalous .. 


80 „ 


11 


» )i * * 


6 




xviii, 258. 


198 


Pt. N'Combe- 
BoTcnia Is. 


1 Feb., 


It 


11 11 •• 
Excluaion of Foreigners 


— 


II 


xiv, 328. 


199 


M'Bini .. 


1 „ 


91 


French Sovereignty . . 


— 


19 


XV, 723. 


200 


Coumane 


6 „ 


11 


91 11 • • 


— 




xiv, 324. 


201 


BatU .. 


10 March, 


11 


„ Protectorate . . 


— 




xiv, 338. 


202 


Akapleae 


^ . ".. 


11 


„ Sovereignty . . 


2 


}) 


xvii, 10. 


203 


Daba ,. 


8 Apra, 


11 . 


„ Protectorate . . 






xiv, 340. 


201 


Niecoma 


8 „ 


11 


t* 11 •• 






xiv, 342. 


205 


Diedougon 


11 •> 


l» 


11 11 • • 






xiv, 352. 


206 


Domba .. 


14 „ 


11 


M 91 •• 






xiv, 353. 


207 


Tontoudon 


16 „ 


»l 


11 11 • • 






xiv, 354. 


208 


Diako . . 


26 „ 


11 


l» >» •• 




)) 


xiv, 364. 


209 


Dio 


27 ., 


II 


19 11 •• 




)j 


xiv, 365. 


210 


Dosamana 


27 „ 


11 


11 11 • • 






xiv, 366. 


211 


Bouosofara 


28 „ 


11 


11 11 • • 






xiv, 368. 


212 




81 Mar, 


91 


„ Sovereignty .. 


^ 




XV, 728. 


213 


Bering .. 


3 June, 


11 


„ Suzerainty 


— 


11 


xvii, 12. 


214 


Bota-Boudje . . 


6 „ 


91 


„ Sovereignty .. 


— 


11 


xiv, 380. 


215 


Andje .. 


« ,. 


19 


„ Protectorate « . 


— 




xiv, 881. 


216 
217 


Bapoukona 
N'Gove.. 


6 „ 
17 July, 


11 

11 


„ Sovereignty . . 

n 11 • • 


— 


n 


xiv, 381. 
xiv, 320. 


218 


->".•• 


28 „ 


11 


„ Suzerainty 


— 


ii 


xiv, 321. 


219 


Djami .. 


8 Aug., 


11 


91 11 


1 




xvii, 13. 


220 


Benito .. 


9 .. 


>9 


„ Sovereignty , , 


— 


ji 


XV, 738. 


221 


Bapoukona 


10 „ 


11 


„ Suzerainty 


— 


tt 


xiv. 400. 


222 


Tembonj 


21 „ 


91 


„ Sovereignty , . 


— 


91 


xiv, 405. 


223 


Noyo, Ac. 


22 „ 


11 


» >» • • 


— 




xiv, 408. 


224 


Ouvinia . . 


23 „ 


91 


„ Suzerainty and 
Protectorate 


~~ 


11 


xiv, 410. 


225 


Moonej BiTcr . . 


23 „ 


» 


„ Protectorate . . 


— 


n 


XV, 739. 


226 


Apoutoua 


^5»" 


91 


„ Suzerainty 


— 


11 


xiv, 415. 


227 


Bramaja 


3 Sept., 


»» 


91 11 and 
Protectorate 


1 


11 


xiv, 416. 


228 


Megnetaoa 


17 „ 


91 


„ Protectorate . . 


1 


Ann. S^n^g., 440. 


229 


Rio Pongo 


25 „ 


11 


„ Sovereignty . . 


— 


DeClercqxiv.419. 


230 


Campo .. 


3 Oct., 


» 


„ Protectorate . . 


— 




xiv, 419. 


231 


»» • • • • 


4 .. 


„ 


>» >i • • 


— 


n 


xiv, 419. 


232 


Bate .. 


4 ,. 


91 


„ Suzerainty 


— 


fi 


xiv, 420. 


233 


Bapoukons 


t " 


»» 


,, Sovereignty . « 


— 


91 


xiv, 421. 


281. 


Coriaoo Baj 


10 „ 


» 


99 11 * ' 


— 




xiv, 423. 


235 


Lower Oneme . . 


12 Dec., 


11 


„ Protecterate , . 


— 




xvii, 14. 


236 


Enbitaye 


30 Jan., 1886. 


„ Suzerainty 


1 


f$ 


XT, 746. 


237 


Koba .. 


1 Feb., 


11 


„ Sovereignty . . 


1 


If 


XV, 747. 


238 


Dubreka 


1 „ 


11 


19 II • • 


— 


It 


XT, 746. 


239 


„ •« 


4 „ 


19 


11 II • • 


— 


»i 


xvii, 15. 


240 


Taboriah ., 
rHatanga "l 


7 „ 


» 


II 99 • • 


— 


r» 


xvii, 1. 


S41 


jYongo.. 1 
1 Tomba. . f 
LlCUoga . J 


311£arch, 


91 


„ Suzerainty 


— 


ff» 


XV, 781. 



283 



Digitized by 



Google 



1885—1887.] FEANCE AND AFBICA (WEST COAST). 

[Native OMefli.] 



[No. 74 



No. 


Place. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Art. Where to be found. 

1 


242 


Vidoko .. 


, , 


5 April, 1886 


French Siuerainty • . 


— 


DeClercqrv, 781. 


243 


f Siegn^ . . 


' 


• » it 


French SoTcreignty , . 


— 


„ XV, 782. 


244 


Rio Nunez 


, , 


17 „ „ 










„ xvii, 17. 


245 


Djolof .. 


• • 


18 „ „ 


w 


Suzerainty and 
Protectorate 


1 


Ann. Sen^g., 422. 


246 


Nalou BaTvjT 


.. 


20 „ „ 




— 


-— 


DeCIcrcqxvii,20. 


247 


Little Talibouche 


21 „ „ 


II 


Suzerainty • . 




„ xvii, 20. 


248 


Great „ 




24 


II 


II • • 




„ xvii, 21. 


249 


Bagas .. 




6 May, „ 


II 


>» • • 




„ xvii, 22. 


250 


Ouatchis* 




10 June, „ 


II 


Sovereignty • . 




II XV, 787. 


251 


Nyamina 




14 Sept., „ 


11 


Protectorate . . 




„ xvii, 23. 


252 


Ibonqiiila 




28 „ „ 


II 


Sovereignty . . 




„ XV, 886. 


253 


Matoungon 




28 » ,, 


>i 


II • • 




„ XV, 887. 


254 


N'Gombi^ 




29 „ „ 


II 


»i • • 


— 


„ XV, 888. 


255 


Benito .. 




15 Nov., „ 


i» 


II • • 


— 


„ xvii, 66. 


256 


Abnam? Samory 


28 March, 1886 


II 


Boundaiy 


— 


„ xvii, 340. 


267 


Munj Birer 


• • 


6 Dec, „ 


II 


Bights of An- 
chorage 


— 


„ xvii, 296. 
















258 


Danger River 


.. 


6 » t, 


II 


II • • 


— 


„ xvii, 296. 


259 


Dabon • . 


, , 


9 }} » 


II 


Sovereignty . . 


2 


„ xvii, 297. 


260 


Toussa .. 


• • 


10 „ „ 


II 


II • • 


2 


„ xvii, 298. 


261 


Bouboury 


, , 


11 „ .. 


II 


II •• 


2 


„ xvii, 299. 


262 


Ebrie'e .. 


, , 


13 „ „ 


II 


II •• 


1 


„ xvii, 300. 


263 


Elobcy and 


15 „ .. 






— 


„ xvii, 802. 




Corisco 














264 


Gamon .. 




1 Jan., 1887 


i> 


Protectorate . . 


2 


„ xvii, 304. 


265 


Diakha .. 




1 ., ,, 


II 


II •• 


2 


„ xvii, 305. 


266 


Ni^ri .. 




4 >f II 


II 


II •• 


2 


„ xvu,306. 


267 


Tiali . . 




S » 11 


II 


II • • 


2 


„ xvii, 308. 


268 


Eakadian 




9 .. „ 


II 


II •• 


3 


„ xvii, 309. 


269 


Borokone 




10 „ „ 


II 


II • • 


3 


„ xvii, 311. 


270 


Bondou . . 




11 ,, „ 


II 


II • • 


2 


„ xvii, 312. 


271 


Bambouk 




13 „ „ 


II 


II •• 


2 


„ xvii, 316. 


272 


Gnoy .. 




16 „ „ 


II 


11 • • 


4 


„ xvii, 318. 


273 


» • • 




16 „ „ 


Submission to France . . 


1 


„ xvii, 320. 


274 


Sirimana 




16,17Jan.,1887 


French Protectorate .. 


1 


„ xvii, 322. 


275 


Kamesa . . 




19 Jan., 1887 


II 


II • • 


1 


„ xvii, 323. 


276 


Badou . . 




22 „ „ 
26 » 1 


n 


II •• 


1 


„ xvii, 325- 


277 


Mocolo •• 


- 


30 „ . „ 
2 Feb. J 


II 


II •• 


1 


„ xvii, 327. 


278 


Tenda . . 


, , 


2 „ „ 


II 


II •• 


1 


„ xvii, 330. 


279 


Caniak •• 


• • 


2 }> II 


II 


Protectorate and 

Suzerainty 
Protectorate .. 


1 


„ xvii, 331. 


280 


Bambouk 




10 Jan."6 Feb., 


}} 


3 


„ xvii, 314. 








1887 










281 


Bambougon 


• • 


7 Feb., „ 


II 


»i •• 


1 


„ xvii, 333. 


282 


Diebedoufion 


• • 


9 11 


II 


II •• 


1 


„ xvii, 834. 


283 


Fonlof a . . 


• • 


18 „ 


>i 


II 


1 


„ xvii, 335. 


284 


Dinguiray 


• • 


12 March, ,» 


II 


II 


1 


„ xvii, 336. 


285 


OiiU .. 


• • 


21 „ 


II 


II • • 


1 


„ xvii, 3o7. 


286 


KouUon and Ka- 


22 „ 


II 


II •• 


1 


„ xvii, 339. 




bel«ya 















* Between Grand Pope and Dahomey. 
August, 1885. (See page 47.) 



French Protectorate notified to Powers, 20tU 
284 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 74] 



PEANCB AND ATEICA (WEST COAST). 
[KaUve Ohlefli.] 



[1887-1888. 



No. 


Place. 


Date. 


Subject. Art. 


Where to be found. 


287 


Almamj Samorj 


23 Map., 1887* 


French Protectorate . . 


2 


De Clercq xvii, 




Emir-el- 




• 












340.t 




Mumenin 


















288 


Sakho .. 


• • 


15 April, 


if 


fi 


II • • 


f* 


xvii, 854. 


280 


Menien «• 


, , 


16 „ 


it 


1} 


II • • ' '" 


11 


xTii,354. 


290 


Sokolo .. 


• • 


22 „ 


tt 


11 


.. 1 


11 


xvii, 355. 


291 


Trarzas .. 


• • 


27 „ 


ti 


1) 


II • • 


1 


Ann. 
1889, 


iu Seneg., 
126. 


292 


Boke .. 


• • 


23 „ 


If 


ff 


11 • • 


— 


De Clercq xvii, 359. 


293 


Bafing .. 
(Makbana) 


•• 


IMay, 


fi 


If 


If • • 


~~" 


11 


xvii, 360. 


294 


Segou (Almamj 


12 „ 


ft 


If 


If 


2 


11 


xvii, 365. J 




Ahmadou) 


















295 


Lew6 


. . 


13 „ 


tf 


II 


II 


1 


If 


xvii, 367. 


296 


Bettio . . 
fSaloum 
Bipp or Bad] 


- 


13 „ 


>» 


If 


If 


1 


If 


xvii, 367. 


297 


\ boo 

Niom .. 
iNiani .. 




14 .. 


1) 


If 


f> •• 


1 


ff 


xvii, 369. 


298 


Faavier . . 


,, 


14 ,, 


ft 


If 


If • • 


1 


11 


xvii, 368. 


299 


Ouled-Embarck . 


14 „ 


}} 


ft 


Support against 


1 


If 


xvii, 370. 














enemies 








800 


Codd^ .• 




15 „ 


t) 


ff 


Protectorate . . 


1 


11 


xvii, 372. 


801 


Gambou. . 




17 „ 


)) 


11 


ff • • 


1 


11 


xvii, 373. 


802 


Indeni^ . . 




25 June, 


)) 


ff 


ff • • 


1 




xvii, 386. 


803 


Thiakba.. 




28 „ 


a 


If 


Sorereignty . . 


1 


II 


xvii, 389. 


804 


Alangona 




13 July, 


»i 


ff 


Protectorate . . 


1 


11 


xvii, 410. 


305 


Yacasse.. 




21 „ 


If 


11 


ff •• 


— 


II 


xvii, 412. 


806 


Cottocron 




21 „ 


If 


11 


If •• 


— 


11 


xvii, 412. 


307 


Youmba. . 




80 Aug., 


If 


ff 


ff •• 


1 


ff 


xvii, 441. 


808 


MobendjeU^ 




6 Sept., 


f» 


ff 


If • • 


1 


tf 


xvii,442. 


809 


Bonanza 
(Modzaka) 




14 „ 


ff 


II 


ff • • 


~~~ 


If 


xvii, 444. 


810 


Impfondo 




21 „ 


>f 


If 


Protectorate and ' 1 


II 


xvii, 445. 














Suzerainty 








811 


Lissongo 




4 Oct., 


II 


ff 


ff •• 


1 


>f 


xvii, 464. 


312 


Libembe 




6 „ 


If 


„ 


f» •• 


1 


If 


xvii, 465. 


313 


Mon'Goudon 




6 „ 


fi 


ff 


f f • • 


1 


11 


xvii, 467. 


314 


Bikinda . . 




8 » 


II 


>f 


Protectorate . . 


1 


ff 


xvii, 468. 


315 


Cosroe . . 




19 Dec., 


II 


II 


Sovereignty . . 


— 


1) 


xvii, 509. 


816 


Fouta Djalon 




SOMorcb, 


1888 


tf 


Prolectorate . . 


1 


ff 


xviii, 35. 


317 


Egbas . . 




11 April, 


If 


ft 


fi •• 


5 


ff 


xviii, 36. 


818 


Kenedougon 




18 Jane, 


>i 


ff 


.•! 1 


ff 


xviii, 54. 


819 


Bougombbo 




6 Oct., 


If 


>i 


Suzerainty and 1 


If 


xviii, 117. 














Protectorate 








820 


Bobassa.. 




7 „ 


n 


n 


f> •• 


1 


If 


[xviii, 118. 


821 


Bokashi.. 




8 „ 


>» 


ft 


M •• 


1 


ff 


xviii, 118. 


822 


Yakodi .. 




8 „ 


91 


If 


II •• 


1 


ff 


xviii, 119. 



* By this Convention the Biver Niger (Dialiba) up to Tiguiberri, and the Biver Bafing 
or Tankisso, from Tiguiberri to their sources, were declared to serve as the line of demarcation 
and frontier between the French Possessions in the Soudan, on the one side, and the States 
of the Ahnamy Samory, Emir-el- Mnmenin, on the other. (See also Convention, 21st Feb- 
ruary, 1889.) t S»l?-> vol. Ixxviu, p. 719. J S.P., vol. Ixxviii, p. 720. 

285 



Digitized by 



Google 



1888-1890.] FRANCE AND AFRICA (WEST COAST). 

[Native Ohiefii.] 



[No. 74 



No. 


Place. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Art. 


Where tobe found. 


323 


Bozolo (Lower) . 


8 Oct., 


1888 


French Suzerainty and 


1 


DeClercq xviii,119. 


324 


„ (Upper) . 


9 „ 


i» 








11 


xviii,119. 


825 


Bozangn^ 


11 ,, 


)i 


»> »> 






»i 


xviii,120. 


326 


Badjongo 


11 » 


»» 


»» >i 






II 


xviii,120. 


327 


Konga . . 


12 ,, 


f} 


» »» 






II 


xvui,140. 


328 


Bodjo .. 
(Bagoumba) 


19 „ 


)) 


j» »» 






II 


xviii,142. 


329 


BojeU .. 


21 „ 


>i 


j> »> 






II 


xviii,119. 


330 


N'Goma 


22 „ 


>» 


»» »» 






II 


xviii,142. 


331 


Mond jimbo 


23 „ 


» 


,. 






II 


xvui,142. 


332 


Bollemb^(UpperJ 
(Lower) 


30 „ 


a 


» i> 






11 


xviii,149. 


333 


30 „ 


» 


>* t> 






II 


XTiii,151. 


334 


Longo . . 


4 Nov., 


M 


>» II 






II 


xviii, 153. 


335 


Abrou and Bon- 


13 „ 


»» 


„ Protectorate . . 




II 


xviii,153. 




doukou 












* 




336 


Kanto» . • 


23 Deo., 


»> 


»> II 


.. 




II 


xviii, 185. 


337 


Kong .. 


10 Jan., 


1889 


II II 


.. 




II 


xviii, 190. 


338 


Djimini . . 


26 Jan., 


>» 


II II 


.. 




II 


xviii, 191. 


339 


Anno . . 


8 Feb., 




II II 


.. 




II 


xviii, 193. 


440 


Almamy Samory 
Emir-el- 
Mumenin* 


21 ,, 


»} 


11 II 


* * 


2 


II 


xviii, 197. 


441 


Tambakka 


19 May, 


>j 


II II 


• • 


1 


II 


xviii, 233. 


442 


Tamiwo 


24 „ 


It 


II II 


.. 


2 


i» 


xviii, 266. 


443 


Djoloff .. 


3 June, 


1890 


II II 




1 


II 


xviii, 389. 


444 


Dahomey 


3 Oct., 


it 


Recognizing French 


1 


II 


xviii, 399. 










Protectorate 


over 
















Porto-NoTO 











Alcatbas Islands. — On the SOtli November, 1887, the British Govern- 
ment were officially informed that the Governor of Senegal had, on the 4tli 
of that month, occupied the Alcatras Islands, which group, it was said, was 
a natural dependency of the Colony of Senegal ; and that, as the islands had 
long been considered as belonging to France, the French Government was 
not bound to notify their effective occupation to the Signatory Powers of the 
Berlin Act, and that the fact was only notified to the British Government 
as an act of courtesy. 

By an agreement with the Governor of Senegal, the King of Naloes 
detached four of his warriors to the Alcatras Islands to guard the French 
flag ; but these black soldiers were entirely forgotten, and, as the islands 
produced nothing, they were all starved to death as Eoon as the scanty 
supply of provisions which had been left with them was exhausted, (lie 
Tempity 20th June, 1888.) 

* By this Convention, it was declared that the Biver Niger (Djebba) served as the line 
of demarcation and frontier between the French Possessions in the Soudan, on the one 
side, and the States of the Almamy Samory Emir-el-Mumenin, on the other. 

286 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 75] FRANCE (ALaJSRIA). [1830—1837. 

[French Occnpatlon of Alsreria.] 

No. 75. — NOTES on the French Occupation of Algeria. 
1830—1844. 



Tn March, 1830, a French expedition was fitted out against 
Algiers. 

On the 6th July, 1830,* a Convention was signed between 
the G«neral*in-Chief of the French Army and the Dey of 
Algiers, which contained the following stipulations : — 

(Translation.) 

'* The Fort of Casanba and all the other forts belonging to 
Algiers and the harbour of this city shall be surrendered to the 
French troops this morning at 10 o'clock (French time)." 

• - • • • • .« 

** The exchange of this Convention shall be effected before 
10 o'clock this morning, and the French troops shall immediately 
after enter the Fort of Casauba and successively all the other 
forts of the town and on the coast." 

A long correspondence passed between the British and French 
Governments from March to July, 1830, relative to the French 
expedition against Algiers, when assurances were given that 
" the expedition was undertaken for the sole purpose of vindi- 
cating the national honour, and not with the view of acquisi- 
tion or conquest."t 

In 1833 war was renewed by the Arab Chief Abd-el-Kader 
against the French, which was continued off and on until the 
30th May, 1837,1 when Abd-el-Kader was defeated, and the 
Sovereignty of France recognized. Certain portions of the 
Provinces of Oran and Algiers were reserved to France, by a 
Treaty which contained the following Articles : — 

(Translation.) 

Art. 1. — The Eiiiir Abd-el-Kadev recognizes the Sove- 
reignty of France in Africa. 

• S.P., Tol. xvii, p. 1198. The French j at this time, maintained that 
they had poBsessed La Calle and Bastion de France for more than a cen- 
tury (S.P., Tol. xix, p. 947). 

t S.P., vol. xix, p. 942. t S.P., vol. xxvi, p. 1095. 

287 X 



Digitized by 



Google 



80 May, 1837.] FKANOE (ALGERIA). [No. 75 

[French Oooupatlon of Algeria.] 

Art II. — France reserves to herself in the Province of 
Oran :* Mostaganetn,* Masagran and their territories ; Oran, 
Arzen ;t plus a territory bounded as follows : to the East, by 
the River Macta and the marsh out of which it flows ; to the 
South, a line starting from the above-mentioned marsh passing 
along the southern shore of Lake Sebgha and extending as far 
as Wady-Malah (Rio Salado) in the direction of Sidi-Said and 
from this river to the sea ; so that all the land comprised with- 
in this boundary shall be French territory ; 

In the Province of Algiers: Algiers, Sahel, the Mitidja 
Plain, bounded on the East by the Wady-Khadra; on the 
South, by the first crest of the first chain of the Little Atlas as 
far as the Chifia, including Blida and its territory ; on the West 
by the Chiffa until its junction with the Masafran, and thence 
in a straight line to the sea, including Coleah and its territory ; 
so that all the land within these limits shall be French 
territory. 

Abt. III. — The Emir shall govern the Province of Oran, 
that of Tittery, and the portion of that of Algiers to the "\V est, 
which is not included in the limits laid down in Art. II. 

He shall not be allowed to penetrate into any other part 
of the Regency. 

Aet. IV. — AuihoriUj over Musulmans, 

Abt, V. — Religions Freedom » 

Abt. VI. — War Indemnity to he paid by Emir to France, 

Abt. VII. — Purchase of Gunpowder^ ^c, by Emir, 

Art. VIII. — Treatm^ent of Koulouglis, 

Aet. IX. — Surrender by France to the Emir of Bachgonn, 
Tlemeen, MecTwnar, and the Cannons form&rly in latter Citadel. 

Abt. X. — Liberty of Commerce^ 

Abt. XI. — Protection of Persons and Property. 

Abt, XII. — Surrender of Criminals. 

Abt. XIII. — No7i Cession by Emir of Coast-line to any Power 
icithout Consent of France, 

• Conquered by Spain in 1509, but abandoned in 1792, S.P., rol. nii, 
p. 255. 

t Mostaganem and Amcu were occupied by the French in 1883. ».P., 
vol. xxii, pi 255. 

288 



Digitized by 



Google 



f^mmfmmmBmi 



Ho. 75] FRANCE (ALaERIA). [1837—1842. 

[French Oooupation of Algeria.] 

Art. XIV. — Catumerce only to he cairied on in French Ports. 

Art. XV. — Appointment of French Agents in Emir^s Terri* 
tory. 

On the 28th January, 1842, the following despatch was ad- 
dressed by the Earl of Aberdeen to Lord Cowley, then British 
Ambassador at Paris, respecting the French occupation of 
Algiers.* 

My Lord, Foreign Office, January 28, 1842. 

My attention has been directed to the report in the 
" Moniteur,"t of a speech delivered in the Chamber of Deputies 
by M. Guizot, on the 20th instant. On that occasion his 
Excellency read in the Tribune an account of a conversation 
between the Count de St. Aulaire and myself, which had 
reference to the French possessions in Africa, and which had 
been transmitted by the Ambassador to the French Minister. 

In this relation, the Count de St. Aulaire observes, "I 
began by asserting that the security of our African possessions 
was for us an interest of the hightest importance, which he 
could not allow to give way before any consideration; and 
Lord Aberdeen, after having listened to me attentively, said, I 
am very glad to be able to explain myself distinctly to you 
upon this point. I was Minister in 1830. If I were to go 
back to that time, I should have much to say ; but I take 
a&irs as they are in 1841, and in the state in which they have 
been left by preceding Cabinets; I therefore look upon your 
position in Africa as a fait accompli,, against which I have no 
further objection to make.'' 

Now, I readily subscribe to the accuracy of this statement, 
with the exception of the last seutence. I never said that I 
had now no objeetion to make to the establishment of the 
French in Algiers ; but that I had no obervation to make on 
the subject, and that it was my intention to be silent The 
context shows that such was my meaning ; and, in fact, this 

• S.P., Tol. XXX, p. 859. For the correspondence which passed between 
Great Britain and France relating to the French expedition against Algiers 
in 1830. see " State Papers," toI. xix, p. 941, 

t " Moniteur " of Janiuwy 20, 1842. 

X 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



1842-1844.] FKANCB (ALGERIA) . [No. 75. 

[Frenoh Ocoupation of Alfferia.] 

decision was the result of mature reflection. I felt that, after 
10 years of acquiescence, any objections at the present moment 
would have been misplaced ; and that the course which it would 
have been impossible for me formerly to have adopted had 
now become entirely consistent with propriety and duty. It 
does not follow, however, that objections, although not 
ezpresed, may not be entertained. 

I have explained to the French Ambassador the misappre- 
hension into which he had fallen, and the erroneous statement 
which, in consequence, he had made to his Government. 

With the same object in view, your Excellency will have 
the goodness to read this despatch to M. Guizot. 

I am, &c.y 
H.E. Lord Gowley. ABERDEEN. 

On the 10th September, 1844, a Convention was signed 
between France and Morocco for the settlement and termina- 
tion of disputes which had arisen between those two countries ; 
and in this Convention it was stated (Art. V) that the delimi- 
tation of the frontiers between the possessions of His Majesty 
the Emperor of the French and those of His Majesty the 
Emperor of Morocco were fixed and agreed to in conformity 
with the state of affairs recognized by the Maroquine Govern- 
ment at the time when Algeria was under the domination of 
the Turks ; and that the complete and regular execution of that 
clause should form the subject of a special Convention (see 
MoEOCCO AND Fkancb, p. 802). 

In December, 1882, a Notification was issued stating that 
the Province of Mzab had been annexed to Algeria. 

On the 5th August, 1890, a Declaration was signed between 
Great Britain and France respecting Madagascar and the French 
sphere of influence south of her Mediterranean possessions (see 
Great Britain and France). 

The Southern Boundary of Algeria has not yet been clearly 
defined. 

For the Boundary between Algeria and Tunis, see TtJNis, 
p. 905. 

290 



Digitized by 



Google 



FRANCE AND COMORO 
ISLANDS. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 76] FRANCE AND COMORO ISLANDS. [21 April, 1886. 

[Frttnoh Protootor»t6. Anjocum (Johanna).] 



No. 76. CONVENTION between France and the Sultan of 
Anjouan {Johanna), 2\st Aptnl, 1886.* 

Treamhle, 

Aet. I. — His Highness, together with his Goancil of 
Ministers, declares that he places Hie Island of Anjonan under 
the protection of France. He binds himself never to make a 
Treaty with any other nation, and to grant no privileges to 
foreigners withont the consent of France. 

Art. TI. — Freedom of Besidence, Travel, and Trade. 

Art. III. — Grants of Land to French Business Men. 

Art. IV. — Differences between French Gitizens and Anjounese 
to be settled by French Tribunals, (Amended by Convention of 
16th October, 1887, p. 292.) 

Art. V. — Bights of Foreigners already established in the Island 
reserved, without French Government being Besponsiblefor Execution 
of previous Deeds and Conventions. Disputes respecting siich Deeds, 
tfc, to be referred to the Arbitration of tl^e French Government, 

Art. Yl.^^National Treatment of Vessels, 

Art. VII. — Succession to Throne of Anjouan, 

Art. Ylll.-^Subsistence to be provided by Stiltan for Eis 
Highnesses Brothe7\ 

Art. IX, — Insurgents to be tried as Bebels. 

Art. X. — Asylum to be refitsed in French Territory to Anjonan 
Bebels, 

Art. XI. — Arms not to be carried by Sultan in any of the 
Comoro Islands; nor Aid or Assistance to be given to any one 
without Approval of French Commandant of Mayotte, 

Art. Xn. — Non-existence of an Act between Sultan and any 
other Power which could vitiate character of present Convention. 

Art. XIII. — Fledge of Sultan to abolish Slavei-y in his States, 

Art. XIV. — Signatures to Present Convention, 

■ '* 'Commiinioated by the French Ooyerament to the American MiniBter, 
at Paris, 21r0t February, 1888. For French yenion, soe S.P., rol. Izzix, 
p. 438. 

291 



Digitized by 



Google 



15 Oct., 1887.] FRANCE AND COMORO ISLANDS. [No. 77 

[French Protectorate. Anjouan (Jchazma).] 

No. n.— CONVENTION between France and the Svlidn of 
Anjoiian (Johanna). 15th October, 1887.* 

Preamble . 

Art. I. — Convention signed 26th March, 1887, anntUled, 

Art. II. — Covjvnnation of Convention of 21»i April, 1886,t 
xciih exception of Article II, which is modified. 

Art. III. — Resident to he accompanied by his Secretaries, 
Interpreters, or other Employes necessary to insure his Service. 

Art. IV. — Disputes between French Citizens and Anjouanese 
to be tried and settled by a Court composed of the Resident or his 
Delegate President, of a French Assessor, and of an Anjouanese 
Assessor. 

Art. V. — French School at Montsamondou, to be provided, paid, 
and kept up by Sultan. Convention to be approved by French 
Qovemment. 

French Notification of the placiiig of the Islands of Grand 

Comoro, Johanna, and MohiUa under French Protection. 26th 

June, 1886.t 

(Translation.) 

M. le Gomte, London, 26th June, 1886. 

M. de Freycinet has charged me to make known to jonr 
Ezcellenqj, before the text of the Conventions have been 
officially published, that in virtne of the Treaties of 6th Janu- 
ary, 21st and 26th of April last, the islands of Grand Comoro 
(Grande Comore), Johanna (Anjouan), and MohiJla (Mohili) 
have been placed under the Protectorate of France. 

Although according to the terms of the Act of Berlin (No. 
17) the regulations laid down by the Conference only expressly 
refer to the coast of Africa itself, my Government has neverthe* 
less decided, in consequence of the proximity of these islands to 
the Continent, and by the feeling of courtesy which the Govern-' 
ment of Her Majesty will appreciate, to notify to it, without 
delay, the establishment of our Protectorate over the Archie 
pelago of the Comoros. 

Accept, Ac, 

WADDINGTON. 
The Earl of Bosebery. 

• Commumcated bj the French Gorernment to the American Minister 
at Paris, 21st Februarr, 1888. For French Version see S.P., vol. Ixxix, 
p. 440. t Pnge 291. t See S.P., rol. Ixxvii, p. 940. 

292 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 78] FRAKCB AND aEEMANY. [24 Dec, 1886. 

[Biafira Bay* Oameroons.] 

No. TS.— PROTOCOL relating to the Oerman and French 
Possessions on the West African Coast JBerlin, 24th 
DecenibeT, 1885 * 

(TranBlation.) 

The OoyemiDent of Hie Majesty the Emperor of Germany 
and the Government of the French Republic having resolved 
to regulate in a spirit of mutual good intelligence the relations 
which may arise between them from the extension of their 
respective rights of Sovereignty or Protectorate upon the West 
African Coast and in Oceania, the Undersigned, viz. : — 

Count von Bismarck Schoenhausen, Under-Secretary of 
State in the Department of Foreign AlEairs ; and 

Baron de Conrcel, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipo- 
tentiary of the French Republic at the Court of His Majesiy 
the Emperor of Germany, 

to this effect duly authorized, the following stipulations are 
agreed on : — 

B'iafra Bay, 

Art. I. The Government of His Majesty the Emperor of 
Germany renounces in favour of France all rights of sovereignty ^ 
or protectorate in the territories which have been acquired 
to the south of the River Campo, by the subjects of the 
German Empire, and which have been placed under the pix)- 
tectorate of His Majesty the Emperor of Germany. It engages 
to abstain from all political action to the south of a line fol- 
lowing the said river from its embouchure, to the point where 
it meets the meridian at 10° of longitude east from Greenwich 
(7° 40' longitude east from Paris), and, from this point, the 
parallel of latitude as far as up to its intersection with the 
meridian situated IS** of longitude east of Greenwich (12** 40' 
longitude east of Paris). 

The Government of the French Republic renounces all 
rights and all pretensions which it might claim to exercise over 

* Sec 8. P., ToL IxxTi, p. 303. See also Protocol, 4Ui Februaiy, 1894. 
(Apphtdix.) 

293 X 3 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 Dec., J888.] FRANCE AM) GEBMAKY. [No. 78 

[Slave Ooast. To8o» Porto-Saffvro. LitUe Popo.] 

the territories situated to the North of the same line, and 
engages to abstain from all political action to the North of this 
line. 

Kavigatton of the Biver Campo. 
Neither of the two Governments shall adopt measures 
which might interfere with tho freedom of commerce and navi- 
gation of the subjects of the othar G vemment on the waters 
of the River Campo, within the portion of the stream which 
forms the boundaiy between the two Governments, and of 
which the use shall be common to the subjects of the two 
countries. 

Slave Coast* 
Oerman Protectorate over Togo. Renunciation of French Rights 
over Porto-Seguro, 
Art. II. The Grovemment of the French Republic in recog- 
nizing the German Protectorate over the territory of Togo, 
renounces the rights which it might claim to exercise over the 
territory of Porto-Seguro, in consequence of its relations with 
King Mensa. 

Remmeiaiion of French Rights over Little Popo. 

The (Jovemment of the French Republic likewise renounces 
its rights over Little Popo, and recognizes the German Pro- 
tectorate over this territory. 

Protection of Persons and Property of French Citizens at Porto^ 
Begwo and Little Popo, 

French traders at Porto-Seguro and Little Popo retain for 
their persons and property as well as for their commercial 

* Togo was ceded to (^ermanj on the 5th July, 1884 (see p. 320). To the 
East of Togoland, the French flag flies over the narrow strip of coast from 
Aghwey to Grand Popo. The coast between Grand Popo and the French Pro- 
tectorate of Porto NoYO was, at this time, claimed by the King of Bahomoy, 
with Whydah as its capital; bnt on the 3rd December, 1892, a Proclama- 
tion was issiied announcing that the kingdom of Dahomey had been placed 
under the Protectorate of France, with the exception of Whjdah and 
certain othet territorias which had been assigned to Prance. (See Notes 
on Dahomey, p. 248. See also Proo^s-Yerbal, Ist February, 1887, p. 297.) 

294 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 78] FRANCE AXD GERMANY. [24 Dec, 1883. 

[fiOave Coaat.] 

operations, until the conclasion of the Gastoroa arrangement 
provided for below, the bene 6 1 of the treatment which they at 
present enjoy, and shall likewise be entitled to all the ad- 
vantages and immunities which might be accorded to natives of 
Germany. 

Bight of Transport and Exchange of Qoods, 

Namely, they shall retain the right to transport and 
exchange their wares freely between their factories or ware- 
houses at Porto- Seguro and Little Popo, and the French terri- 
tory contiguous, without being subject to the payment of any 
duty. Reciprocally, the same right shall be guai*anteed to 
German traders. 

Customs Begulations. 

The German and French Governments, moreover, reserve to 
themselves discretion to concert measures, after an enquiry has 
been made upon the spot for attaining a settlement of Customs 
regulations common to both nations in the territories com- 
prised between the English possessions of the Gold Coast on 
the West, and Dahomey on the East.* 

Boundary. Slave Coast, Commissioners to he appointed.^ 

The boundary between the German territories and the 
French territories on the Slave Coast shall be determined on 
the spot by a mixed Commission. The dividing line shall 
start from a point on the coast to be fixed between the terri- 
tories of Little Popo and of Agoue. In tracing this line 
Northwards, the boundaries of the native possessions will be 
taken into account. The Gbrman Government engages to 
abstain from all political action on the East side of the line 
thus determined. The French Government engages to abstain 
from all political action on the West side of the same lino. 

* See CuBtonu Union Conyention between Great Britain and Germsiny, 
24tb February, 1884, p. 661. 

t See Proc^-verbal, Ist February, 1887, p. 297. 

295 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 Dec, 1885.] FRANCE AND GEBMAinr. [No. 78 

[SenegMiibia and Southom BiTtft Distriot. Ooba and SabiUI,] 

Coast of Senegamhia and the Southern Biverg Distruits. 

Senegambia and Southern Bivers District. French Bights over 
Coha and Kabilm, 

Art. III. The Government of His Majesty the Emperor of 
Germany renonnces all rights or pretensions which he might 
claim to exercise over the territories situated between the Rio 
Nunez and the Melktcoree, to wit, over Coba and Eabilai, and 
recognizes the sovereignty of France over these territories. 

Art. IV. — Oceania, 

Done in duplicate, at Berlin, the 24th December, 1885. 
(L.S.) COUNT BISMARCK. 
(L.S.) ALPH. DE COUBCEL. 

On the 4th February, 1894, an Agreement was signed between 
France and Germany respecting the boundary of the German 
Protectorate of the Cameroons and of the Colony of the Frenoh 
Congo, and defining the French and German spheres of in- 
fluence in the region of Lake Tchad (see Appendix). 



39« 



Digitized by 



Google 



fh/ce. p. 296, 



Map shewing French & German Possessions in the 
Bight of Biafra. 



As UdudL dowrvuvArtide loftheFrotocol of24^Dec^1885. 




Gernutn. 
French/... . 



1 4 Of U!«, Utk. •I.CapUi* Uii«, jao5 ».#♦. 
Digitized by VjOOQ 16 



Map shewing BounoARr between French and 
German Possessions in the Bight of Biafra 

Aa laid, ckmiv in/ArLlcf^mPrctoebU of 
29^Deceiniber1885. 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 79] FRANCE AND GERMANY. [1 Feb., 1887. 

[SUiTe OoMit b«twe«n Affou6 vnd Little Popo.] 



No. 19.—PB0Ci:S-VERBAL fixing the delimitation of the 
French and German Possessiona on the Slave Coast. Ist 
February, 1887- 

In conformity with Article II of the Protocol signed at 
Berlin, the 24th December, 1885 (No. 78), the Undersigned :— 

The Lientenant-Govemor of Senegal and its Dependencies, 
M. Jean Bajol, Knight of the Legion of Honour, Officier 
d' Academic; and 

The Imperial Commissioner of Togo, M. Ernst Falkenthal, . 

Appointed by their respediye Governments as Delimitation 
Commissioners, duly anthonzed for this purpose, after having 
met npon the spot, have fixed with one accord as the line sepa- 
rating the French and German territories on the Slave Coast, 
the meridian, which, leaving the coast, passes through the west 
point of the little island called Bayol Island, situated in the 
Lagoon, between Agou6 and Little Popo, a little to the west of 
the village of Hillacondji, and continued until it meets the 
9th degree of north latitude. 

On this point of Bayol Island, a French post and a German 
post have been placed under the superintendence of the Mixed 
Commission. 

Two other posts were erected on the banks of the Lagoon, 
and two others on the shore, in the direction of the frontier 
line. 

Other posts completing the line of Reparation can be placed 
by either of the Representatives of the two Protectorates after 
mutual agreement. 

Done in duplicate at Little Popo, the 1st February, 1887. 

JEAN BAYOL. 
ERNST FALKENTHAL. 

The present Proc&s-Yerbal is approved in the name of the 
Government of the French Republic. 
Done at Paris, the 20th April, 1887. 

FLOURENS. 
MinUter for Foreign Affairs, 
297 



Digitized by 



Google 



12 May, 1886.] FRANCK AND PORTUGAL. [No. 80 

[Quinea, Fouta DJallon.] 

No. SO.— CONVENTION beiireen France and Poi^tugal, 
relative to th^ Delimitation of their respective Foasessions 
in West Africa. Faris, 12th May, 1886* 

(Ti^anslation.) 
His Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves, and the 
President of the French Republic, animated by the desire to 
draw more closely, through good neighbourly relations and 
perfect harmony, the bonds of friendship which exist between 
the two countries, have determined to draw up, for this pur- 
pose, a special Convention to arrange the delimitation of their 
respective possessions in West Africa, and have named the 
following as their Plenipotentiaries : — 

His Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves, M. Joao 
d'Andrade Corvo, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary to the French Bepnblic, <fec., and M. Carlos Roma dn 
Bocage, Military Attach^ at the Legation at the Court of His 
Majesty the Emperor of Germany and King of Prussia, Ac. ; 

The President of the French Republic, M. Girard de Rialle 
Minister Plenipotentiary, Chief of the Department of the 
Archives in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ac. ; 

Who, after declaration of their full powers, which were found 
to be in good and due form, agreed to the following Articles : — 

Oiiinea, 
Art. I. In Guinea, the frontier which shall separate the 
Portuguese from the French possessions, will follow, in ac- 
cordance with the tracing upon Map I, which is annexed to the 
present Conventionf : — 

In the North, a line which, starting from Cape Hoxo, will 
keep, as far as the nature of the ground will permit, at an 
equal distance from the Rivers Casamance (Casamansa) and 
San Domingo de Cacheu (Sao Domingos de Cacheu) to the 
point of intersection of 17° 30' longitude west of Paris J with the 
parallel 12"* 40' of north latitude, between this point and 16° of 
longitade west of Paris,§ the frontier shall be merged in the 
parallel 12° 40' of north latitude :— 
• S.P., Tol. Ixxrii, p. 617. 
t Not published with the ConTention. 

t 15° 10' west of Greenwich. § 13' 40' west of Greenwich. 

298 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 80J FRANCE AND PORTUGAL. [12 May, 1886. 

[Guinea, Fouta DJallon. Oob^o.1 

lu the East, the frontier will follow the meridian of 16^ west* 
from the 12"' 40' parallel of north latitude to the 11° 40' parallel 
north latitude : — 

In the South, the frontier will follow a line starting from 
the mouth of the River Cajet, which lies between the Island of 
Catack (which will belong to Portugal) and the Island of 
Tristao (which will belong to France), and keeping, as far as 
the nature of the land permits, at an equal distance between 
the Rio Componi (Tabati) and the Rio Cajssini, then between 
the northern branch of the Rio Componi (Tabati) and at first 
the southern branch of the Rio Cassini (tributary of the 
Kacondo), afterwards the Rio Grrande, until it reaches tho 
point where the 16th meridian of west longitude cuts the parallel 
IV 40' of north latitude. 

Portugal will possess all the islands included between the 
meridian of Gape Roxo, the coast, and ij^e southern boundary 
formed by a line following the thalweg of the River Cajet, and 
afterwards turning towards the south-west across the Passe des 
Pilots, where it reaches 10° 40' north latitude, and follows it as 
far as the meridian of Gape Roxo. 

Fouta'Djallon. 

Art. II. His Majesty the King of Portugal and Algarves 
recognizes the French Protectorate over the territories of 
Fouta-Djallon, such as it was established by the Treaties con- 
cluded in 188lt between the Government of the French 
Republic and the Almamys of Fouta-Djallon. 

The Government of the French Republic, on its side, binds 
itself not to attempt to exercise influence within the limits 
assigned to Portuguese Guinea by Article I of the present Con- 
vention, They further bind themselves not to modify the 
treatment which has always been extended to Portuguese 
subjects by the Almamys of Fouta-Djallon. 

Congo, 

• Art. III. In the region of the Congo, the frontier of the 

Portuguese and French possessions will follow, in accordance 

* 18® 40' west of Greenwich. 
t See S.P., Tol. IxxT, p. 336 i also pp. 281, 285. 
299 



Digitized by 



Google 



12 May, 1886.] FRANCE AND POETUGAL. [No.80 

[Oonso, Anffola, Koaambique.] 

vfith tke tracing on Map II, annexed to the present Conven- 
tion,* a line ^vhicli, starting from the Ghamba Point, situated at 
the confluence of tlie Loema or Louisa Loango and the Lubinda, 
will keep, as far as the nature of the land permits, at an equal 
distance from the two rivers, and from the northernmost sonrce 
of the Biver Luali will follow the crest line which separates the 
basins of the Loema or Louisa Loango and the Ghiloango as far 
as 10° 30' of longitude east of Pari8,t when it is merged in this 
meridian as far as its meeting with the Ghiloango, which at this 
point serves as the frontier between the Portuguese possessions 
and the Gongo Free State. 

Each of the High Gontracting Parties binds itself not to 
raise at Ghamba Point any works of a nature to impede naviga- 
tion. Li the estuary comprised between Ghamba Point and the 
sea the thalweg will serve as political line of demarcation 
between the possessions of the High Gontracting Parties. 

Angola and Mozambique, Territories between. 
Art. IV. The Government of the French Republic recog- 
nizes the right of His Most Faithful Majesty to exercise his 
sovereign and civilizing influence in the territories which 
separate the Portuguese possessions of Angola and Mozambique ; 
reserving rights already a<;quired by other Power8,J and binds 
itself on its side to abstain from all occupation there. 
• AitT. V. — Protection of Life and Property, Commerce and 
Navigation. Most-favoured-nation Treatment, 

Ajslv, VI. — State Domains to form subject of Exchanges and 
Compensations. 

Art. VII. — Boundary Com/mdssion to be appointed* 
Art. VIII. — O&nvention to be ratified, 
Paris, May 12th, 1886. 

(L.S.) JOAO DB ANDRADB GORVO. 
(L.S.) GARLOS ROMA DTJ BOOAGE. 
(L.S.) J. GIRARD DE RIALLE. 
(L.S.) A. O'NEILL. 
* Not published with the Convention, 
t 12** SC/ east of Greenwich. 

t The British GoTernment formally protested against Art. lY of this 
Treaty on the 13th August, 1887, p. 325. (See P.P., " Africa, No. 2, 1890.") 

300 



Digitized by 



Google 



GERMANY. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



GERMANY. 



LIST OP TREATIES, Ac. 



GERMANY (AFRICA (GENERAL)). 
No. Page 

26 Feb., 1885. Berlin Act ... . See Africa (aeneral). 
2 July, 1890. BruBsels Act . . See Africa (QeDeral). 



GERMANY AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). | 

— - Not. — Dec., List of Treaties. Qerman Colonization Society and ] 

1884. Native Chief9(Nguru,XJ8agara,&c.) 303 | 

81 17 Feb., 1885. Charter German Colonization Society 303 \ 

— May— July, List of IVeaties. Qerman Col^nizat^n Society and 

1885. Native Chiefs (Eilimanjarn Dis- { 

trict, Taveita, Chagga, &c.) 3X0 

-^ 22 Oct., 1889. Notification... German Protectorate over Coast 

between Witu and Eismayu 315 

82 1884—1890. Notes on German Protectorates in East Africa a|p5 

— 1 July, 1890. Agreement .... Great Britain and Germany. Spheres 

of Influence. S. £. Coast of Africa. 
Arts. 1 and 2 (see Great Britain an^ 
Germany). 

— 17 Aug., 1890. Award Belgium. Differences between British 

East Africa and German Company 
of Witu respecting Island ot Lamu 
(see Great Britain and Germany). 

GERMANY AND AFRICA (SOUTH V7EST COAST). 

83 1884—1892. Notfis on German Protectorates on S. W. Coast of Africa 

Namaqualand, Damaraland, &o. ... 317 

— 1 July, 1890. Agreement .... Great Britain and Germany. Spheres 

of Influence. S. W. Coast of Africa. 
Art. 3 (see Great Britain and Ger- 
many). 

GERMANY AND AFRICA (WEST COAST). 

81 1884—1890. Notes on German Protectorates on the West Coast of 

Af rica» Togoland, Camerroons, &c. . 320 
See also France and Germany, and Great Britain and Germany. 

301 T 



Digitized by 



Google 



GERMANY. 

I 

[List of Treaties, Sto ] 

No. Pago 

GERMAN EAST AFRICA CO. AND ZANZIBAR. 

1 See Zanzibar and Germany. 

j GERMANY AND BELGIUM. 

j See Congo and Germany. 

I GERMANY AND CONGO. 

j See Congo and Germany. 

GERMANY AND FRANCE. 
See France and Germany. 

GERMANY AND GREAT BRITAIN. 

Sec Great Britain and Germany. 

GERMANY AND PORTUGAL. 

85 30 Doc, 1886. Declaration. . . . Germany and Zanzibar. Spheres of 

Inauence in S. W. and S. £. Africa 883 

GERMANY AND ZANZIBAR. 

See Zanzibar and Germany. 



302 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 81] aEEMANT AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). [17 Feb., 1886. 
[Charter. German 'Gploniaation Society.] 



No. SI.— CHARTER OF PROTECTION granted to the 
German Colonization Society, for certain Acquisitions of 
Territory made by it on the South East Coa^t of Afrififh 
between the Tct^niory of the Sultan of Zanzibar and. Lak,e 
Tanganyika. Berlin, VI th February, 1885.* 

(Translation.) 

His Majestj the Emperor has been graciously pleased to 
address the following Imperial " Charter of Protection " to the 
Society for German Colonization for their territorial acquisi.r 
tions in East Africa : — 

** We, William, by the Grace of God^ German Enijiperor, 
King of Prussia, make known and ordain a^ follows : — 

" The present Presidents of the Society for German Colonic- 
zation, Dr. Karl Peters, and our Chamberlain Felix, Count 
Behr-Bandelin, having sought our protection for the teri'itorial 
acquisitions of the Society in East Africa, west of the Empii*e 
of the Sultan of Zanzibar, and outside of the suzerainty 
(* Oberhoheit ') of other Powers, and the Treaties lately con- 
cluded by the said Dr. Karl Peters with the Rulera of Usagara^ 
Nguru, Useguha, and Ukami in November and December last,* 
by which these territories havo been ceded to him for tbe 

• 8.P., Tol. IxXrVii, p. 10. Fubliphed in German Official O^azette, 
*' Beichsanzeiger," 8rd March, 188$ : 

Lut of Tfeaties concluded hif German Colonization Society with Native 
Chieje on Eeut Cpast of Africa, in November and Decemhfir, 1884. 

FAGB 
26 Nov., 1884. Nguru ar.d TJsagara. '* National Zeitung/' p. 3012. . . 7 
^ „ „ Msevoro (in Usagara), „ „ . . . 6 

2 Pec., I, Mttkondokova (in Usagara), „ „ . . . 7 

\aH of Treaties concluded between May and /uly, 1885. (See p. 310.) 

leUa^ 1886. Quafungo 54 

^7 „ Hruasi, Bamba, and Makomba 54 

25 „ Mlungu, Makujuni, Tarabande and S. E. Usambara. . . 56 

8 Jjane, „ Eiswani 57 

13 „ „ Taveta 68 

19 „ „ Dschaggaland (Chagf;a), Aruscha, Ugueno, &c. .. .. .. 59 

-n „ „ Kah^ (>0 

3 Julj, „ Bondei (Southern portion) 55 

303 y 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



17 Feb., 1835.] GERMAN r AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). [No. 81 
[Charter. Qerman Ooloxiisation Society.] 

German Colonial Society with sovereign rights ('Landesho- 
heit*) over the same, having been laid before as, with the 
Petition to place these territories under our suzerainty, we 
hereby declare that we have accepted the suzerainty, and have 
placed under oar Impenul protection the territones in question, 
reserving to ourselves a right of deciding hereafter respecting 
any farther acquisitions in the same district which may be 
proved to have been obtained by legal contract by the Society 
or by their legitimate successors. 

" We grant unto the said Society, on the condition that it 
remains German, and that the members of the Board of 
Directors or other persons intrusted with its management are 
sabjects of the German Empire, as well as to the legitimate 
successors of this Society under the same conditions, the 
authority to exercise all rights arising from the Treaties sub- 
mitted to us, including that of jurisdiction over both the 
natives and the subjects of Germany and of other natioDS 
established in those territories, or sojourning there for commer- 
cial or other purposes, under the superintendence of our 
Government, subject to further regulations to be issued by 
us, and supplementary additions to this, our Charter of 
Protection. 

" In witness whereof we have with our Boyal hand executed 
this Charter of Protection, and have caused it to be sealed 
with our Imperial seal. 

" Given at Berlin the 17th February, 1885. 

"WILL [AM. 

** ▼. Bismarck.'* 



On the 6th March, 1885, Count Munster informed Earl 
Granville that the territories mentioned in the above Charter 
were situated within the extended zone of the conventional 
basin of the Congo, which was provided for in Chap. I, Art. 1, 
§ 3 of the General Act of the Conference of Berlin, (p. 25) and 
to which the Signatory Powers had pledged themselves to 
apply the provisions of that Act. 



304 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 82] GERMANY AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). [1884-1885. 
[Oerman Protectorates, East Coast of Africa, Nroru, &c.] 



No. 82. — NOTES on German Protectorates in Bast Africa. 
1884-1890. 

On the 6tli March, 1885, the German Ambassador in London 
officially notified to Earl Granville, as well as to the Saltan of 
Zanzibar, and to the Powers signatory to the Berlin Conference, 
that in November and December, 1884, a company of German 
subjects, nnder the title of *' The Grerman Colonization Com- 
pany " (No. 81), had conclnded Treaties with certain native 
chiefs of East Africa, by which they had acquired certain, 
territories and sovereign rights to the west of the Kingdom of 
the Snltan of Zanzibar, and that, on their petition to the 
Emperor, an " Imperial Warrant " or " Charter of Protection " 
had been granted to them.* 

The territories in question were stated to be within the 
extended zone of the conventional basin of the Cod go, which 
was provided for in Chap. 1, Article I, § 3, of the " General Act of 
the Conference of Berlin " (No. 17), and to which the Signa- 
tory Powers had pledged themselves to apply the provisions of 
that Act. 

The following is a short account of the Treaties then 
referred to : — 

NguriT. 

On the 26th November, 1884, a Declaration and Agreement 
was signed at Mvomero by the " Governor " and Dr. Karl 
Peters, in which it was stated that Salim-bin-Hamed, who for 
four years had been First Plenipotentiary of the Sultan of 
Zanzibar in Nguru, had declared, in the presence of a number of 
legal witnesses, that the Sultan uf Zanzibar did not possess 
Suzerainty or Protectorate on the Continent of East Africa, 
and especially not in Nguru or Usagara ; that Dr. Peters was 
his friend, and that he (" the Governor '*) promised to support 
the endeavours of the Society for German Colonization as much 
as he could.f 

• See p. 303. 

t Pari. Paper, "Africa, No. 1 (1886)," p. 7. 
305 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884 1885.] aERMANY AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). [No. 82 
[Gherman Protectorates, East Coast of Africa. Usaarara, Ac] 

MSOTERO, IN UbAGABA. 

On the 29tli November, 1884,* a contract was signed bj Dr. 
Karl Peters and the Sultan of Msovero, in which it was declared 
that Sultan Mangango thereby ceded all the territory of 
Msovero belonging to him by inheritance or otherwise, for all 
time, to Dr. Karl Petei*s, making over to him at the same time 
all his rights ; and that Dr. Peters, in the name of the Society 
for German Colonization, undertook to give special attention to 
Msovero when colonizing Usslgarfl. 

Another cdntract was signed by Sultan Sebegne and Dr. 
Karl Peters on the same day (29th November, 1884) in which it 
was recorded that the said Sultan, who declared himself to be 
the Sultan of the northern half of Msovero, thereby made over 
all his rights in Msdvero id Dr. Peters in the same legal and 
l)inding mannefr sis his friend Mangungo ; and that Dr. Peters, 
in the name of the Society for German Colonization, accepted 
the cession in the same manner as that of the Sultan Man- 
gungo. 

MtKONDOKTVAi IN USAGARA* 

On the ^nd Dfecember,* 1884, the Sultana Mburai, Lady of 
the Province of Mukondokwa (or Mkondogwa), in Usagara, who 
declared that she was not and never had been dependent in any 
way on the Saltan of Zanzibar, signed a Treaty with Dr. 
Peters, in which she declared that she, with the consent of her 
people, made over to him as the representative of the Society 
for German Colonization, her whole territory, with all civil and 
ptiblic rights, for all time and without any condition. 

tJzEGUHA AND UkAMI. 

In forwarding English translations of these Treaties or 
** Contracts *' to Lord Granville, Consul Holmwood said at least 
two other similar Agreements had been entered into between 
Dr. Peters and chiefs claiming to rule portions of the adjacent 
districts of Uzeguha and TJkami. 

On receipt of a copy of the German Emperor's " Proclama- 
tion," or Imperial Warrant, of 17th February, 1885 (No. 81) 
• Pari, Paper, " Africa, No. 1 (1886)," pp. 6, 7. 
30G 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 82] GEKMANY AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). [1881-1888. 
[Qerman Protectorates, East Coast of Afirica. Wltu.] 

the Saltan of Zanzibar telegraphed to the Emperor of Germany 
(27th April, 1885) protesting against certain territories in 
Usagara, Ngara, and Ukami being placed under His Majesty's 
sovereignty and German rule, asserting that the territories were 
his ; that lie held military stations there ; and that those chiefs 
who professed to cede sovereign rights to the Agent of the 
German Colonization Society had no authority to do so, as those 
places had belonged to the Sultanate of Zanzibar from the time 
of his fathers. 

Dr. Rohlfs, the German Consnl- General, however, replied 
to the Saltan of Zanzibar's protest, and stated that he 
was instr acted by his Government to declare it to be 
withont foundation, as well as the claims put forward 
therein, and to protest, in the name of the Emperor of 
Germany, against the " supplementary occupation " on his part 
of districts which were within the German Protectorate, and 
which had been acquired by subjects of tbe Emperor under 
Treaties with independent Princes, who neither were nor bad 
been in any way dependent on His Highness. 

The Sultan of Zanzibar asserted that a station had been 
held by him for five years at Mamboio, in Usagara, and that 
two other stations were held by 20 irregulars through chiefs. 
He also claimed as belonging to Zanzibar the whole coast in an 
unbroken line from Warsheikh on the north to Tung^ Bay on 
the south, as well as tenatory in the interior as far as the great 
Lakes of Tanganika and Nyassa. His Highness, however, in a 
letter to Prince Bismarck (12th Jnne, 1885) stated that be was 
disposed to name a Commission, and to leave the decision by 
arbitration as to the places which he claimed, to the English 
and French, who, he said, had settled in those parts.* 

Troops were despatched by the Sultan to the territory taken 
under the Protectorate of Germany, but they were al'terwards 
recalled. 

WiTU. 

It was then reported that the Gerrxians were negotiating 
with the Sultan of Witn, and that the Saltan of Zanzibar had 
• Pari. Paper, " Africa, No. 1 (1886)," pp. 19, 27. 
307 



Digitized by 



Google 



1886.] GERMANY AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). [No. 82 

[German Protectorates, East Coast of Afirioa. Witn.] 

fceufc troops tbere also. Upon hearing which Connt Bismarck 
asserted (June, 1885) that the Saltan of Witn was quite inde- 
pendent of the Sultan of Zanzibar, and that the latter had no 
right to interfere with the former. 

Mr. J. Haggard, Her Majesty's Vice-Consul at Lamu, 
visited Witu in August of the preceding year, and in a despatch 
to Sir J. Kirk (August 25, 1884) gave an acconnt of his visit 
to the rebel chief Ahmet-bin- Sultan Komloot, commonly called 
" Simba ** (the I 'ion), who said he resided in the fortified village 
of Witn, about four days' easy journey to the southward of 
Lamn. Simba, he said, was formerly King of the Island of 
Patta, about 15 miles to the northward of Lamu, and that, after 
many years fighting, he was driven from there, about 15 years 
previously, by the then Sultan of Zanzibar, who took his island, 
when Simba fled to Kau on the River Ozy, where he settled, 
and began to collect ronnd him a new tribe in the place of the 
one which had been annihilated. These people, Mr* Haggard 
said, were the best known by the name of the " Watoro " or 
runaways, but that they called themselves " Watua-wi*u,'* with 
the exception of the inhabitants of a few of the more northern 
villages, who called themselves " Wakengi " or " restless 
people." Although these people lived not far from the sea, 
Mr. Haggard said they had but one port open to them, and that 
was the village of Kiyini, at the mouth of the River Ozy, the 
Governor of which place was afraid to deny them entrance. lu 
addition to Witu, Mr. Haggard said there were six principal 
villages in the vicinity under Simba, the inhabitants of which 
called themselves *' Watua-witu," namely, Hamasi, Mohonda, 
Hawani, Chauja, Gongoni, and Meminini, and that to the north- 
ward there were several more villages whose inhabitants called 
themselves '* Wakenzi," the most important of which were 
Balana Katana, Bale, and Mtangamakundu. These people, he 
added, were partially independent of Simba, but that he com- 
manded them in most things, and only a few days previously 
had put some of the headmen in prison for disobeying his 
orders. 

A Memorandum respecting the Sultanate of Witu was com- 
municated by Count Muuster to Earl Granville (June 2, 1885), 

308 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 82] GERMANY AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). [i885. 

[Gterman Proteotoratas, East Coa«t of Africa. Chanra, &c.] 

in which it was stated that in the year 1867 Sultan Simba 
had reqaested the Prussian Government^ through the African 
traveller, Richard Brenner, to conclude a Treaty of Friendship, 
and to take him under its protection. 



ChAGGA, TaVETA, &C. (KiLlMANJABO DtSTRICT). 

About this time (May, 1885) it was reported that the Sultan 
of Zanzibar had determined to send a more formal expedition 
to Chagga and Taveta (in the Kilimanjaro District) to assert 
his authority and watch over his interest there, and that 
General J. W. Mathews (now Sir William Mathews) had been 
placed in command of the expedition, with orders to explain to 
the Chiefs of Chagga and Taveta the advantages of adhesion 
to the Sultan of Zanzibar's authority, and to 'get them to hoist 
his flag ; and finally to proclaim foi-mally that the whole region 
belonged to Zanzibar. 

On the 21st May, 1885, General Mathews reported to the 
Sultan of Zanzibar that he had hoisted His Highness* flag at 
Kilima-Kiboma, and that the Chiefs of Chagga had also done 
so; and he pointed oot that Eilima-Kiboma was the Tuta 
mountain at the commencement of the Masai Plain between 
Kilitna-Kiboma of Tuta and Taveta, where, he said, the Zanzi- 
bar flag was also flying. 

On the 30th June, 1885, the German Government expressed 
its readiness to the appointment of an impartial commission to 
define the true territory of the Sultan of Zanzibar, and at the 
same time to join the Anglo-French Agreement (of 10th March, 
1862, No. 107) to respect the independence of Zanzibar, pro- 
vided His Highness would recognise the German claims to 
Usdgara, &c. ; and, eventually (14th August, 1885), the Sultan 
acceded to the German demand to withdraw his troops, and to 
acknowledge the German Protectorates in the abstract. 

But whilst the question of a delimitation commission was 
under discussion. Baron Plessen communicated to the Marquis 
of Salisbury (28th August, 1885) copies of various Treaties, 
which Dr. Carl Jiihlke had concluded in the preceding months 
of May, June, and July with native chiefs of Taveta, Chagga, 

o09 



Digitized by 



Google 



1885.] OERH.VXr AXD AFRICA (EAST COAST). [No. 82 

[Oerzaan Protectorates, East Coast of Africa. Ohag^^a, ftc] 

and other places in the Kilimanjaro District, by which they 
ceded their territories to the German East Africa Company, or 
accepted German protection.* 

The following is a list of those Treaties : — 

Kilimanjaro District. 

List of Treaties conclnded by Dr. Carl Jiihlke representing 
the German East African Company of Berlin, with native 
Chiefs in the Kilimanjaro territory (between latitude 
6** and 2' 6' South). 

16th May, 1885. Quafungo. In Bondei district, adjoining 
Tongwe, *' the last possession of the 
Sultan of Zanzibar." 
. 17th „ „ Mrnasi, Bamba, and Makombe villages 

(which extend as far as Bufa, where 
the territory bears the name of 
Qnakiniumbi). 
25th „ „ Mlungui, Makayuni, Tarabande, <&c., and 

south-eastern portion of Usambara. 
8th June, „ Kiswani (extending from Gaga to 
Ugnena). 
„ Taveta. 
„ Dschaggaland (Chagga), Ai^uscha, 

Ugneno, &c. 
„ Kahe. 

„ Bondei (sonthem portion). Conclnded 

at Habori between Sangarwee and 
Mrnasi or thereabouts. 

The Sultan of Zanzibar, however, had raised claims to the 
same territories, and had notified the fact to the foreign repre- 
sentatives in Zanzibar (27th June, 1885). Before, therefore, 
the German Government approved the Treaties conclnded by 
Dr. Jiihlke, they applied to the British Government to be 
furnished with copies of any documents which it possessed, 
showing the prior tifcle of the Sultan to the districts mentioned 
in the German Treaties. A copy of the Declaration signed by 
• S.P., ▼ol. Ixxvii, pp. 11-21. Pari. Paper, "Africa, No. 1 (1886)," p. 53. 

31u 



13th 


» 


19th 


l> 


2l8t 


91 


3rd July 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 82] GERMANY AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). [1885 -1886. 
[German Protectorates, Baat Ooast of Afirioa.] 

the Sultan and Chiefs of Chagga and Kilimanjaro, in the 
presence of General Mathews, in which they recognised their 
loyalty to the Sultan of Zanzibar as their suzerain, was accord- 
ingly communicated to the German Government, and it was 
pointed out that it was dated 30th May, 1885, whereas the 
Treaty concluded between Dr. Jiihlke and the Chiefs of Chagga 
and Taveta were dated 13th (and 19th) of June, 1885. The 
German Government were subsequently informed (20fch Feb- 
ruary, 1886) that Mr. B. H. Johnston had, on the 27th Sep- 
tember, 1884, concluded a Treaty with the Chiefs of Taveta, 
without the Sultan of Zanzibar being, directly or indirectly, a 
party to it, and without being accompanied on his expedition by 
any ofl&cer of the Sultan* 

On the 11th August (1885) the following demands, in the 
shape of an Ultimatum, were formally made by the German 
Government on the Sultan of Zanzibar: — That he would with- 
draw bis protest against the Treaties made, to wit "the free 
and legal Sultans '* of the lands of Usagara, Nguru, Usuguha, 
and IJkami, as also with the Sultdn of the district of Witn, and 
recall the troops and agents in the above-named places ; and 
that he would recognise the Emperor of Germany's Protec- 
torates over those places. 

The German Government were, bowever, officially informed 
by the British Ambassador at Berlin ('27th March, 1886)t that the 
Church Missionary Society had Settlements in Usagara, one at 
Mpwapwa, establishedt-in 1876, and the other at Maboia, estab- 
lished in 1879, and these the German Government engaged to 
protect and assist to the best of their ability. 

^To the German demands the Sultan submitted, in the follow- 
ing terms : — 

" In consequence of the demand wbich comes to us from 
His Majesty the Emperor of Germany as an Ultimatum 
(' taklifahiar '), and indispensable to the commencement of 
friendly negotiations, we acknowledge the Protectorate of 
Germany over the lands of Usagara, Nguru, Usuguha, and 
over the district of Witu, the boundaries whereof shall be here- 

• Pari Paper, " Africa, No. 8 (1887)." 

t Pari. Paper, "Africa, No. 1 (1886)." 

311 



Digitized by 



Google 



1885-1887.] GERMANY AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). [No. 82 
[Gterman Proteotorates, East Ooast of Af<:ioa.] 

after defined ; we acknowledge over these said places the Pro- 
tectorate of His Majesty, and undertake to remove oar soldiers, 
and make this known to our officers who occupy the whole of 
the places of the coast." 

Negotiations were then continued between Great Britain, 
France, and Germany, with a view to the appointment of a 
joint commission for the purpose of enquiring into the claims 
of the Sultan of Zanzibar to sovereignty over certain territories 
on the east coast of Africa, and of ascertaining their precise 
limits. An understanding was eventually arrived at, and on 
the 17th October, 1885, Colonel (now Sir) H. H. Kitchener, 
R.E., was appointed the British Delimitation Commiesioner. 

On the 20th December, 1885, a Commercial Treaty was 
signed between Germany and Zanzibar.* 

On the 30th April, 1886, a Commercial Treaty was signed 
between Great Britain and Zanzibar (No. 152), f and on the 
28th May, a Commercial Treaty was signed between Italy and 
Zanzibar (No. 201). 

On the 9th June, 188G, the Delimitation Commissioners 
made their Report (No. 120), which was accepted by the 
British and German Governments by an exchange of Notes on 
the 29th October and Ist November, 1886 (No. 123), and by 
the Saltan of Zanzibar on the 4th December, 1886 (No. 124). 

Between 1885 and 1887 several Treaties were concluded be- 
tween two Geiman subjects (the Denhardt Bix)thers) and the 
Saltan of Witu and the Sultan of the Somals, for the cession to 
them of various tracts of lands and islands. The validity of 
these Treaties was denied by the British East Africa Company 
at the time of their conclusion. But the following extracts are 
given from them as showing the extent of the terrivories 
which these Chiefii maintained they had a right to cede as be- 
longing to them. 

Witu and Somali. 

On the 5th May, 1885, a deed of sale and cession, including 
sovereign rights of certain tracts of land on the east coast of 

• S.P., vol. Ixxri, p. 247. 

t S.P., vol. Ixxvii, p. 54. 

312 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 82] aERMAVr AXD AFRICA (EAST C0A3T). [188!)-1883. 
[SwahUiland, Witu.] 

Africa, was made by the Sultan of Swahililand (Witu) to a 
Oerman subject (M. Clemens Denliardt), which contained the 
following paragraphs : — 

Oession of Territory, Kipini to Witu, 

*' Paragraph 1. The boandaries of the land thus sold and 
ceded are formed hj the River Osi (Kipini), which is included 
in the purchase and cession hj the Indian Ocean, across the 
mouth of the Tana, Kas Ngomeni, to the mouth of the Sabaki, 
bj a straight line from the mouth of this river in its latitude to 
the Mountains of Ukambani, and parallel to these as far as tbe 
remotest point of the River Tana, which is included in this 
purchase and cession, from the village of Hamagi to Munyuui, 
and by a straight line from this village to Witu. 

** Paragraph 2. By this document we renoance all claims 
connected with the land as mentioned in above paragraph 1, as 
well as the rights of sovereignty to it." 

Somali. 

Cession of Territory, Kismayu to River Juba. 

On the 8lRt Jnly, 1885, a deed of sale and cedsion, including 
sovereignty rights, was made by the alleged Sultan of the 
Somalis to a German subject (M. Gustav Denhardt), of the East 
African coast from Kismayu, along the coast on the Indian 
Ocean to the ^River Juba (which was also declared to be in- 
cluded in the sale) till the borders of the Toguti-Somali, seven 
hours above the town Missir, and in the west till the borders 
of the Bozani and Bendille Gralla, and in the south till the terri- 
tory of the Sultan Achmet of Witu. 

Cession, Island of Manda, 
On the 2nd September, 1885, a deed of sale and cession, but 
reserving sovereign rights of the Island of Manda, was made 
by the Sultan of Swahililand (Witu) to a German subject 
(M. Clemens Denhardt). The boundary was described as 
being : — *' On ihe north by the canal which separates the main- 

313 



Digitized by 



Google 



1885-1889.] GERMANY AND AFEICA (EAST COAST). [No. 82 
[Swahililand, Witu.] 

land from the said island ; in the north-east and east by Manda 
Bay ; in the south-east and south by the Indian Ocean ; and in 
the west by the arm of the sea which separates the Islands of 
Lama and Manda." 

Further Cessions on the Coast. 

On the 2nd December, 1885, a deed of cession, but reserving 
sovereign rights, was made by the Sultan of the Swahililand 
(Witu) to M, Clemens Denhardt, of territory on the East Coast 
of Africa, " extending along the coast of the Indian Ocean from 
1** south latitude till 1° 55' south latitude, and following the 
respective degrees of latitude till the 41st degree east longitude," 
which was stated to form the western boundary. 

Further Cessions, 

On the 15th February, 1887, a deed of sale and cession, but 
reserving sovereign rights, was made by the Sultan of the 
Swahililand (Witu) to M. Clemens Denhardt, of certain lands 
and islands on the East Coast of Africa, the boundaries of which 
were described as being " formed from the River Mkonumbi 
and the Indian Ocean between this river and the meer-pillar 
which has been erected on the mainland near Kiwaihu by the 
Imperial German Government in January, 1887 ; further, by 
straight lines, which run between this meer-pillar and Balawa, 
Balawa-Katawa, Katawa and Witu, Witu and Fungasombo, 
Fungasombo and Mkonumbi," as well as '^ all islands which are 
situated between Kipini and the Juba." 

Fanning of Customs of Witu. 

On the Ist April, 1887, an Agreement was entered into 
between the Sultan of the Swahililand and M. Clemens Den- 
hardt as to farming the customs of Witu by M. Denhardt for 10 
years from the 1st January, 1888. In this Treaty it was said 
that the right to levy duties referred to the land which had 
been handed over by the German Government to the Sultan of 
Swahililand, and in which the German flag had been huisted 
.by German officers from the 13th to the 20th January, 1887. 

3U 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 82] GKRMANr AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). [1887-1889 
[Swahililand, Wito.] 

On the Ist July, 1887, M. Clemens Denhardt was appointed 
by the Sultan of the Swahililand his Minister for Foreign and 
Home Affairs in Wit a until the year 1902 

Oerman Protectorate over Coast between Rivers Umha and 
Rovmna, 

On the 28th April, 1888, that portion of the African Coast 
which lies between the Rivers Umba and Rovuma was conceded 
by the Sultan of Zanzibar to the German East Africa Company. 
(See Zanzibar and German East Africa Company, p. 933.) 

German Protectorate over Coast from Witu to Kismayu. 

On the 22nd October, 1889, the following official notifica- 
tion was made of the establishment of a (rerman Protectorate 
over the East Coast of Africa from Witn to Kismayu : — 

Count Hatzfeldt to the Marquis of Salisbury, 

(Translation.) Oerman Emhassy^ London^ 

22Hd October, 1889. 

The Undersigned is instructed to state to the Government 
of Her Britannic Majesty^ in pursuance of Article 34 of the 
General Act of the Berlin Conference (No. 17), that the terri- 
tory situated ou the coast of East Africa between the northern 
frontier of Witu and the southern frontier of the Sultan of 
Zanzibar's station of Kismayu, has, in virtue of Treaties con- 
cluded with the Sultans and Chiefs thereof, and under reserva- 
tion of the properly- acquired rights of third parties, been placed 
under the protection of His Majesty the Emperor. 

The Undersigned, Ac. 

P. HATZFELDT. 

Witu. Manda and Patta Islands. 

On the 20th December (1889), the British Government 
were informed that the German Government maintained tl e 
claim of the Sultan of Witu to the Islands of Mnnda and 

315 



Digitized by 



Google 



] GERMANY AND AFRICA (EAST COAST). [No. 82 

[German Protectorate. Witu to KUxnaya.] 

Patta, and did not recognize the right of the British East 
Africa Company to take over the administration of these 
islands, in consequence of the Concession granted to the Com- 
pany by the Saltan of Zanzibar ; but on the 1st July, -1890, an 
Agreement was entered into between the British and Gei*man 
Governments (No. 129) defining their respective spheres of in- 
fluence in East, West, and South-West Africa, by which, among 
the others, certain territories lying between the Wanga and 
Plovuma Rivers, including Chagga and other places in the 
Kilimanjaro District, Pangani and Dar-el- Salaam, with the 
exception of the Islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, were recog- 
nized as being within the German sphere, and the territories 
between the Wanga and Juba Rivers, including Mombasa, 
Witu and the Islands of Manda, Patta, Lamu, &c., as being 
within the British sphere. 

Witu. 

On the 19th November, 1890, a notification was issued, 
announcing that a British Protectorate had been established 
over Witu and other territories and islands lying off the East 
African Coast [see Great Britain (Africa, East Coast), 
p. 327.] 

[For later Arrangements see Great Britain (Africa, East 
Coast), p. 327 ; and Great Britain and Germany, p. 595.] 



\\\Cy 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 83] GBEMANY AND AFEICA (S. W. COAST). [188^1892. 
[Kamaqualaiid, Damaraland, Angra Pequena, fto.] 

No. 83. — NOTES on Oerman Protectorates on the South West 
Coast of Africa, 1884—1892. 

NamaquaXaridy Damaralandy Angra Fequena. 

On the 16fch (? ISth) August, 1884, the following Pro- 
clamation was issued announcing that a Oerman Protectorate 
had been established over the Coast of Namaqualand and 
Damaraland : — 

(Translation.) 

His Majesty the Oerman Emperor William I, King of 
Prussia, has commanded me to proceed to Angra Pequena 
with His Majesty's two- decked corvette, the "Elisabeth," to 
place under the direct protection of His Majesty the territory 
belonging to M. A. Luderitz, on the West Coast of Africa. 

The territory of M. A. Luderitz will, according to official 
communication, be taken to extend from the north bank of the 
Orange Biver to the 26** south latitude, 20 geographical miles 
inland, including the islands belonging thereto by the law of 
nations.* 

In carrying out His Majesty's commands I herewith hoist 
the Imperial Oerman flag, and thus place the above-mentioned 
territory under the protection and sovereignty of His Majesty 
the Emperor William I, and call upon all present to give three 
cheers for His Majesty. 

Long live His Majesty the Emperor William I. 

SCHEBINO, Captain at Sea, and Commandant of 
His Imperial Majesty^ s ship ^* Elisabeth,'* 

It was staled in an official Note addressed by the Oerman 
Consul at Cape Town to the Oovernor of the Cape Colony and 
High Commissioner, dated 15th August, 1884, that the expres- 
sion used in this Proclamation, *' including the Islands belong- 
ing thereto by the Law of Nations," meant and included all the 
islands within gun-shot distance of tbe mainland on the coast 
proclaimed therein, according to the Law of Nations ; and 
• S. P., vol. IxxT, p. 546. 

317 z 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884—1892.] GERMANY AND AFRICA (S. W. COAST). [Ho. 83 
[Oemuui Proteetorato. Ghreat RamtiQiudaiid, fto.] 

farther, that the dnly ftcqnired and proved rights of third 
Parties would be respected by (he German Government.* 

Ooa$i heiween Cape Frio and the Orange Uiver^ except Walfiih 

Bay. 

On the 8th September, 1884, Baron Plessen, the German 
Charg6 d 'Affaires, called npon Earl Qranyille, at the Foreign 
Office, and gave notice to his Lordship, on behalf of the German 
Government, that the West Coast of Africa from 26* sonth 
latitude to Cape Frio, excepting Walfish Bay, had been placed 
under the protection of the German Empire, and on the 15th 
October following, it was officially notified by the German 
Government that a German Protectorate had been established 
over '' the tract of coast land between Cape Frio and the Orange 
River with the exception of Valvisch (Walfisch) Bay/* 

Gbeat Namaqualand. 

On the I8th October, 1884, a Treaty was signed between 
Germany and Bethany by which a German Protectorate was 
recognised over Great Namaqualand. 

German South West Africa Company, 

Bj a Cabinet Order, dated 13th April, 1885, the German 
South West Africa Company had conferred upon it the rights 
of a corporate body, and acquired, in virtue of Treaties with the 
native Rulers, the rights of State Sovereignty (mining royal- 
ties and rights, with railway and telegraph monopoly). 

Red Nation, in Namaqualand. 

On the 2i)d September, 1885, a Treaty was signed between 
Germany and the independent Chief of the Red Nation in 
Great Namaqualand for the extension of the German Pro- 
tectorate over that Territory. 

Bastards of Rehoboth (Grkat Namaqualand). 

On the 15th September, 1885, a Treaty was signed between 

• B. P., rol. JjXT, p. 546. 
318 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 83] GEEMAN Y AND AFRICA (S. W. COAST). [1884-1892, 
[0«naan Pxoteotorate between Hereto and Oromboland.] 

Germany and the Bastards of Behoboth, in Great Namaqua* 
land, extending the German Protectorate over their territory. 

H£E£ROB. DaMABALAKD. 

On the 2lBt October, 1885, a Treaty was signed between 
Germany and the Head Chief of the Hereros, in Damaraland, 
extending the German Protectoi-ate over that territory, to which 
the Chief of Omarurn acceded on the 3pd November, 1886, 

British Glaime in Gferman Protectorate. 
On the 15th July, 1886, a Protocol was signed at Berlin con. 
taining the joint communications of the British and German 
Commissioners for a settlement of certain outstanding British 
claims in the German Protectorate of Souik West Africa. (See 
Gkbat Bbitain and Qeemamt, p. 608,) 

British and Oerman Limits. 
On the Ist July, 1890, an Agreement was sigoed between 
the British and German Governments, defining their respective 
spheres of influence in East, West, and Sooth West Africa. 
With respect to the South West Coast, the line of boundary 
was drawn between the Territory reserved for Germany ia 
Namaqualand, Damaraland, ^c, and thftt reserved for Great 
Britain in Bechuanaland, Kalahari, Ac, (See Ga&AT Britajv 

AND GSBMAKY, p. 642). 

NOVANSLAND. 

Districts beUveefi Herero and Ovomholand, 
On the 14th September, 1692^ it was notified that a German 
Protectorate had been established over the district lying be- 
tween Herero and Ovomboland. The notification ran as 
follows : — 

" The unclaimed district lying between Harero and Ovombo* 
land within the German sphere of interest in South West Africa, 
has been placed, with the sanction of His Majesty the Emperor, 
.under the Protectorate of the German Empire."* 

• " Deuteohe-Eeichs-Anzeiger," 14th September, 1892. 
319 z 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884-1890.] GERMANr AND AFRICA (WEST COAST). [No. 84 
[Oerman Protectorate. Tofirolaad. CameroonB.] 



No. 84. — NOTES on German Protectorates on the West Coast 
of Africa, 1884—1890. 

Togoland. 

On the 5th Jnlj, 188.4, an Agreemeni; was signed between 
Germany and Togo, by which the territory of the King of Togo 
was placed under the Protectorate of Germany. 

Cameroons, Togoland. Slave Goast^ 8fc. 

On the 12th July, 1884, a German Protectorate was pro- 
claimed oyer the whole of the Cameroons District,* and on the 
15th October of the same year, the following official commnni- 
cation was made by the German Government to the principal 
Powers of Europe and to the United States Government, 
notifying the exact extent of territory on the West and 
Sonth-West Coasts of Africa which had been placed under the 
protection of the German Empire : — 

Baron vonPlessen to Earl Oranville. — {Received l^fh October.) 

(Translation.) Oerman Embassy, Ibih October, 1884. 

" The Government of His Majesty the Emperor, with a view 
to insure more effectually German commercial interests on tlie 
West Coast of Africa, has taken certain districts of this coast 
under its protection. This has been effected in virtue of 
Treaties which have been in part concluded by Dr. Nachtigal, 
the Consul-General dispatched to West Africa, with indepen- 
pent Chiefs, and partly in virtue of applications for protection 
made by Imperial subjects, who have acquired certain tracts by 
covenants with independent Chiefs. 

" Accordingly, the Togo tract, with the harbours of Lome and 
Bageida, the districts of Bimbia, with the Isle of Nicol, Game- 

• " Netional Zeitung," 15th February, 1886. S.P., vol. Ixxyi, p. 756. 

320 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 84] GERMANY AND AFEICA (WEST COAST). [1884 1890. 
[Gtermau Protectorate. Ambas Bay. Little Popo. Porto Seflruro, Ac] 

roons, Malimba, to its northern extremity, Little Batanga, 
Plantation, and Cribj, on the Slave Coast, and the tract of 
coastland between Cape Frio and the Orange River, with the 
exception of Valvisch (Walfish) Bay, in Sonth- Western Africa, 
have been placed under the protection of His Majesty the 
Emperor. This has been notified by hoisting the Imperial 
military standard and planting frontier poles, and the engage- 
ment at the same time announced that all demonstrable exist- 
ing rights of third parties are to be respected." 

Ambas Bay, Victoria, 

On the 19th July, 1884, a British Notification was issued 
announciog the assumption of British sovereignty over Ambas 
Bay,* but this territory was transferred to Germany on the 
28th March, 1887, since which date it has formed part of the 
German Protectorate over the Cameroons. 

Mahin and Mahin Beach. 

On the 29th January, 1885, Mahin was sold by the King of 
Mahin to a German subject, Herr G. L. Gaiser ; and on the 
11th March, 1885, a Treaty was signed by the King of Mahin 
with the German Commissioner and Consul- General for the 
West Coast of Africa, Dr. N. G. Nachtigal, for extending a 
German Protectorate over Mahin and Mahin Beach, but it was 
not ratified by the Emperor of Germany; and on the 24th 
October following, both Mahin and Mahin Beach were ceded to 
Great Britain. (See Great Britain (Lagos), p. 419.) 

Bight of Biafra, Slave Coast (Togoland, Little Popo, and Porto 
Seguro), Senegamhia, and Southern Rivers Districts, 

On the 24th December, 1885, a Protocol was signed between 
France and Germany, for defining their respective rights of 
Sovereignty or Protectorate in the Bight of Biafra, on the 
Slave Coast (Togoland, Little Popo, and Porto Seguro), on the 

• fl.T., vol. xyii, p. 67. 
321 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884-1890.] GERMANY AND AFRICA {WEST COAST). [No. 84 
[Oerman Proteotorate. Togo. Volta Districts, Ac] 

Coasfc of Senegambia, and in the Soathern Rivers Districts. 
(See Feamcb and Gbbmany, p. 293.) 

British and German Limits. 

On the Ist July, 1890, an Agreement was entered into 
the British and German Governments defining their respectiye 
spheres of infilnence in East, West, and South- West Africa. 
With respect to the West Coast, the line of boundary was 
marked between the British Gold Coast Colony and the 
German Protectorate of Togo, the Volta Districts, and the Rio 
del Rey. (See Great Britain and Germany, p. 642.) 



Laws relating to Jurisdiction^ ^c, in German Protectorates, 
1879-1891. 



Law* loth July, 1879. 

Law. 17th April, 1886. 

Add. Law. 7th July, 1887. 
Decree. 18th Nov., 1887. 

Decree. Slst Dec, 1887. 

Law» 16th ^arch, 1888. 
Law» l8t Jan., 1891. 



German Consular JuriBdiction. S.P., rol. Ixxi, 

p. 1301. 
Jurisdiction in G-erman Protectorates. S.F., 

Tol. IxxTii, p. 1290^ 
Jurisdiction in German Protectorates. S.F., 

Tol. Ixxviil, p. 692. 
Administration of Justioe in Gennan East 

Africa Society's Territory. S.P., toI. Ixxiiii, 

p. 773. 
Administration of Justice in German South 

West Africa Protectorate, S.P., vol. Ixxriii, 

p. 778. 
Jurisdiction in German Protectorates. S.P., 

vol. Ixxix, p. 650. 
Jurisdiction in East Africa. 



322 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo. 85] asRMAmr and pobtugal. [30 Dec, 1886. 

[8ontk-W««t AMoa.! 



No. S5.— DECLARATION heiween Germany and Portugal 
respecting the Limits of their respective Possessions and 
Spheres of Influence in Souths West and South-East Africa, 
Lisbon, ZQth December, 1886.* 

(Translation.) 

Thi OoTemment of His Majesty tbe German Emperor, 
and the Groyemment of His Majesty the King of Portugal and 
the Algarves, animated by tbe same desire to draw more closely 
the existing friendly relations between Portugal and Germany, 
and to gain a firm and secure basis for peaceful co-operation in 
tbe opening out of Africa to civilization and commerce, hare 
resolved to establish certain boundaries, within which each of 
the two Powers shall keep theii* freedom of action for their 
ooloniziug activity. 

For this purpose the Undersigned, Henrique de Barrbs 
Gomes, State Councillor of His .Most Faithful Majesty, and his 
Secretaiy of State for Foroign Affairs, and Councillor Bicbard 
von Schmidthab, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary of His Majesty the Emperor, have, in accordance with 
their full powers, agreed upon the following Articles : — 

Boundary Line letween German and- Portuguese Possesnons in 
South-West Africa. 

Art. I. The Boundary line which shall separate tbe Portu- 
guese and German Possessions in South- West Africa follows 
the course of tbe River Kunene from its moutb to the water- 
falls which are formed to tbe south of the Humbe by tbe Kunene 
breaking through the Serra Canna. From this point the line 
runs along the parallel of latitude to tbe River Kubaugo, then 
along the course of that river to the village of Andara, which 
is to remain in the German sphere of influence, and from 
thenoe due east to the rapids of Catima, on the Zambesi. 

• S.P., vol. tevii, p. 603, 
32^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



30 Dec. 1886.] aKRMAKT AND POBTUaAL. [No. 86 

[South-East Afrloa.] 

Boundary Line between Oerman and Fortuguese Potsestiont in 
South-East Africa. 
Abt. II. The Boundaiy line which shall separate the Porta- 
guese from the German Possessions in South-East Africa follows 
the course of the River Bovuma from its month to the point 
where the Biver M'siuje joins the Bovuma and runs to the west- 
ward on the parallel of latitude to the shores of Lake Nyassa. 

Oerman Conditional Recognition of Portuguese Bight to Territories 
lying between Angola and Mozambique, 
Abt. III. His Majesty the Oerman Emperor recognizes the 
right of His Majesty the King of Portugal to exercise his 
influence of sovereignty and civilization in the territories which 
separate the Portnguese possessions of Angola and Mozam- 
bique, without prejudice to the rights which other Powers 
may have acquired there up to now of exercising their 
sovereign and civilizing influence.* 

Territories in Portuguese Sphere of Influence to be respected by 
• Oermany. 

And in accordance with this acknowledgment, binds himself not 
to make acquisitions of sovereignty in the territories in question, 
not to accept Protectorates in them, and, finally, not to place 
there any obstacles to the extension of Portuguese influence. 

Territories in Oerman Sphere of Influence to be respected by 
Portugal. 

His Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves under- 
takes identical obligation as regards the territ'>ries which nnder 
Articles I and II of this Agreement, are within the sphere of 
Oerman action. 

Protection of Persons and Property. Acquisition^ 8fc.^ of Real 

and Personal Property. Rights of Trade. 

Aet. IV. Portnguese subjects in the Oerman Possessions of 

Africa, and German subjects in the Portuguese Possessions 

shall enjoy in respect to the protection of their persons and 

goods, with the acquisition and transfer of personal and real 

* See Britlflh Protest agninst Portnguese Claim to these Xerritoriei, 
18th August, 1887, next page. 

824 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 85] GERMA^Nr AND PORTUGAL. [30 Dec, 1886. 

[South- West and South-East Africa.] 

properfcy, and to the exercise of their industry, the same treat- 
ment without any difference whatever, and the same rights as 
the subjects of the nation exercising sovereignty or protection. 

Oonclusion of Commercial Agreements, 
Art. V. The Portuguese and Imperial Governments reserve 
to themselves the right of concluding further Agreements to 
facilitate commerce and navigation, as well as to regulate the 
frontier traffic in the African Possessions on both sides. 

(L.S.) BARROS GOMES. 
(L.S.) SCHMIDTHALS. 

Validity of Agreement subject to approval. 

Add. Art. This Agreement shall come into force and shall 
be binding for both Powers after having been approved by the 
Portuguese Cortes, and officially published in both countries.* 
Done in duplicate at Lisbon, on the 30th December, 1886. 

(L:S.) BARROS GOMES. 
(L.S.) SCHMIDTHALS. 



British Protest 'against Treaties Ictiveen Portiigal and 
France, and Portugal and Germany, IZth Angiistj 1887.t 

Memorandum transmitted by the British Charge d* Affaires at 

Lisbon to the Portuguese Minister for Foreign Affairs, ISth 

August, 1887. 

Hbe Britannic Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary at Lisbon did not fail to forward to Her 
Majesty's Government copies of the documents as presented to 
the Portuguese Cortes in the form of White Books, recording 
the result of the recent negotiations ccoried on by Portugal 
with Germany (p. 323) and France (p. 298), the object of 
which was the delimitation of their respective spheres of in- 
fluence in Central Africa. 

Maps were annexed to these papers showing the territory 
which, as Portugal understands, is allowed by the two conntries 

• Published, with Map, in Portuguese White Book, 1887. 
t Pari. Pap., " Africa No. 2 (1890)." 
325 



Digitized by 



Google 



13 Aug.. 1887.] aEBMANY AND POBTUGAL. [No. 85 

[South-West and South-East Africa.] 

to bo reserFcd to her enterprise. The immense field so oolonred 
in the Maps comprises the entire region lying been Angola and 
Mozambique, Matabeleland, and the district of Lake Nyassa, up 
to the latitude of the Hovuma Biyer. 

In the districts to which Portugal thus appears to lay a pre- 
ferential claim, and in which, except near the sea-coast and on 
portions of the Zambesi River, there is not a sign of Portu- 
guese jurisdiction or authority, there are countries in which 
there are British Settlements, and others in which Great 
Britain takes an exceptional interest. Her Majesty's Qt)vem- 
ment feel, therefore, that it is impossible to pass over without 
notice the official publication of the Maps. 

Her Majesty's Charg6 d'AIEaires has consequently the 
honour to state to his Excellency the Minister for Foreign 
Affairs of His Most Faithful Majesty, under instructions which 
he has received from Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs, that the attention of Her Majesty's 
Government has been directed to the Maps in question, and 
that Great Britain considers that it has now been admitted in 
principle by all the parties to the Act of Berlin that a claim of 
sovereignty in Africa can only be maintained by real occupation 
of the territory claimed, and that this doctrine has been prac- 
tically applied in tlie recent Zanzibar delimitations. Her 
Majesty's Charge d' Affaires is instructed to make a formal 
protest against any claims not founded on occupation, and to 
say that Her Majesty's Government cannot i*ecognize Porta- 
gnese sovereignty in territory not occupied by her in sufficient 
strength to enable her to maintain order, pi'otect foreigners, 
and control the natives. 

Her Majesty's Charg6 d'Aff aires is further directed to state 
that this protest especially applies to the districts of Lake 
Nyassa occupied by British traders and missionaries, and to 
Matabeleland, and to point out that, by the decision of the 
Delagoa Bay Arbitration (24th July, 1875, p. 701), Portugal is 
debarred from extending her dominion into any part of Tonga- 
land beyond the limits of 26'' SO' south latitude. 
Bntieh Legation^ LUhon^ Augu$t 13, 1887. 

326 



Digitized by 



Google 



Map laid before the Portuguese Cortes, 
SHEWING the Territories in Africa cuimedby Portugal, 

August 1887. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Map laid before the Portuguese Cortes shewing theTerrh 




B^deMdimbtL 



(8 



20 



22 



24 



PoHugues^CUums fir^KH/ 

Ctm^oStaie JiUctr 

BriUsk Pwh 

Trench/ homio^ 

Gtmuw Orange 

SooOvAkiamBjefmUuo.Broww 



Digitized by 



Google 



^F^^ 



lo /kcc pojgc 326. 



RiES IN Africa CLAiMEm^t^.o J' by Portugal, August 1887. 

- " "«< HI ' » .XL '^ ■■ ' '■■ ■■ 




Digitized by 



7533TTTW? 



Google 



Map laid before the Portuguese Cortes, 
shewing the territories in africa claimed by portugal, 

AucvsT 1887. 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN 



PAOI 

Africa (East Coast) 327 

„ (North West Coast) 105 

Basnioland 329 

Bechnanaland and the Kalahari, British Bechnanaland 

and Territory North of British Bechnanaland 833 

Capo Colony 339 

Gambia 363 

Gold Coast - 386 

Lagos 403 

Natal 433 

Niger 439 

Sierra Leone . • • • • • • '• • • 481 

Tongaland 529 

Znlnland 531 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN 

(AFBICA, £AST COAST). 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



\ 



No. 86] GREAT BEITADT (AFBICA, E. COAST). [19 Nov., 1686. 
[Brlttsh FTotaot«r»te. Wltu, Fatte, Xaada, *o.] 



No, 8e.— NOTIFICATION. British Protectoraie aver 
Witu and other Territories and Islands lying off the Hast 
African Coast. London, 19th November, 1890.* 

Foreign Office, I9th November, 1890. 

Ik pnrsnanoe of Article II of the Anglo- German Agreement 
of the iBt July, 1890 (No. 129), under the terms of which 
Germany withdrew, in favour of Great Britain, her Protectorate 
over Wita, and also withdrew her Protectorate over the adjoining 
coast up to Kismayu, as well as her claims to all other territories 
on the mainland to the north of the Biver Tana, and to the Islands 
of Patta and Manda, it is hereby notified, for public information, 
that the territory of Witu, ^the territories lying between that 
country and the River Juba, extending on the coast as far as 
Kismayu, the Islands of Patta and Manda, and all other islands 
in Manda Bay, are placed under the Protectorate of Her 
Majesty. 

[Published in " London Gazette," 26th November, 1890.] 

On the 5th March, 1891, an agreement was entered into 
between the British Government and the British East Africa 
Company, respecting the administration of the Territory of 
Witu by the Company (No. 32), and on the 20th of the same 
month the Company issued a notice to the effect that they had 
assumed the government and control of the territory hitherto 
known as the Sultanate of Witu (No. 34). But on the 31st 
July, 1893, the Company withdrew from the administration of 
the territory lying between the Rivers Tana and Juba, which 
was then placed under British protection (No, 160) ; and on 

* H.T., vol. xviii, p. 777. Soe alao Agreement between Great Britain 
and Zansibar, Srd and 4th December, 1800, p. 754. 

327 



Digitized by 



Google 



1886-1892.] GREAT BRITAIN (AFRICA, E. COAST). [No. 86 

[BritlBh Psroteotorata. Wltu, Fatta, Kanda, fto.] 

the same day a Proclamation was issued annoHncing that the 
Administration of the British Protectorate north of the Tana, 
with the exception of the territories belonging to the Saltan of 
Zanzibar, which the Company still retained, had been delegated 
to the Saltan of Zanzibar. (See Great Britain and Zanzibar, 
p. 770.) 

Prohihition against Alcoholic Liquors, 

On the 18 th Jane, 1892, the Powers Signatories to the 
Brussels Act (No. 18) were informed that Her Majesty's 
Government had decided that the British Protectorate over 
Witu and the adjacent territory up to Kismayu, the British 
Protectorate of Nyasaland, and that portion of the Niger Pro- 
tectorate lying on or to the north of the 7th degree of north 
latitude would be placed, from that date, under the terms of 
Art. XCI of the Act of Brussels with the zone of prohibition 
of alcoholic liquors. See p. 84. 

[See also British East Africa, p. 170.] 

For Notification of British Protectorate over Uganda, 18th 
June, 1894, see Appendix. 



328 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 87.] GBEAT BRITAIN (BASUTOLAND). [1843-1868. 

[Basutoland.] 



No. SI.— Notes on BASUTOLAND, 1843—1891. 



By a Treaty signed by the Governor of the Cape of Good 
Hope at Cape Town on the 5lh October, 1843, and by Moshesh, 
Chief of the Basutos, at Thaba Bossi, on the 13th December, 
1843, the tribe of the Basutos were admitted into the allegiance 
of Her Britannic Majesty.* The boundary of the territory was 
thus described : — 

" Art. III. The territory of the Chief Moshcsh is bounded 
on the west, from the junction of the Caledojx with the Garief 
Biver to the sources of those rivers, near the Bouta Bouta ; on 
the south by tha Garief River, from the junction aforesaid ; and 
on the noi-th by a line extending from about 2o to 3.0 miles 
north of the Caledon River, excepting near to its source, and at 
its junction with the Garief, where the lands of Bethuli and 
the territory of Sikonyella come close upon tlie northern bank." 

In 18^2 war ensued betweei^ Great Britain and the Basutos^ 
in which Moshesh was defeated, when he sent in his submission^ 

On the 23rd February, 1854, a Convention was concluded 
between Great Britain and the Orange Fi^ee State, by which 
the independence of Basutoland was reeognized by Great 
Britain. (See Orange Free State, p. 811.) 

la 1856 war ensued between the Orange Free Statue and .the 
Basutos, in consequence of a boundary dispu,te; which war 
lasted till 1858. 

In 1861 the Basutos petitioned for British protection, but 
:their request was not aoceded to. 

In 1865 war was renewed between the Orange Free State 
and the Basutos, when British protection was again asked for, 
ibut no material assistance was grani^ed. 

On the 3rd April, 1866, a Treaty of Peace was concluded 
(between the Orange Free State and the Basutos, by which the 
Basutos agreed to beoome subject to that State; 

But in 1867 the war was renewed, and in .January, 1868, 
An appeal yips aguin made for British protection. 

• H.T., vol. ix, p. 82. S.P., i-el. xxxiii, p. 1078. 

829 2 A 



Digitized by 



Google 



1868-1830] GKEAT BRITAIN (BASUTOLAND). [Mo, 87 

[BaantolMid.] 

Basutolandy British Territory, 

On the 12tli March, 1868, a Proclamation was issaed by the 
Governor of the Cape of Good Hope declaring the tribe of 
Basutos to be British subjects, and their territory to be British 
territory.* 

Boundaries, 

On the I2th February, 1869, a Conrention was concluded 
between the Governor of the Cape of Good Hope and the 
Orange Free State, respecting the houndaries of Basatoland. 
(See Orange Fbie State, p, 811.) 

On the 11th August, 1871, an Act was passed by tbe 
Government of the Cape of Good Hope (No. 12), for the 
annexation of Basntoland to that Colony, in which the new 
boundary of that territory was described to bo as followsf : — 

" From the Janction of the Comet Spruit with the Orange 
River, along the centre of the former to the point nearest to 
OUfants Been; from that point by Olifants Been, to the 
•outbem point of Jjangeberg ; along the top of Langeberg to 
its north-western extremity ; from thence to the eastern point 
of Jaramerberg ; along the top of Jammerberg, to its north- 
western extremity ; from thence by a prolongation of the same 
to the Galedon River; along the eentre of the Caledon River to 
its junction with the Klein Caledon; along the centre of the 
Klein Caledon, to the heads of tbe Orange River, at the Mont 
Aux Sources ; thence westward along the Drakensberg, between 
tiie water-sheds of the Orange River and the St. John's River, 
to the soui'ce of the Tees -, down the centre of that inver to its 
junction with the Orange River ; and down tbe centre of the 
latter river to its junction with the Cornet Spruit.** 

This Act was coniirmed by an Order in Council on the 3rd 
November, 1871. 

On the 29th March, 1877, and 12th April, 1880, Proclama- 
tions were issaed by the Governor of the Cape of Good Hope 
for the government of Basutoland. 

• H.T., Tol XT, p. 499. S.P., vol. xxxiii, p. 1178. 
t K.T., Tol. XTii, p. 4. 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 87.] GREAT BRITAIN (BASUTOLAND). [1884-1091. 

[Basutoland.] 

Dtsannexatwn of Basutoland from the Cdpe Colony. 

A state of war, however, existed between the British 
Government and the Basutoe from 1879 till 1883, and in the 
latter year the following Act was passed by the Cape of Good 
Hope Government for the disa^nexation of B^asntoland from 
that Colony : — 

*' Whereas it is desirable th^it B£^nto|and shonld cease to form 
part of the Colony of tho Cape of Qpod Hope ; and whereas 
Her Majesty's Imperial Government has expressed its willing- 
ness to provide for the fatnre govei:nment of Bf^sutoland upon 
certain conditions ; and whereas it is expedient that due pro- 
vision shonld be made for relieving this Co)ony bcom jfAl 
responsibility for or in connection with the government of 
Basntoland : 

" Be it enacted by the .Goyei^ior of iiie Cape of Good Hope, 
with the advice f^d consent of the Legislative Council and 
House of Assei^bly thereof, as follows : — 

"1. prhe Act No. 12, 1871* intituled *An Act fqr the An- 
nexation to the Colony of ,the Cape of Good Hope of the t«rri- 
tpry inhabited by the tribe of people called the Basatos,'' shall 
<be, a^d thp sam^ is hereby repealed. 

" 2. From and after the taking efFeqt of .thi« Act, there shall 
be paid annnal\y to Her Majesty's High Commissioner, or 6uq]i 
other officer as Her Majesty may ^be pleased to appoint in thi^i 
rbehalf, as a contribution towards .any deficiency that may arise 
in the i^evennes of the Government of Basntoland, out of the 
public revenue of this /Colony, such sum, not exceeding ^0,000/., 
.as may be hereafter from time to time agreed upon by and 
between Her -Majesty's -Imperial Qovernment and the Govern- 
ment of .this Colony. 

.**8. This j^ct shall cpme into operation when, the Governor 
.shall, by Proclanjation, declare that I^er Majesty has been 
pleased to allow. and confirm the same. 

"4 The short title of <his Act shall be /The Basntoland 
Disannexation Act, 1883.' " (No. 34.) 



• August 1.1, 1871, p. ^0. 

:13|1 2 A 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



1888-1891.] aRKAT BBITAIN (BASUTOLAND). [No. 87 

[Basutoland.] 

Direct British Authority over Basutolaiid. 

On the 2n(i Febraary, 1884, an Order in Council was passed 
assenting to this Act, and providing for the exercise of Her 
Majesty's direct authority over the territory of Basutolaud.* 

This Order in Council was proclaimed at the Cape on the 
IBfch March, 1884, and on the 29th May following the Pro- 
clamations of 29th March, 1877^ and 12th April, 1880, were 
repealed. 

This territory is now administered by a British Commis- 
sioner under instructions from Her Majesty's High Commis- 
sioner in Soath Africa. 

On the 24th March, 1891, Basutoland was admitted into the 
South African Customs Union. 

• n.T., Tol. xvii, p. II. 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN 

(BECHUANALAND AND THE KALAHARI. BRITISH 

BECHUANALAND AND TERRITORY NORTH OP 

BRITISH BECHUANALAND). 

(Sm also BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA COMPANY.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by VjOOQ 16 



GREAT BRITAIN 

(BBCHUANALAND AND THE KALAHARI. BRITISH 

BECHUANALAND, AND TERRITORY NORTH 

OF BRITISH BECHUANALAND). 



LIST OF TREATIES, Ac. 



No. 

88 27 Feb., 1884 . 



Ccnyention. 



Page 
Great Britain and South 
African Bepublic» Bounda- 
ries. Bepublic and Batlap- 
ings and Barolongs * 834 



31Ca^l884. 
22Ma7, 1884. 

27 Jan., 1885.. 

28 Sep., 1886.. 



Treaty . 



384 



834 



Batlapings. British Juris- 
diction . . * » i . t 834 

Treaty Barolongs. British Jurisdic- 
tion 

Order in Council* British Jurisdiction. Becha«' 
analand and the Kalahari. • 
Koyal Commission. Qoyemor of Cape of Good 
Hope, Governor of British 

Bechuanaland 384 

— 80 Sep., 1885. . . « . . Proclamation. • Boundaries. British Bechu^ 

analand. British Protec- 
torate oyer Bechuanaland 

and the Kalahari 335 

Order in CounciL Administration of Territory 
North of British Bechuana- 

knd 886 

British and German Gk>yem- 
mentst Spheres of Influence. 
(See Great Britain and 
Germany). 
Unauthorized Occupation of 
Territory North of the 

Limpopo 336 

Annexation of the Bastards 

or Griqua Country 336 

'* Concession Commission for 
the Bechuanaland Protec- 
torate" 837 



— 30 June, 1890. «... 

— IJuly, 1800 

— 13 April, 1891 

— 8 May, 1801 

— 7—14 Mar., 1893 . . 



Agreement. 



Proclamation. 



Proclamation. 



Notifications . 



333 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 88] GREAT BRITAIN (BECHUANALAND). [1881-1885. 
[Britiah Bechuanaland.] 



No. 86.— Notes on BRITISH BECHUANALAND, 
BECHUANALAND and the KALAHARI, and Terri- 
tory North of BRITISH BECHUANALAND. 1884-^ 
1893. 

British Bechuanaland. Boundaries, South African Republic, 

On the 27 th Febrnarj, 1884, a Convention was concluded 
between Great Britain and the South African Republic, in 
which the boundaries between that Republic and the Batlap- 
ings and Barolongs in Bechuanaland were defined. (See South 
African Republic, p. 799.) 

Batlapings. 

On the 3rd May, 1884, a Treaty was concluded between 
Great Britain and Mankoroa, Chief of the Batlapings, by 
which power and jurisdiction were conferred on Her Majesty in 
the country of the Batlapings.* 

Barolongs. 

On the 22nd May, 1884, a Treaty was concluded between 
Great Britain and Montsioa, Chief of the Barolongs, by which 
power and jurisdiction were also conferred on Her Majesty in 
the country of the Barolongs.f 

Bechuanaland and the Kalahari. 
On the 27th January, 1885, an Order in Council was issued 
providing for the exercise of British jurisdiction over Bechu- 
analand and the Kalahari. In this Order the powers conferred 
upon Her Majesty by the above Treaties of 3rd and 22nd May, 
1884, were set forth. J 

Qovemment of British Bechuanaland. 

On the 29th September, 1885, a Royal Commission was 
issued appointing the Governor or the officer administering the 

• H. T., vol. xvii, p. 21. 

+ II. T., vol. xvii, p. 22. 

J H. T., vol. xvii, p. 27. 

334 



Digitized by 



Google 



1886-1889.] GREAT BRITAIN (BECHU AN ALAND). [No. 88 
[British Beohnanaland.] 

Government of the Cape of Good Hope to be Governor of 
British Bechuan aland, and providing for the government 
thereof.* 

Boundaries of British Bechuanaland, 

On the 30th September, 1885, a Proclamation was issned by 
the High Commissioner for South Africa declaring the terri- 
tory bounded on the east by the South African Republic, on 
the south by the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope, on the v^est 
by the Molopo River, and on the north by the said Molopo 
River to its junction with the Ramathlabana Spruit, and thence 
by the said Spruit to the frontier of the South African Republic, 
to be British Territory under the name of British Bechuana- 
land. 

Bechuanaland and the Kalahari, British Protectorate, 
Boundaries. 

This Proclamation also declared the establishment of a 
British Protectorate over the Territory known aa Bechuana- 
land and the Kalahari, extending over the parts of South 
Africa situate west of the boundary of the South African Re- 
public, north of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope, east of 
the 20** meridian of east longitude, and south of the 22nd 
parallel of south latitude, and not within the jurisdiction of 
any civilised Power .f 

British South Africa Company. 

It was declared in the Royal Charter of Incorporation 
granted to the British South Africa Company on the 29th 
October, 1889 (§ 1),J that the principal field of the operations of 
the Company should be the region of South Africa lying im- 
mediately to the north of British Bechuanaland, and to the 
north and west of the South African Republic, and to the west 
of the Portuguese Dominions. 

• H. T., vol. xTii, p. 86. 
t H. T., vol. xvii, p. 87. 
t Seep. 175. 
335 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 88] aREAT BRITAIN (BEOHUANALAND). [1890-1891. 
[British Beohnanaland.] 

Territory North of British Bechuancdand. 

On the 30fch Jane, 1890,* an Order in Council waa passed 
providing for the administration of the Territory north of 
British Beohnanaland, the limits of which were defined to be as 
follows : — 

'^ The parts of South Africa sifcnate north of British Becha* 
analand ; west of the South African Republic and of Matabe« 
land ; east of the ddi'man Protectorate ; and south of the Biver 
Zambesi; and not within the jurisdiction of anj civilized 
power." (See also Bbio^ish South Africa Gompant, p. 188.) 

British and Oermdn Spheres of Influence. 

On the Ist July, 1890, an Agreement was entered into 
between the British and German Governments for defining 
their respective spheres of influence ill East, West, and South- 
west Africa* (See Great Britain and Germany, p. 6iid,) 

South Africdn Customs Union. 

Britifth Beohnanaland was admitted into the South African 
Customs Union on the 4 — 19th June, 1890, and the Bechuana* 
land Protectorate was so admitted on the 10th January — 28th 
February, 1891. 

Territory North of the Limpopo. 

On the 13th April, 1891, a Proclamation was issued pro- 
hibiting any unauthorized attempt to occupy or establish an 
independent form of Government in the Territory of the Briti. h 
South Africa Oompany noi'th of the Limpopo. 

Bastards or Oriqua Country. 

On the 8th May, 1891, another Proclamation was issued 
by the High Commissioner for South Africa, declaring the 
Queen's sovereignty over and the annexation to Bechaanaland 
of the Bastards or Griqua country. 

The boundary of British Beohnanaland Was thereby ex- 
tended westward, '' from the point of intersection of the 20° 
• "London Gazette," 4th July 1890. H.T., vol. xviii, p. 154. 
'3S6 



Digitized by 



Google 



1893.] GREAT BRITAIN (BECHU AN ALAND). [No. 88 

[BritlBh Beohuanaland.] 

meridian of east longitude and the 25th parallel of south lati- 
tude, along the 25th parallel to where it intersects the Nosop 
Biver, and then down the centre of the Nosop Biyer to its 
junction with the Molopo/* 

Land OranU and Goncessvms in the Bechuanaland Protectorate, 

On the 7th March, 1893, a Notification, dated 10th January, 
1893, was inserted in the " London Gazette " to the effect that 
a Proclamation had been issued by the Governor of the Gape 
of Good Hope, <&c., announciilg the appointment of a Commis- 
sion, entitled " The Concession Commission for the Bechuana- 
land Protectorate," to enquire into and report upon certain 
alleged land grants and mineral and othdr Concessions claimed 
in the Bechnanaland Protectorate, and on the I4th of the same 
month a farther notice upon the samel subject appeared in the 
" Gazette." 



337 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN 

(BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA COMPANY). 
(Skb BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA COMPANY). 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN 

(CAPE COLONY). 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. KAPFRARIA (Conqo, Gaika, 
AND T'SiAMBiB). ICHABOE AifD PENGUIN IS- 
LANDS. FINGOLAND, IDUTTWA RESERVE, and 
NOMANSLAND. GRIQUALAND EAST and GRI- 
QUALAND WEST. PONDOLAND, RODE VALLEY, 
ST. JOHN'S RIVER, XESIBELAND, &c. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN (CAPE COLONY). 



LIST OF TREATIES, &c. 



Ko. Page 

89 1662— 1894b Notes on the Cape of aood Hope (Cape Oolonj) 841 

— > 25 Mar., 1802. Treaty of Amiens. Cape of C^ood Hope secured to 

Batayian Bepublic 841 

— 19 Jan., 1806. Capitulation Cape to the English 341 

— 13 Aug., 1814. Conrention Netherlands. Cession of Cape to 

Great Bri tain 841 

— 10 Maj, 1835. Proclamation . • . • Eastern BoundarTof Cape Colony. • 341 

— 16 June, 1835. Proclamation.... Do., do 342 

— 17 Sept., 1835. Treaties Annexation of Congo, Ghiika, and 

T'Slambie Teiritories to Cape 
Colony 342 

— 14 Oct., 1835. Proclamation .... North-Eastem Boundary of Cape 

Colony 842 

— 5 Dec., 1836. Proclamation .... Renunciation of British Authority 

OTcr the Congo, Qaika, and 
T'Slambie Territories 342 

— 5 Dec, 1836. Treaties Kafir Chiefs of Congo, Gaika, and 

T'Slambie. Boundaries 342 

— Oct. — Nov., Treaty Amaponda (Pondoland). Boundaries 346 

1844. 

— ^Jan.,1845. Treaties Kafir Chiefs. Boundaries 343 

— 21 June, 1861. Notice British Occupation. Ichaboe and 

Penguin Islands 345 

— 12 Aug., 1861. Proclamation .... Ichaboe and Penguin Islands in- 

cluded in British Dominions (not 
confirmed) • 345 

— 17 Mar., 1865. Act •••••■ Incorporation of British Eaffraria 

with Cape Colony 3^ 

— 5 May, 1866. Notice British Occupation of Penguin 

Islands • 845 

— 16 July, 1866. Proclamation.... Ichaboe and Penguin Islands an- 

nexed to Cape Colony 345 

— 27 Feb., 1867. Letters Patent . . . Governor of Cape Colony appointed 

GoTcmor of Ichaboe and Penguin 
Islands. Authority to annex .... 346 

— 1873. Act Annexation of Ichaboe and Penguin 

Islands to Cape Colony (in error) 845 

— 1874. Act Act of 1873 repealed. Ichaboe and 

Penguin Islands annexed, under 
Letters Patent 845 

339 2 b 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN (CAPE COLONY). 

[last of Treaties, Ac] 

No. Page 

89 12 June, 1876. Letters Patent . • Annexation of Fingoland, Idutyiva 

• Bcserre, &c., to Cape Colonj .... 343 
-- 12 Mar., 1878. Proclamation. . . . British Occupation of Walfisch Baj 368 

— 17 July, 1878. Agreement Pondoland. Cessions to Great 

Britain ,&c 34d 

— 4 Sept., 1878. Proclamation.... Annexation. Port and Tidal Estuary 

of St. JoWs River 847 

— 14 Dec, 1878. Letters Patent . . . British Occupation of Walfisch Bay 860 

— 1877—1880. Act, Order in C, Annexation of Griqualand West to 

and Proclama- Cape Colony 361 

tion. 

— 10 Oct., 1881. Letters Patent . , • Annexation of Port and St. John's 

River to Cape Colony 350 

— 22 July, 18S4. Act Annexation of the St. John's River 

Territories to Cape Colony 351 

— 22 July, 1894. Act Annexation of Walfisch Bay to Cape 

Colony 360 

— 7 Aug., 1 S84. Proclamation . • , • Annexation of Walfisch Bay to Cape 

Colony 360 

— 5 Sept., 188 k Notification German Protectorates on S.W. Coast 

of Africa (except Walfisch Bay) . 360 

— 2 Oct. ,1884. Letters Patent .. • Annexation to the Cape Colony of 

Temhuland, Emigrant Temhuland, 
Gkklekaland, and Bomvanaland. . . 362 

— 5 Jan., 1885. Notification Coast of Pondoland. British Pro- 

tectorate 351 

— 15 July, 1886. Agreement Great Britain and Germany. 

Settlement of question respecting 
tlie Ichahoe and Penguin Islands. 
(See Groat Britain and Germany) 

— 23 Aug., 1886. Letters Patent . . . Xesibe Country. Mount Ayliff. 

Annexation to Cape Colony 351 

— 25 Oct., 1886. Proclamation . . • • Annexation of Xesibe Country to 

Griqualand East. Boundaries. . . 852 

— 9 Dec, 1886. Agreement Pondoland, Rode Territory, St. 

John's River Territory, and 
Xesibeland. Cessions to Cape 
Colony 854 

— 29 July, 1887. Letters Patent . . • ' Annexation of Rode Valley to Cape 357 

— 20 Mar., 1894. Proclamation.... British Sorereignty over Pondoland 358 

— 12 June, 1891'. Notification Annexation of Pondoland to Cape 

Colony • 858 



340 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 89] GREAT BRITAIN (CAPE COLONY). [1652-1835. 

[Cape of O-ocd Hcpe.] 

Wo. 69.— Notes <m the CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, 
1652—1894 

Cape of Good Hope. Gesno7i to Great Britain, 

In 1652, Table Bay was taken possession of by the Dutch 
East India Company. 

On the 16th September, 1795 the Dutch Colony was forcibly 
occnpied by the English. 

By Art. VI of the Treaty of Amiens, of 25th March, 1802, 
it was stipulated that the Port of the Cape of Good Hope should 
remain to the Batavian Republic, in full sovereignty, in the 
same manner as it did preyioos to the war ; but it was evacuated 
in the following year. 

On the 19th January, 1806, the Settlement was again 
<saptured by the English,* and by the 3rd Additional Article to 
the Convention with the Netherlands of 13th August, 1814, the 
Cape of Good Hope was ceded in full sovereignty to His 
Britannic Majesty King George III. (See Gbiat Britain and 
THE Netherlands, p. 672.) 

On the 23rd May, 1850, Letters Patent were issued con- 
stituting a Parliament for the Cape of Good Hope. 

On the 3rd April, 1852, a Cape Ordinance was issued for 
carrying out the same, with certain amendments ; and on the 
11th March, 1853, an Order in Council was passed confirming 
the above Ordinance. 

• Kaffraria. 

In 1834 the great Kafir War broke out. 

Eastern Boundary of the Cape Colony. 

On the 10th May, 1835,t after the submission of the Kafirs, a 
Proclamation was issued by the Governor of the Cape of Good 
Hope, declaring that the Eastern Boundary of the Colony was, 
thenceforward, extended eastward to the right bank of the Koi 
Biver. 

* For Articles of Capitulation, signed on the 18th January, 1806, and 
ratified on the following day, see " London Gazette/' 15th Apri], 1806, and 
^•Bulletins," 1806, p. 51. 

t S.P., vol. XXV, p. 825. 

341 . 2 B 3 



Digitized by 



Google 



1835-1836.] GBKAT BBITAIN (CAPE COLONY). [Ho. 89 

LKaArarla.] 

On tbe 16th June following,t another Proclamation iras 
issaed by the Oovemor of the Gape of Good Hope, declaring 
the Eastern Boundary of the Colony to be '^ a line commencing at 
the source of the Kei Biyer in the Stromberg Mountains, and 
thence along that rirer to the sea." 

Annexation of Congo, Oaikaj and T*8lamhie Territories to the 
Cape Colony, 

On the 17th September, 1835,* Treaties were also entered 
into between the Governor of the Cape of Good Hope and 
yarious Kafir Chiefs of the tribes of Congo, Gaika, and 
T*Slambie, by which the territories belonging to those Chiefs 
were declared to be annexed to the Cape Colony. 

North'Eastem Boundary of the Cape Colony, 
On the 14th October, 1835,t another Proclamation was 
issued, declaring the North- Eastern Boundary of the Colony 
to be " a line drawn from the source of the Kei River, in the 
Stromberg range of mountains, to the source of the Kraai 
River on the northern side of the same range of mountains, 
thence down the left bank of the Kraai to its confluence with 
the Orange River, and thence down the latter until it joins the 
Stromberg River, hitherto the boundary of the Colony." 

Benunciation of British Authority over the said Territories. 

But on the 6th December, 1886,t another Proclamation was 
issued by the Governor of the Eastern Division of the Cape of 
GQod Hope, in which it was declared that His Majesty had been 
pleased to direct that His Majesty's sovereignty over the said 
territory annexed to the said Colony by the above-cited Procla- 
mations, and the allegiance of the said Chiefs and tribes, be 
renounced, and that these Proclamations and Treaties wera^ 
accordingly thereby repealed and annulled. 

New Boundaries of the said Territories. 
The territory of these Kafir Chiefs having thus been restored 

• S.P., vol xxxiu, pp. 1004-1012. 
1 S.P., Tol. XXV, p. 825. 

342 ♦ 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 89] GBEAT BEITAIN (CAPE COLONY). [18361870- 

[FinflrolAnd, Idutywa BMorre, KomanBland.] 

to iliem by the Proclamation of the 5th December, 1836, fresh 
Treaties were, on the same daj, concluded between the 
Lientenant-Qoyernor of the Eastern Division of the Cape of 
Good Hope and the Chiefs of the Kafir tribes of Congo, Gaika, 
and T'Slambie, in which the boundaries between the said Colony 
and the Kafir nation was defined.* 

Kafirs, OaikaSf 8fc. 

On the 2nd — 30th January, 1845,t other Treaties were ooe« 
eluded between the Colony and the Kafir Chiefs in which it 
was declared that all former Treaties made between them and 
the Colony were annulled ; but the stipulations with regard to 
boundaries, which appeared in the Treaties of 5th December, 
1836, were again inserted in the Treaties of 1845. 

British Kaffraria. 

On the 17th March, 1865, an Act was passed providing for 
the incorporation of British Kaffraria with the Cape Colony. | 

Fingolandy Idutywa Reserve, and Nomansland (Kaffrarid), 

On the 12th June, 1876,§ Letters Patent were issued author- 
ising the annexation to the Cape of Gtood Hope of certain terri- 
tories, known as Fingoland (the country situated between the 
Bashee and the Kei) ; the Idutywa Reserve ; and the country 
situated between the Umtata and the ITmzimkulu, commonly 
known as Nomansland. 

The Letters Patent ran as follows : — 

" Whereas it is expedient that certain territories, commonly 
known as Fingoland and the Idutywa Reserve, and as Nomans- 
land, should be annexed to and form part of our Colony of the 
Cape of Good Hope : And whereas the Legislative Council and 
House of Assembly of our said Colony have expressed their 

• S.P., Tol. xxT, p. 826 ; and vol. xxxiii, pp. 1017, 1020. 

t H.T., vol. ix, p. 96. 

t H.T., vol. xii, p. 1060; S.P., vol. Ir, p. 1200. 

§ H.T., vol. XV, p. 502. 

343 



Digitized by 



Google 



1876-1879.] GBEAT BEITAIN (CikPE COLONX). [Ho. 89 

[Fizisrolaxid, Idutywa Baserve, Nomanaland.] 

deaire for sach annexation, and have passed the following joint 
Resolution, bearing date the 11th day of Jnne, 1875, in the 38th 
year of our reign : — * That in the opinion oi this Honse it is 
expedient that the country situated between the Bashee and the 
£ei, known as Fingoland, and the Idutywa Reserve, and the 
Country situated between the Umtata and the UmEimknln, com- 
monly known as Nomansland, should be annexed to this Colony, 
and that the Government take such preliminary steps as may 
place it in a position to introduce a Bill to effect such annexa- 
tion.' Now we do, by these our Letters Patent, under the 
Great Seal of onr United Kingdom of Great BHtain and Ire- 
land, authorize onr Governor for the time being of our said 
Colony of the Cape of Good Hope, by Proclamation under his 
hand and the public seal of the said Colony, to declare that, 
from and after a day to be therein mentioned, the said terri- 
tories, or so much thereof as to him, after due consideration 
and consultation with his Ministers, shall seem fit, shall be 
annexed to and form part of our said Colony. 

'* 2. And we do hereby authorize and direct our said Governor 
to determine, and by Proclamation to signify, the limits of the 
said territories so annexed : Provided always that he, our said 
Governor, issues no such Proclamation as aforesaid until the 
Legislature of our said Colony of the Cape of Good Hope shall 
have passed a law providing that the said territories shall, on 
the day aforesaid, become part of our said Colony, and subject 
to the laws in force therein : Provided also, that the application 
of the said laws to the said territories may be modified either by 
such Proclamation as aforesaid, or by any law or laws to be from 
time to time passed by the Legislature of our said Colony for 
the government of the said territories so annexed." 

In the following year, an Act of the Cape of Good Hope 
was passed (No. 38, 1877),* which was assented to by Her 
Majesty, by an Order in Council, dated 18th April, 1878, to 
provide for such annexation, which took effect on the 11th 
October, 1879. 



• H.T., vol. XT, p. 503, 517. 
344 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo. 89] aEBAT BBITAIN (CJlPE COLONY). [1861-1874. 

[loliaboe and Prnignin laUads.] 

Ickaboe and Penguin Islands. 1861—1886. 

On the 21st June, 1861,* Ichaboe Island was taken possession 
of in the name of Her Majesty Queen Victoria. 

On the 12fch August, 1861,t a Proclamation was issued by the 
Governor of the Cape of Good Hope, for bringing under the 
Dominions of Her Majesty the Island of Ichaboe and a cluster 
of small islands or rocks adjacent thereto, known as the Penguin 
Islands, " subject to Her Majesty's confirmation and disallow- 
ance " ; but this Proclamation was not confirmed by the British 
Government. 

On the 5th May, 1866,* the following islands known as the 
Penguin Islands were also taken possession of in the name of 
Her Majesty : — HoUansbird, Mercury, Long Island, Seal Island, 
Penguin Island, Halifax, Possession, Albatross Bock, Pomona, 
Plum Pudding and Boast Beef or Sinclair Island. 

On the 16th July, 1866,* the Island of Ichaboe and the 
Penguin Islands were, by Proclamation of the Governor, declared 
to be annexed to and to form part of the Cape of Good Hope. 

As donbts, however, were entertained touching the legality 
of the said annexation by Proclamation, Boyal Letters Patent 
were issued on the 27th February, 1867,J appointing the 
Governor of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope to be 
Governor of the Island of Ichaboe and the Penguin Islands, and 
authorizing the annexation of the aforesaid islands to that 
Colony, should the Legislative Council and House of Assembly 
of the said Colony, by resolution or otherwise, request the said 
Governor of the said Island of Ichaboe and Penguin Islands to 
transfer the same to the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope for 
ihe purpose of their being annexed thereto. 

In 1873, an Act was passed by the Colony of the Cape of 
Good Hope entitled the " Annexation of Ichaboe and Penguin 
Islands Act, 1873," in ignorance of the doubts which had arisen 
respecting the legality of such annexation by the Proclamation 
of 16th July, L866. In 1874, § another Act was therefore passed 

• H.T., Tol. XT, p. 4fi7. 

f S.P., Yol. Ix, p. 1128. 

t n,T., vol. XT, p. 496. S.P. vol. Ixv 654w 

§ H.T., Tol. XV, p. 600. 

345 



Digitized by 



Google 



1844-1878.] GREAT BRITAIN (CAPE COLONY). [No. 89 

t [Pondoland.] 

bj the Colony repealing the Act of 1878, and for the annexation 
of these islands to the Colony, in accordance with the Letters 
Patent of 27th February, 1867.* 

Bat on the 15th July, 1886, an Agreement was entered into 
between the British and German Governments for the settle- 
ment of the question respecting these Islands, and other 
matters. (See Gbsat Britain akd Gebmant, p. 608.) 

Amaponda, (Pondoland.) Boundaries, 
" On the 7th October (23rd November), 1844,t a Treaty was 
concluded between the Governor of the Cape of Gt>od Hope, Ac,, 
and Faka, paramount Chief of the Amaponda nation, by Article 
XII of which that Chief was acknowledged to be the paramoant 
Chief of the whole territory lying betwixt the XJmtata River, 
from its mouth up to the Waterfall Wagon Ford, thence along 
the ancient line of boundary between the Amaponda and Tarn- 
bookie nations, to the Kahlamba Mountain on the west, and the 
TJnzimkulu from its mouth along the principal western branch, 
to its source in the Kahlamba Mountains on the east, and from 
the coast inland to a line to be drawn along the base of the 
EZahlamba range of mountains between the sources of the said 
rivers." 

Pond'oland. 
On the 17th July, 1878, j: an Agreement was entered into 
between the Government of the Cape of Good Hope and 
Kquiliso, Chief of Pondoland, which contained the following 
stipulations : — 

Umzimkulu Biver. 

" Abt. I. The Chief Nquiliso hereby cedes to the Govern- 
ment of the Cape Colony all sovereign rights which he now 
possesses, or is entitled to claim, over the waters and naviga- 
tion of the Umzimkulu Biver. 

Umtimaribu Biver. 
" II. That the Chief Nquiliso hereby agrees to cede to the 

• H.T., vol, XT, p. 496. 
. t S.P., vol. xxxix, pp. 117C— 1208. 
t H.T., Tol. XT, p. 864. S.P., Tol. Ixx, p. 882. 
346 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 893 GREAT BRITAIN (CAPE COLONY). [1878. 

[Fondoland. St. John's Blver.] 

Oovemment of the Gape Colony uncli portions of land as maj 
hereafter be agreed npon, for the erection of a Castom-house or 
other buildings on the banks of the TJmzimaribn. The land to 
be paid for at a fair valnation. 

Eoculs, Umzimvulu to Natal, 

"III. The Chief Nqnih'so hereby agrees to roads being 
made and maintained throDgh his country from the Umzim- 
ynln to the main wagon-road from the Colony to Natal. 

Chief Nquiliso independent of Umquikela. 

" IV. From the date hereof the Government of the Cape of 
Good Hope will acknowledge the Chief Nquiliso as Chief in 
his territory, entirely independent of Umquikela, from whose 
attack he will be protected as long as he maintains his present 
friendly relations with the Government of the Cape of Good 
Hope." 

Port and Tidal Estuary of St. John*8 River, 

On the 4th September, 1878, a Proclamation was issued by 
the High Commissioner for South Africa, for the Annexation 
to Her Majesty's South African PosseE|sions of the Port and 
Tidal Estuary of the St. John's River, which Proclamation 
ran as follows* : — 

** The various tribes of Pondos having been protected from 
the Zulus and other enemies by the British Government, and 
having by their friendly conduct shown their gratitude for 
such protection, were admitted by Sir Peregrine Maitlaud^ 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Cape Colony, to 
Treaty Arrangements with the British Government in 1844.| 

" The terms of the Treaty were extremely favourable to the 
Pondos, securing to them the friendship and protection of the 
British Government, and in return, the Pondos bound them- 

* S.P., Tol. lix, p. 709. Thia Proclamation was approyed* 18th Fehraaiy, 
1879; and was referred to in the Notification of the British Protectorate 
OTer the whole coast of Pondoland, published in the Cape of Q-ood Hope 
Gk>Teniment Gktsette of 6th Janoary, 1885. 

t S.P., vd. Ixx, p. 709. H.T., vol. xrii, p. 7. 

347 



Digitized by 



Google 



4 Sept, 1878.] GREAT BEITAIN (CAPE COLONY). [No. 89 

[Pondolaad. St. John's Biver.] 

selves to a position of allegiance to the British Crown, under- 
taking, among other conditions, to a£Eord no shelter to the 
enemies of the British Government, and to surrender to justice 
all criminals accused of offences in British territory, who might 
take refuge in Pondoland. 

'' To this Treaty, Fakn, who was then paramount Chief, and 
his son Damas, both since deceased, were parties. 

BebeUious Conduct of Chief Umquikela, 

^' When IJmquikela succeeded Faku as paramount Chief, he 
was admitted to all the rights and privileges enjoyed by his 
father. 

" But of late years, Umquikela has not followed in his 
father's footsteps, by behaving as his father did towards the 
British Government. 

" He has knowingly harboured criminals who had com- 
mitted murder in British territory. 

'' He has repeatedly refused to deliver such murderers up to 
justice, assigning no good cause for his refusal, and treating 
the demands of the British Government and its officers with 
neglect, and has evinced in many ways an unfriendly and 
hostile disposition towards the Government. 

"Lately, when rebellion was attempted in a neighbouring 
British district, he not only gave friendly shelter to one of the 
rebel leaders, but sent him back into British territory with an 
escort, which took part in acts of plunder and threats of 
murder to European colonists, joined the rebel camp, and after 
hostilities had commenced, and Colonial subjects had been 
plundered, made prisoners and murdered, only surrendered and 
laid down their arms when they saw that resistance to the 
force embodied by the magistrate. Captain Blyth, for the 
restoration of order was hopeless. 

"Even then Umquikela made no offer of reparation, 
amends, or even of apology, but maintained his attitude of con- 
temptuous disregard of the remonstrances and demands of the 
British Government, till a force of Her Majesty's troops ap- 
proached his borders, he then, through his agents, admitted 

348 



Digitized by 



Google 



ITO. 89] GBEAT BBXTAIN (CAPE COLONY). [4 Sept, 1878. 

[Pondoland. St. Jolin's Blver.] 

Mb breacli of his Treaty engagements, and offered to pay a fine 
of 1,000 head of cattle. 

*'Bat Her Majesty's Government does not desii*e to take 
his cattle. The ingratitade and misbehaviour of Umquikela 
and his servants would have justified the forfeiture of all the 
power and property he possesses as a Chief, but, bearing in 
mind the former good conduct of the late Faku and his people, 
the Government decides to inflict only such punishment as is 
absolutely necessary to obtain security against any repetition of 
such misconduct in future. 

Deposition of Chief Umquikela, British Oovemment the sole 
paramount Authority. 

" The following terms are the terms, therefore, which are 
. imposed on Umquikela : — 

*' He will no longer be recognized as paramount Chief of the 
Pondos. The sons of Damas, and all other Chiefs formerly 
subordinate to Faku, who have behaved loyally to Her 
Majesty's Government, and who now desire to come under 
direct relations with that Government, will be allowed to deal 
directly with the British Government as the sole paramount 
authority in Pondoland, through Residents or Magistrates, who 
will be appointed to manage all relations between the Pondos 
and the Gt>vemment. 

Port and Tidal Estuary of 8L JohrCs Bher. 

" Umquikela will not be permitted to exercise any control 
or authority over the navigation of the St. John's River. The 
sovereignty over the Port and Tidal Estuary of that river is de- 
clared to be vested henceforth solely in Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment, and officers will be appointed on behalf of that Govern- 
ment to control its navigation, and to levy any customs or port 
dues which it may be determined to impose. 

"All Chiefs and people are hereby required to obey any 
orders of Her Majesty's Government which they may receive 
through the Resident. 

" As long as the Pondos are loyal to Her Majesty's Govem- 

349 



Digitized by 



Google 



1881.] GREAT BRITAIN (CAPE COLONY). [No. 89 

[Pondoland. St. John's Blver.] 

ment tbej will be protected in the peaceful enjoyment of their 
lives and property, and will be aided in every way to advance 
their own prosperity.'* 

On the 10th October, 1881, Letters Patent were issued for 
annexing to the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope the Port and 
Estuary of the St. John's River, from which the following is an 
extract : — 

" Whereas the port and tidal estuary of the St. John's River 
in South Africa, and certain lands on the banks of the said 
river, are now part of our dominions,* and it is expedient that 
the same should be annexed to, and form part of, our Colony of 
the Cape of Good Hope : 

*• We do by these our Letters Patent, under the Great Seal 
of our United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, authorize 
our Governor or other officer for the time being administering 
the Government of our Colony of the Cape of Good Hope, by 
Proclamation under his hand and the Public Seal of the said 
Colony, to declare that from and after a day to be therein men- 
tioned the said port and tidal estuary, and all territory belong- 
ing to us upon or near the said St. John's Biver, shall be 
annexed and form part of oar said Colony ; and also by Procla- 
mation to signify the limits of the said territory so annexedf : 
Provided always that he, our said Governor, issues no such 
Proclamation as aforesaid until the Legislature of our said 
Colony of the Cape of Good Hope shall have passed a Law 
providing that the said port, estuary, and territory shall, on the 
day aforesaid, become part of our said Colony, and subject to 
the laws in force therein : Provided also, that the application 
of the said Laws to the said port, estuary, and territory may 
be modified either by such Proclamation, as aforesaid, or by 
Law or Laws to be from time to time passed by the Legislature 
of our said Colony for the government of the said territories so 
annexed." 



• S.P., vol. Ixxiv, p. 254 ; H.T., vol. xvii, p. 9. See Proclamation, 4th 
September, 1878, p. 349. 

t Proclaimed, 15th September, 1884. 
350 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 89] QBEAT BRITAIN (CAPE COLONY). [1884-1886. 

[Pondoland. St. John's River. XesibeUnd.] 

St. John*8 Biver Territories, 
On the 22nd Jalj, 1884, an Act was passed to provide for 
the annexation to the Cape of Good Hope of the St. John's 
River Territories.* 

Coast of Pondoland. British Protectorate. 

^ On the 5th January, 1885,t a notification was inserted in 
the Cape of Good Hope Government Gazette announcing that 
the whole coast of Pondoland had been placed ander British 
protection. 

The following is a copy of the notification : — 
** The High Commissioner is directed by the Right Hononr- 
able the Secretary of State for the Colonies to notify for public 
information that Her Majesty's Government exercises a Pro- 
tectorate over the whole coast of Pondoland, in pursuance of 
Sir Bartle Frere's Proclamation of the 4th September, 1874, 
and Sir Peregrine Maitland's Treaty of the 7th October, 
1844.J 

" By his Excellency's command, 

" GRAHAM BOWER, 
" Secretary to the High Commissioner. 
** Government House, Cape Town, 
" January 6, 1885." 

Xesibe Country. Mount Ayliff. Annexation to Cape Colony. 

On the 23rd August, 1886,§ Royal Lettera Patent were issued 
for the annexation to the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope of 
the territory situated between the district of Kokstad, in Gviqua- 
land East and Pondoland, known as the Xesibe Country, and 
comprised in the district then called Mount AylifF. It ran as 
follows : — 

Whereas it is expedient that certain territory in South 

• S.P., Tol. IxxT., p. 408 ; H.T., Tol. xvii, 23. 
t H.T., Tol. xvij, p. 27 ; S.P., toI. Ixxvi, p. 720. 
X H.T., Tol. ix, p. 85. 
§ H.T., Tol. XI ii, J). 46. 

351 



Digitized by 



Google 



1888.] GREAT BRITAIN (CAPE COLONY). [No. 89 

[Zesibeland. Konnt Ayliff.] 

Africa, commonly known as the Xesibe Country, should be 
annexed to and form part of our Colony of the Cape of Good 
Hope: And whereas the Legislative Council and House of 
Assembly of our said Colony have expressed their desire for 
such annexation, and have, on the 30th day of April, 1886, and 
the 22nd day of April, 1886, respectively, passed the following 
resolution : — " That in the opinion of this House it is expedient 
that the country situated between the district of Kokstad in 
Griqualand East and Pondoland, known as the Xesibe Country,, 
and comprised in the district now called Mount Ayliff, should 
be annexed to this Colony, and that the Government take such 
steps as may be necessary to effect such annexation." Now, we^ 
do by these our Letters Patent, under the Great Seal of our 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, authorize our 
Governor for the time being of our said Colony of the Cape of 
Good Hope, by proclamation under his hand and the public seal 
of the said Colony, to declare that, from and after a day to 
be therein mentioned, the said territory, or so much thereof as 
to him, after due consideration and consultation with his^ 
Ministers, shall seem fit, shall be annexed to and form part of 
our said Colony. And we do hereby authorize and direct our 
said Governor to determine, and by proclamation to signify, the 
limits of the said territory so annexed." 

An Act was also passed by the Government of that Colony to 
provide for such annexation,* which was assented to by Her 
Majesty by an Order in Council, dated 24th September, 1886.t 

Annexation of Xesibe Country to Griqualand Ea^t, 

On the 25th October, 1886,J a Proclamation was issued by 
the Acting High Commissioner for South Africa annexing the 
Xesibe Country to that portion of the Colony of the Cape of 
Good Hope known as Griqualand East, and defining the limits 
of the country to be as follows : — 

"From a beacon on the Ingeli Mountain common to the 

• H.T., Tol. XTii, p. 45 ; S.P., toI. Ixxvii, p. 950. 
t H.T., vo^. xvii, p. 47. 

J H.T., Tol. XTii, p. 48i S.P., vol. Iixtu, p. 953. 
352 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 89] GREAT BRITAIN (CAPE COLOXY). [25 Oct., 1886. 

[Xesibeland.] 

district of Mount Currie, Griqualand East, and tlie Colonj of 
Natal, to the nearest sonrce of the Umtamvnna River ; down 
that river to a point opposite a beacon overlooking it, and 
bearing northwards one and a half miles from the junction 
of the Goxe River with the Umtamvuna; thence down to 
the Ooze River in the direction of the Cikicane Hill ; 
thence up the Goxe River to where a small stream called the 
Umzimvaba joins it ; thence up the latter stream to its source 
in the Boqo, a small bush near Fute's old kraal under the Tende 
Hill, and thence to a beacon on the summit of that hill. From 
the beacon on the Tende Hill the line proceeds to a beacon on 
the Lenkobe Hill, and thence across the main waggon road 
otween East Griqualand and Pondoland to a beacon placed on 
A rocky point between the Bulembu and Bulenjana Bashes ; 
hence along the watershed past the Umpepeto Bnsh over the 
Sonkana Hill to a beacon on the Umgiqi Hill, thence crossing 
the TJmzimhlavana River in a straight line to a beacon on the 
Nxolubeni Hill, thence in a straight line across the Isipeto Valley 
to a beacon on the stony hill below Gaga's Kraal, thence to a 
beacon on Gaga's Kraal in a straight line through a small patch 
of bush north of the Tonti Forest to a beacon overlooking the 
said forest, thence to the summit of the Tonti Mountain, thence 
following the watershed, and over a conical peak to a beacon on 
a bluff above the TJmzimhlavana River, thence across the Um- 
zimhlava Gorge to a beacon on the Inqwashu Hill, thence along 
the watershed to a beacon on the Roro Hill, thence down into 
the Paiigana Stream to its junction with the Umnceba River, 
thence to a beacon at a remarkable bushy bluff called the 
Luxweso, thence along the ridge to a beacon tree on the Isibiza 
Hill, thence in a straight line across the XJmncetyana, and the 
main road to the Colony to a beacon above Bumuka's old kraal 
on the watershed between the Rode and XJmncetyana, thence 
along the watershed to the nearest beacon of the Pondo Rode 
border on the sumn:iit of the Insizwa Mountain ; thence along 
the southern boundary of the Mount Currie District, Griqualand 
East, back to the beacon on Ingeli, first-mentioned, shall, under 
the name, designation, and title of the district of Mount Ayliff, 
be annexed to and become part of that portion of the Colony 

353 



Digitized by 



Google 



9 Dec, 1886.] ^REAT BRITAIN (CAPE COLONr). [No. 89 

[Pondoland. Bode Valley. St. Jolin*8 Aiver. XeeibeUnd.] 

known as Griqualand East, and be subject to the laws for the 
time being in force in such portion of tbe Colony ; and I do 
hereby proclaim, declare, and make known that the said law 
shall be in force in the said district of Monnt Ajliff, from and 
after the date hereof." 

Bode Valley, St, John^s Biver Territory^ Xesibelandj <J"C. 

On the 9th December, 1886,* an Agreement was entered into 
between the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope and the Pondo 
Chief Umqikela, relating to the road to the St. John's Brirer 
Month ; the cession of Rode Territory ; the St. John's Biver 
Territory ; Xesibeland, &c. ; and the following is a copy of that 
Agreement : — 

''Unto all whom these presents shall come. Be it known 
and hereby made manifest that on this the 9 th day of December, 
in the year of onr Lord, 1886, the following articles of agree- 
ment have been made and entered into between "Walter Ernest 
Mortimer Stanford, Esq., in his capacity as Chief Magistrate of 
East Griqualand, and as such acting for and on behalf of the 
Government of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope of the first 
part, and the Chiefs "Sigcan," " Masipula," " Hamu," "Man- 
nndu," " Umhlangaso," and Josiah Jenkins (as their secretary), 
acting for and on behalf of the Pondo Chief Umquikela, his 
heirs, and successors, and on behalf of the Pondo nation of the 
second part: Witnesseth 

" Whereas differences have arisen between the said Colonial 
Government and the said Pondo Chief Umquikela, with refer- 
ence to the unsatisfactory condition of the border in the neigh- 
bourhood of Mount Ayliff and Mount Frere, the hindrance of 
traflBc through Eastern Pondoland, owing to the unwillingness 
felt by the Pondos for the construction of a road from East 
Griqualand to the port of St. John's, and as to the compensation 
about to be awarded them for the annexation of St. John's 
River territory and the Xesibe Country. Now, therefore, for 
finallly concluding and adjusting the same, it it is hereby agreed 
by the said Chiefs, acting for and on behalf of the said Chief 
Umquikela and the Pondo nation, as follows : — 

• H.T., vol. xvii, p. 50 ; S.P., vol. Ixxvii, p. 948. 
354. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo, 89] GEEAT BRITAIN (CAPE COLONY). [9 Dec, 1886. 

[Pondoland. .Bode Talley. St. John** River.] 

Mount Ayliffand Mount Frere DUtriets. 

*' 1. The said IJmqidkela, for bimBelf, his heirs, and suc- 
cessors, and on behalf of the Pondo nation, hereby undertakes 
to properly control the border of his territory in the neighbour- 
hood of Mount Ayliff and Mount Frere, to suppress stock or 
other thefts by foUomng up spoor, capturing thieves, and 
punishing them according to Pondo law, restoring stolen stock, 
to make compensation to owners, and further engages to hand 
over to the Colonial Government all thieves, other criminals, 
and suspects who may take refuge in Eastern Pondoland, and 
undertakes generally to promote the interests of justice and 
good order between the said Colonial Government and tbe 
Pondo nation. 

Boad through Eastern Fondoland to the Mouth of the 8t, John's 

Biver, 

^' 2. The said Umquikela, for himself, his heirs, and success- 
ors, and on behalf of the Pondo nation, hereby concedes to the 
Colonial Government the right to enter in, make, construct, and 
maintain the road through Eastern Pondoland to the mouth of 
the St. John's Biver, following the existing line as far as 
practicable, granting unto them all such outspans and grazing 
rights as may be required, and the free and undisturbed use of 
such road exempt of all tolls or other charges whatever. 

Cession of the Bode Territory to the Gape Colony. 

'' 3. The said Umquikela, for himself, his heirs, and success- 
ors, and on behalf of the Pondo nation, owing to existing com- 
plications between the Fingo headman Nota, and the Pondo resi- 
dents in that portion of his territory called the Bode, and in 
order to conclude the same, hereby cedes, assigns, transfers, 
and absolutely alienates for ever unto, and on behalf of, the 
said Colonial Government the said Bode, being all that piece of 
ground lying to the north and west of the main wagon road, 
from the Muceba to the wagon drift known as Venus or 
Dabulas on the ITnizimvubu Biver, the said wagon road to 

355 2 c 



Digitized by 



Google 



9 Dec, 1886.] aREAT BEITAIN (CAPE OOIiONY). [No. 89 

[Pondolaxid. Bode Valley. XMibelaiid.] 

constitute tlie bonndaiy, with tlie right to enter in, take posses- 
sion of, and govern the same for and in consideration of the 
payment bj the said Colonial Government to the said Umqnikela^ 
his heirs, or successors, of the sum of 6001, sterling. 

Payment to UmqutJcela for 8t. John^s Biver and Xesibe 
Territories, 

*' 4. The said Umqnikela, for himself, his heirs, or successors, 
and on behalf of the Pondo nation, hereby renounces all daim 
to any compensation he may have heretofore had to the 
territories known as St. John's Biver and Xesibeland in con- 
sideration of the payment to him, his heirs, or successors, of an 
annual subsidy of 200Z. sterling for St. John's territory, and 
a lump sum of 1,OOOZ. for Xesibeland. 

'* 5. The said Walter Ernest Mortimer Stanford, in his afore- 
said capacity, and acting for and on behalf of the Colonial 
Government, in order to promote the better control, good order, 
and administration of justice on the said border, hereby recipro- 
cates the several stipulations and conditions in Clause 1, herein- 
before agreed upon. 

" 6. For and in consideration of the cession of the Bode to 
the Colonial Government the said Walter Ernest Mortimer 
Stanford, in his aforesaid capacity, on behalf of the said Colonial 
Government, undertakes to pay the said Umquikela, his heirs, 
or successors, the sum of 600Z. ; for and in consideration of the 
renunciation by him of all claim against the Colonial Grovem- 
ment for the annexation of St. John's Biver territory, an annual 
subsidy of 200Z. sterling \ and for and in consideration of the 
renunciation of all claim against the Colonial Government for 
the annexation of Xesibeland, a lump sum of 1,000Z. sterling. 
In witness whereof, the said parties have hereunto set their 
hands at Ntola's kraal, in Eastern Pondoland, the day, month^ 
and year aforesaid, in the presence of the undersigned at 
witnesses." 

It was explained in a note that the word '' outspans " used in 
Clause 2 did not mean defined areas, but merely the use of 
pastarage, firewood, and water. 

356 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 89] GEEAT BMTAIN (CAPE COLONY). [29 July, 1887. 

[POBdoland. Bode Valley.] 

The above Agreement was confirmed by the British Govern- 
ment by a telegram dated 21st Jannary, 1887, and by a despatch 
dated 27th January, 1887. It was ratified and confirmed by 
the Chief XJmqikela, 10th Febmary, 1887, and was communi- 
cated to the German Government in May following. 

Bode Valley. Annexation to Cape Colony, 

On the 29th July, 1887,* Boyal Letters Patent were issued 
for the annexation to the Gape of Good Hope of the country 
situated between the distcicts of Mount Ayliff and Mount 
Frere, East Griqualand, and Eastern Pondoland, commonly 
called the Bode Valley. It ran as follows : — 

" Whereas it is expedient that certain territoiy in South 
Africa, commonly known as the Bode Valley, should be an- 
nexed to and form part of our Colony of the Cape of Good Hope : 

"And whereas the Legislative Council and House of 
Assembly of our said Colony have expressed their desire for such 
annexation, and have, on the 15th day of June, 1887, and the 
9th day of June, 1887, respectively, passed the following resoln* 
tion : — ' That in the opinion of this House it is expedient that 
ihe country situated between the districts of Mount AylifE and 
Mount Frere, East Griqualand, and Eastern Pondoland, com- 
monly called the Bode Valley, ceded to the Colonial Govern- 
ment by purchase by the Pondo Chief Umquikela, under the 
Treaty of the 9th December, 1886,t should be annexed to the 
Colony, and that the Government take such steps as may.be 
necessary to effect such annexation.' 

" Now we do, by these our Letters Patent under the Great 
Seal of our United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
authorise our Governor for the time being of our said Colony of 
ihe Gape of Good Hope, by proclamation under his hand and 
the public seal of the said Colony, to declare that, from and 
after a day to be therein mentioned, the said territory, or so 
much thereof as to him, after due consideration and consulta- 
tion with his Mim'sters, shall seem fit, shall be annexed to and 
form part of our said Colony. And we do hereby authorize 

♦ H.T., vol. XTii, p. 63 i S.P., rol. Irrriii, p. 1056. 
t Seep. 864. 

867 2 c 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



1878-1894.] aREAT BRITAIN (CAPE COLONY). [Ho. 80 

[Pondoland. Bode Valley. Walflseh Bay.] 

and direct oar said Governor to determine, and bj proclamation 
to signify, the limits of the said territory so annexed. 

" 2. And we do hereby direct our said Governor not to issue 
any saoh proclamation as aforesaid nnless the Legislature of our 
said Colony of the Cape of Good Hope shall have passed a law 
providing that the said territory shall, on the day aforesaid, 
become part of our said Colony, and subject to the laws in 
force therein : Provided always, that the application of the said 
laws to the said territory may be modified either by such pro- 
clamation as aforesaid, or by any law or laws to be from time 
to time passed by the Legislature of our said Colony for the 
government of the said territory so annexed." 

In the same year an Act was passed by the Government of 
the Cape of Good Hope (No. 45, 1887)* to provide for such 
annexation, and was assented to by an Order in Council, which 
was pashed on the 15th September, 1887.t 

British Sovereignty over Pondoland. 

On the 20th March, 1894, a Proclamation was issued by the 
High Commissioner for South Africa, declaring the sovereignty 
of Her Britannic Majesty over the territory of Pondoland, con- 
sisting of Eastern and Western Pondoland ; and on the 12th 
Jane it was announced in the ''London Gazette" that provision 
had been made for the annexation of Pondoland to the Cape 
Colony, which was notified to the German Govemm^t on the 
30th Judo, 1894. 

WaJfisch Bay, 

On the 12th March, 1878, the following Proclamation was 
issued, announcing that the Port or Settlement of Walfisch 
Bay had been taken possession of in the name of Her Britannic 
Majesty : — 

Pkoclamation by Richard Cossantine Dyer, Esquire, Staff- 
Cpmmander in command of Her Majesty's ship Industry, at 

• H.T., Tol. xvii, p. 62 J S.P., vol. IxxTin, p. 1044. 
t H.T,, Tol. XTii, p. 54. 

358 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo. 8»] GEEAT BBITAIN (CAPE COLONY). [12 Mar^ 1OT8. 

[Wallladh Bay.] 

present lying at anchor off the Port or Settlemenfc of 
Waiaflch Bay .• 

Whebias it 18 expedient that the Port or Settlemenfc of 
WAlfisch Bay, together with a certain portion of the territory 
Burronnding the same, shall be taken possession of on behalf of 
Her Britannic Majesty Qneen Victoria, and, subject to the 
pleasnre of Her Majesty in that behalf, be declared a Depend- 
ency of the United Kingdom of Oreat Britain and Ireland: 
Now, therefore, I, Richard Cossantine Dyer, the officer in com- 
mand of Her Majesty's ship Industry, at present lying at 
anchor off the said settlement, do, in the name of Her said 
Britannic Majesty, Qneen Victoria, take possession of the said 
port or settlement of Walfisch Bay, together with the territory 
hereinafter described and defined, in token whereof I have this 
day hoisted the British flag over the said port, settlement, and 
territory, and I do proclaim, declare, and make known that the 
sovereignty and dominion of Her said Britannic Majesty shall 
be and the same are hereby declared over the said port, settle- 
ment, and territory of Walfisch Bay ; and I do further proclaim, 
declare, and make known that the said territory of Walfisch 
Bay so taken possession of by me as aforesaid shall be bounded 
as follows : that is to say, on the south by a line from a point 
on the coast 15 miles south of Pelican Point to Scheppmansdorf ; 
on the east by a line from Scheppmansdorf to the Booibank, 
including the Plateau, and thence to 10 miles inland from the 
mouth of the Swakop River ; on the north by the last 10 miles 
of the course of the said Swakop River. 

This Proclamation of Her Majesty's sovereignty and dominion 
shall take effect forthwith, but shall be subject to Her Majesty's 
gracious confirmation and disallowance. 

Gh>d save the Queen ! 

Given under my hand and seal at Walfisch Bay, this 12tli 
day of March, 1878. 

RICHARD C. DYER, 

Staff' Commander in command. 

• H.T., Tol. x?ii, p. 23. 
259 



Digitized by 



Google 



1878-189CL] GREAT BRITAIN (CAPE COLONr). CNo. 80 

[Walflaoh Pay. OriqxuOand West.] 

This Proolamation was confirmed by Letters Patent^ 14th 
December, 1878 * 

On the 22nd Jnlj, 1884, an Act was passed bj the Ooyem- 
ment of the Cape of Oood Hope (No. 35 of 1884), " to provide 
for the annexation to that Colony of the Port or Settlement of 
Walfisch Bay, and of certain territories surroanding the 8ame."t 

On the 7th Angnst, 1884, a Proclamation was issued by 
tbe Goyemor of the Cape of Gk>od Hope, Ac, annexing Walfisch 
Bar to the Cape Colony, within the boundaries described in 
the Proclamation of 12th March, 1878 ;X and on the 18th De- 
cember following the British flag was hoisted.§ 

On the 5th September, 1884, || the (German Consul at Cape 
Town, officially notified to the (Joremor of the Cape Colony, 
that the South West Coast of Africa, from 26* south latitude up to 
Walfisch Bay, and from Walfisch Bay northward up to Cape Frio, 
had been placed under the protection of the German Empire, 
and that the German flag had been hoisted in Sandwich Har- 
bour, to the north of Walfisch Bay, and at Cape Frio, at which 
three places posts had been erected with the German colours. 
The German Government, however, on the 23rd of the same 
month, expressed their regret at this proceeding, which they 
stated wa« iri*egalar, as the German Government held firmly to 
the opinion that they entertained direct international afEairs 
only with the British Government itself and not with the 
Colonial Government. (See Gbbmant, p. 318.) 

On the 1st July, 1890, an Agreement was entered into 
between Great Britain and Germany, by which it was arranged 
(among other things) that the definition of the southern bound- 
ary of Walfisch Bay should be settled by a Joint Commission^ 
but this boundary has not yet been determined (July, 1894). 

Ortqualand We$t. 
In 1877, an Act of the Cape of Good Hope was passed 

• H.T., vol. XV, p. 516; S.P., vol. kx, p. 496. 
t H.T., vol. xvii, p. 23 ; S.P., voL Ixxv, p. 406. 
J H.T., vol. xvii, p. 1126 ; S.P., vol. Ixx 
§ H.T., vol. xvii, p. 1127. 
II S.P., vol. Ixxv, p. 649. 
860 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo. M] eSBAT BBXLMJS (CAPS OOLOKY). [1877—1881, 

[Oilq,iuaaiid Wa«t*] 

(No. 39 of 1877), znaikiiig provision for the annezation to the 
Colony of tbe Proyince of Griqualand West, within the bonn- 
dariefl fixed and determined in 1864i. This Act, which ran thus, 
was approved by an Order in Coancil on the 22nd Febraary, 
1878 .♦ 

^' Whereas it is expedient that the province of Griqnaland 
West should be annexed to, and form part of, the Colony of the 
Cape of Qood Hope, and that provision shonid be made by the 
Legislature of the said Colony for such annexation, and for the 
representation in the Parliament of the said Colony of the 
inhabitants of the said province, as hereinafter is provided : 

** Be it enacted by the Oovemor of the Cape of Good Hope, 
with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council and 
House of Assembly, as follows : — 

^ 2. From and after the taking effect of this Act, the said 

province of Oriqualand West, within the boundaries thereof as 

then (in 1864) fixed and determined, shall become annexed to, 

and thenceforth be portion of the Colony of, the Cape of Cood 

Hope. 

• • • • • 

" 33. This Act shall commence and take effect when and so 
soon as the Qoyemor, with the adrioe of the Execntive Council, 
shall, by Proclamationf published in the Government Gazette, 
declare and announce that all matters and things necessary to 
bo done and to happen in order to enable the said annexation 
to be completed and perfected have been done and happened. 

"34. This Act may be cited as 'The Griqualand West 
Annexation Act, 1877.* " 

On the 15th October, 1880, a Proclamation was issued by 
the Governor of the Cape of Good Hope, &o., announcing the 
annexation of the Province of Griqualand West to the Cape 
Colony, and a Notification 'of this annexation (dated 24ith 
January, 1881) was inserted in the *' London Gazette" of 25th 
January, 1881.$ 

• Proclaimed 15fch October, 1880. See H.T., yoL xt, p. 518. SJ?., 
Tol. Ixzi, p. 300. 

t H.T., Tol. XT, pp. 606—616 ; S.P., vol Ixix, pp. 106—106. 
t S.P., vol. Ixxii, p. 893. 

861 



Digitized by 



Google 



1875-1885.] GBBAT BBITUN (CAPE COLONY). [No. 89 

[Transktti; T«mbiilAiid, BcoiTAiuklMidy OftlakalMid, Ao.] 

TransJcei; Tembulandy Emigrant Temhvland^ Oalekaland^ and 
Bomvanaland, 

On the 2Sih October, 1875,* the Tembas were taken over 
by the Colonial Oovemment and became British subjects under 
certain conditions, which were agreed upon. 

On the 6th Augnst, 1880,t Letters Patent were issued for 
the annexation to the Gape Colony (under specified conditions) 
of certain British Possessions and Territories in the Transkei^ 
known as Tembuland, Emigrant Tembuland, Bomvanaland, and 
Oalekaland, but those Letters Patent were revoked by othera 
which were issued on the 2nd October, 18844 

On the 1st August, 1882, a Deed was signed by the para- 
mount Chief of the Tembu Tribe for the transfer to the Cape 
Government of certain lands and territories known as the 
European settlement at IJmtata.§ 

On the 13th July, 1885, || an Act was passed by the Cape 
Colony to provide for the annexation to that Colony of the 
above-mentioned territories; and on the 26th August following 
a Proclamation was issued declaring the territories to be so 
annexed. 

• S.P., ToL bcc, p. 827 ; H.T., toL xt, p. 859. 

t H.T., ToL XT, p. 867. 

t S.P., Tol. IxxTi, p. 191 ; H.T., Tol. XTii, p. 26. 

§ B.P., vol. IxxT, p. 401. 

II S.P., yoL IxzTi, p. 979; H.T., toL xTii, p. 81. 



862 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN 

(GAMBIA). 



\ 



\ Digitized by 

\ 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN (GAMBIA). 



LIST OF TREATIES, &c. 



1^0. Page 

"90 1783—1889.... Notes on the Gambia 365 



— 3 Sept., 1783. Treaty. • • . • Qreat Britain and France. Guaran- 

tee to Great Britain of Fort St. 
James (Albreda) and the Biyer 
Gktmbia 865 

— 1806 Deed Purchase of the Island of St. Mary 

by Great Britain • 365 

— 14 Apr., 1828 • • Deed. ..••••••.« Cession of the Island of Lemajn 

^ to Chreat Britain . . . • • 365 

— 16 June, 1826. • Treaty Barra. Cession to Great Britain 

of the Biyer Gtambia and of 
Territory on its right bank for 
1 mile inland. Beseryation of 
French Factory of Albreda. . . . 367 

— 19 June, 1826 • Add. Article Barra. Boundaries of French Fac- 

tory at Albreda 369 

-~ 29 May, 1827. • Treaty. Brekama. British Protection and 

Soyereignty. British Military 
Post opposite Island of Eayaye. 869 

«~ 4 June, 1827. • Treaty. • • • Combo. Cession to Great Britain 

of Island of St. Mary, and ad- 
joining Territory 370 

— 13 April, 1829 . Treaty Wooli. Cession of Fattatenda to 

Great Britain 371 

— 5 Jan., 1832. . Conyenlion Barra. Confirmation of Cession 

to Great Britain of Bight Bank 
of the Riyer Gambia for 1 mile 

inland. • 3/2 

— - 13 July, 1840. • Conyenlion. . • • • • Combo. Cession of Combo Terri- 
tory to Gbeat Britain 873 

— 23 April, 1841. Treaty Cartabar. British Protection. Ces- 

sion to Great Britain of 1 square 
mile of Territory 874 

— 18 Noy., 1850. Conyention Barra. Cession to Great Britain 

of Territory near Albreda. . • • • 374 
363 



Digitized by 



Google 



OBBAT BRITAIN (GAMBIA). 
[Iiist of Treaties, 4to.] 



No. 

90 26 Dec., 1850. • Conyention. 



— 24 Maj, 1868«« Oonrexition, 



— 19 Feb., 1866. • Letters Fbtent . . . 



25 July, 1887.. Treaty. 



— 15 Sept., 1887.. Treaty. 



881 



882 



— 17 Sept., 1887.. Treaty. 



— 19 Sept., 1887.. Treaty. 



11 Oct., 1887.. Treaty. 
14 Oct., 1888.. Treaty. 



— 28No7.,1888.. Letters Patent... 

— 10 Aug., 1889. . Arrangement . • • • 

— 8 May, 1893. • Joint Beport . . . . 

— AprU, 18^. Proclamation . . . . 



Pag» 

Combo. Extent of Territory ceded 
to Great Britain by Treaty of 
13th July, 1840 87» 

Combo. Cession of Portion of 
Combo Territory to Great 
Britain 880 

Union of the Ghunbia with Sierra 
Leone. (See Ghreat Britain and 
Sierra Leone) 881 

Betente. Cession to Great Britain. 
British SoTcreignty and Proteo- 
tion. 

Jolah. Cession to Great Britain. 
British SoTcreignty and Protec- 
tion. • • 

Tintang (in Fogni). Cession to 
Great Britain. British Botc- 
reignty and Protection. .....•• 382 

Central Kiang Country. Cession 
to Great Britain. British Sotc- 
reignty and Protection 38S 

Jarra. Cession to Great Britain . 88a 

Batelling (Central Kiang). Cession 
to Great Britain. British SoTc- 
reignty and Protection « . . 88S 

Erection of the Gambia into a 
Separate Colony 88a 

Great Britain and France. Limits 
of British Possessions on the 
Gambia defined. Art. I "and 
Annex II. (See Great Britain 
andFrance) • 384 

Commissioners. Position of Pan- 
chang and Niambuntang. (See 
Great Britain and France.) 

Annexation of Foreign Combo to 
the Gambia 384 



361. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 90] GREAT BRITAIN (GAMBIA). [14 Apr., 1823. 

[Island of Lemain.] 



No. QO.— Notes on the GAMBIA. 1783—1894 

On the 3rd September, 1783, a Treaty was concluded 
l)etween Great Britain and France, bj Article X of wbicb the 
King of the French gaaranteed to the King of Oreat Britain the 
possession of Fort James (Albreda) and of the Biver Oambia. 
(See Great Britain and France, p. 639.) 

In 1806, the Island of St. Marj, at the month of the Gambia, 
on which is situated the town of Bathnrst, was purchased bj 
the British Government. 

Island of Lemain, 

On the 14th April, 1823,* the following Deed was signed 
for the Cession to Great Britain of the Island of Lemain, near 
Xayee, in the River Gambia : — 

" Whereas Alexander Grant, Esquire, Major in His 
Majesty's 2nd West Indian Regiment, and Commandant of the 
British Settlement of St. Mary's, in the River Gambia, has 
been deputed by his Excellency Brigadier- General Sir Charles 
Macarthy, Captain- General and Governor- in- Chief in and over 
His Britannic Majesty's Possessions on the Western Coast of 
Africa, to treat with us for our Island of Lemaiu, situated in 
the River Gambia, near Kayee, and opposite to our Port of 
Junko Conda ; and whereas all sovereignty of the said Island 
at present lies in us, and has been handed down to us by our 
ancestors, and we having full power and authority to dispose of 
£he same, and being fully convinced of the pacific and just dis- 
position of the said Govemor-in-Chief and Major Grant, his 
deputy, acting for and on behalf of His Britannic Majesty, as 
also of the great reciprocal benefits which will result froiS a 
British Settlement being established in our neighbourhood, and 
withal being desirous of manifesting our distinguished affection 
and friendship for tbe King of Great Britain and his subjects : 

Do hereby, for and in consideration of 100 dollars value in 

• H.T., vol. xiT, p. 942. 
365 



Digitized by 



Google 



14 Apr., 1823.] GBBAT BBITAn^ (OAMBIA). [No. W 

[Island of Iiemain.] 

merchandise, to be well and tmly paid to na yearly and e very- 
year, and the valne of 10 dollars in merchandise, to be at the 
same time and in like manner paid to Wooda Maddy, onr- 
Alcaide, or our Alcaide for the time being, the first payment to 
commence and be made from the 1st of April in thin present 
year of the Christian era, 1823, and ever afterwards, by half- 
yearly instalments, that is, 55 dollars yalne iu merchandise on 
the 1st of October and Ist of April in each year, for ever cede 
and relinqnish, and do bind onrselves, our heirs and assigns, for- 
ever to cede and relinqnish, all claim, title, or property which 
we or or they have or might have had in the said Island, to the- 
Ejing of Great Britain and Ireland, his heirs and successors, for- 
ever. 

" And we do further, in consideration of the value of 50 
dollars in addition to the 110 above mentioned, to be well and 
truly paid yearly and every year, the first payment to be made 
on the 1st of April, 1824, abandon, relinquish, and for ever 
give up for onrselves, our heirs and successoi's, any claim we 
had for customs on Colonial vessels irading in the river from 
St. Mary's; and we further, in consideration of the above- 
mentioned sums of 110 and 50 dollars, in all amounting to 
160 dollars, bind and oblige ourselves, our heirs and successors,. 
as aforesaid, to protect by every means in our or their power^ 
all British vessels trading in the river, which are not as hereto- 
fore to be boarded by us or any of our subjects for the purpose 
ot extorting or asking any custom whatever, they having hence- 
forth and for ever, by virtue of this Treaty, full liberty of 
passing and re-passing our territories, without any hindrance 
or molestation of any kind whatever. 

" And we do further, by virtue of this Treaty, and being 
moreover convinced that the cultivating a good understanding . 
with the subjects of His Britannic Majesty will, under Provi- 
dence, be attended with the happiest consequences to us and our 
subjects, solemnly guarantee our protection to them and their 
property, either settling in or passing through any part of our 
dominions, as also protection and encouragement to all strangers 
or Native traders passing through our territories in order to 
trade with the subjects of His Britannic Majesty or otherwise, 

366 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 90] OBEAT BBITAIN (GAMBIA). [15 June, 1826. 

[River Oambia. Albreda.] 

and lastly, we bind and oblige ourselyes, onr heirs and sncces- 
sors, as aforesaid, ^ithfnlly and tmlj to abide bj and discbarge 
the articles of this Treaty nnder the penalty of forfeiting all 
the pecuniary advantages therein held forth. 

'' And to the purity and sincerity of our intentions in the 
''mntnal observance of the foregoing articles, we, the Contracting 
Parties, call the Omnipotent Ood of tmth and justice to 
witness. 

'* Signed, sealed, and delivered in the Commandant's tent on 
Lemain Island, in the presence of the witnesses who have here- 
unto signed their names, this 14th day of April, in the year of 
the Christian era one thousand eight hundred and twenty- 
three, and in the fourth year of the reign of our Most Gracious 
Sovereign Gteorge the Fourth." 

[Here follow signatures and marks.] 

Cession of the Biver Oamhia to Oreat Britain. 

On the 15th June, 1826,* a Convention was signed between 
the Acting Oovemor of Sierra Leone and the King of Barra 
and of the Biver Ghimbia, with his Chiefs and headmen, for 
the cession of the Gambia to Great Britain. 

It contained the following stipulations : — 

* * • • • 

" 2nd. The said Brunay, King of Barra, by and with the 
advice and consent of his Chiefs and headmen before named, 
cedes, transfers, and makes over to his Honour Kenneth Mac- 
aulay. Acting .Governor of Sierra Leone, and his successors, 
Governors of Sierra Leone for the time being, on the part and 
behalf of His Majesty the King of the United Kingdoms of 
Great Britain and Ireland, his heirs, and successors for ever, the 
full, entire, free, and unlimited right, title, sovereignty, and pos- 
session of the Biver Gambia, with all the branches, creeks, 
inlets, and waters of the same, as they have been held and pos- 
sessed by the Kings of Barra from time immemorial ; and the 
said Brunay, King of Barra, with the advice and consent of his 

• SJP., Tol. ilTiii, p. 882; H.T., vol. xii, p. B. See aUo Treaties, 6th 
January, 1832, p. 824, aod 18th November, 1850, p. 8S6. 

367 



Digitized by 



Google 



15 June, 182ej GREAT BBTTAIN (GAICBU). [No. 90 

[Albrada.] 

said Chiefs and headmen as aforesaid, does further cede and for 
ever relinquish all and every right, claim, or demand for 
' customs or duties of any description on British or other vessels 
entering or navigating the Biver Gambia, or any of the waters 
thereof (as have been formerly demanded and taken). 

French Vessels trading to AJhreda. 

''It being distinctly understood that this does not apply to 
French vessels trading to the factory of Albreda.* 

Cession to Cheat Britain of Territory on Eight Bank of fiiver 
Oamhia for one mile inland. 

''3rd. The said Brunay, King of Barra, by and with the 
advice and consent of the Chiefs and headmen aforesaid, cedes, 
transfers, and makes over unto his Honour Kenneth Macaulay, 
Acting Oovemor of Sierra Leone, and his successors, the 
Governors of Sierra Leone for the time being, on the part and 
behalf of His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, his heirs and successors, for ever, all 
that part of the northern or right bank of the Biver Gambia 
for one geographical mile inland, commencing at Bonyadoo 
Creekf on the west and extending to Jokadoo Creek on the 
east. 

Reservation of French Factory of Alhreda. 

'' Beserving only unto the said Brunay, King of Barra, and 
his successors, that portion of land at present occupied by the 
French at the factory of Albreda, the b'mits and boundary line 
of which is fixed and determined at the signing of this Treaty 
by persons duly appointed on the behalf of the Contracting 
Parties." 

4tb. — Anmud Payment of 400 Spanish Dollars to he made to 
the King of Barra and his Successors, 

5th. — Prohibiiirm against Transport or Shipm^ent of Slaves, 

* Coiifirmed 5th January, 1882. See " Bepoii, Africa, Weetern Coast, 
18G6, House of Commons Paper, Ko. 412," p. 844. 

t Bonjadoo Creek, now called Jannak Creek. H. T., Tol. xii, p. 7. 

368 



Digitized by 



Google 



N® 90] GREAT BRITAIN (aAMBIA). [29 May, 1827. 

[Brekaxna.] 

Boutidartes of French Factory at Albreda. 
On tlie 19th June, ]826,* the following Additional Article 
was signed to the Treatjr with Barra of I5th June, 1826, 
respecting the French Factorjr at Albreda. 

** Be it known that we, Branay, King of Banu, did, in pre- 
sence of our Chiefs and headmen, proceed from the town of 
Jillifree to the town of Albreda -with his Honour Kenneth 
Macaulay, Acting Governor of Sierra Leone, and did then and 
there mark out the boundaries of ground now occupied by the 
French as their comptoir or factory, and which is reserved to 
us in the annexed Treaty, the said piece of ground extending 
from a large tree on the east, named Sangee Baba to and there, 
on the west named Santo, being 400 yards in breadth, and 300 
yards in depth from the river side." 

British Protection and Sovereignty over Brekama, 
On the 29th May, 1827,t a Treaty was signed between Great 
Britain and Brekama, for placing the people of Brekama under 
British Protection and Sovereignty : — 

" The headmen and other inhabitants of the town and terri- 
tory of Brekama, having elected Farrin Tomba Gomba, their 
Eling, to i*ule over them according to their own usages, the 
said King, headmen, and inhabitants knowing their inability 
to carry this measure into execution (from their want of money 
and numbers in comparison to their extent of territory) hereby 
solicit His Majesty the King of Great Britain to take them 
under his prol43ction and sovereignty, which application being 
made to his Excellency Major-General Sir Neil Campbell, 
G.B., &c., Govemor-in-Chief of all the British Possessions on 
the Western Coast of Africa, Commander of the Forces, &c., 
by King Farrin Tomba Comba, his son, Jeno, and the head- 
man, Tomba Salang, accompanied by the Moros Beiungdarbo 
and Carsanessay, both of Eiiyaye." 

• S.P., vol. xlviii, p. 882 j H.T., vol. xii, p. 5, 
t S.P., vol. xlix, p. 701 ; H.T., toI. xii, p. 10. 

369 2 D 



Digitized by 



Google 



4 June, 1827.] aREAT BRITAIN (GAMBIA). [No. 90 

[Combo. St. Vary Island.] 

His Excellency, in behalf of His Majesty the King of Great 
Britain, his heirs and successors, engages to take the people of 
Brekama under the protection and sovereignty of (Jreat Britain 
•n the following conditions : — 

1. British Protection to he afforded by Great Britain to Bre- 

kama People against attacks of Native Powers, 

2. Non-purchase or sale of slaves. 

3. British Trade. 

4. Non-engagement in war without British consent. 

6. Non-interference of Great Britain with Lands, Houses, Pro* 
perty, or Beligion of Natives, nor with Domestic Servitude 
in Brekama. 

6. British confirmation of election of New Chiefs. 

British Military Post opposite to Island of Kay aye. 

7. They engage to give possession to the King of Great 

Britain of a secnre spot to be chosen by the British 
Commandant, for a military post opposite to the Island 
of Kayaye, and close to the river, with as much terri- 
tory adjoining as the artillery can reach from this port 
or any other place. On this spot the people of Brekama 
will build towns and make farms according to the regu- 
lations of the Biitish Commandant, and it will serve to 
lodge the troops and stores for their protection in case 
of war. 

8. Annual Presents to he made to Chiefs and People of 

Brekama. 

[Here follow Signatures and Marks.] 

Combo* 8t. Mary Island. 

On the 4tli June, 1827,* a Treaty was signed between thd 
Governor of the British Possessions on the West Coast of 
Africa, and the King of Cumbo, confirming the Cession to 
Great Britain of the Island of St. Mary's and adjoining 
territory, from which the following are extracts : — 

• H.T., Tol. xii, p. 11. 
370 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 90] GREAT BRITAIN (GAMBIA). [13 Apr., 1829. 

[Pattatanda. Combo. St. Xary laland.] 

Banjola and St Mary Islcmd. 

" The Treaty in which the Island of St. Mary's was formerly 
given np to the British Goyemmcnt not being forthcoming, it 
is hereby agreed : — 

" I. AhoUHon of Slave Trading, 

"II. That the Island of St. Mary's, the Cape, and the 
boundary bordering on other States to the southward and east- 
ward of Coomba shall be open for every branch of commerce 
between the subjects of His Majesty, tbe King of Great Britain, 
and the natives of Gumba or any other kingdoms. 

" III. That the Island of Banjola, now called St. Mary's, 
and the adjoining territory, may be possessed by the Govern- 
ment and subjects of Great Britain for building and making 
farms in such places as are not actually possessed by any other 
person at tbe time, arranging the boundaries witb the Alcaide 
of Baccow. 

"TV. Anntuxl Presents to he made to the King of Gomho, 

Fattatenda, 

On the 13th April, 1829, a Treaty was signed between 
Great Britain and the King of Wooli for the cession of 
Fattatenda to Great Britain, from which the following is an 
extract : — 

''2nd. The King of Wooli, in consideration of the sum to 
be received by him, hereafter mentioned (200 dollars in kind), 
agrees to grant His Britannic Majesty, his heirs and successors, 
for ever, full power and sovereignity over the said town of 
Fattatenda and 100 acres of land extending north, east, and 
west, it being expressly understood by all the parties to theso 
presents that the said town and lands are to be granted to His 
Britannic Majesty, his heirs and successors, to enable His 
Britannic Majesty's subjects to form a settlement and to erect 
houses and factories for the purpose of trade ; and the King of 
Wooli agrees and binds himself to afford protection at all times 
to His Britannic Majesty's subjects, their agents and property, 
within his dominions." 

371. ')v2 



Digitized by 



Google 



5 Ji«n., 1832J GKBAT BRITAIN (GAMBIA). [No. 90 

[ Jlierlit Bank of Biver Oambia.] 

River Gambia. Gession of Territory on Bight Bank for one mile 

iyiland. 

On fcho ofch January, 1832,* a fresh Convention was concluded 
between Great Britain and Barra by which the cession of 
territory on the right bank of the River Gambia, by the Treaty 
of 15th Jane, 1826,t was thns ratified and confirmed: — 

** Whereas a cruel and nnjust war has been waged against 
the subjects of H is Majesty the King of Great Britain by the 
King, Chiefs, and people of Barra, in violation of the Con- 
vention of Peace and Amity, signed at Jellifree on the 15th 
day of Juno, in the year of the Christian era 1826, and the 
King, Chiefs, and people of Barra having publicly declared 
their sorrow for the outrages they have committed, and given 
their solemn promise never to offend again, the Lieatenant- 
Govemor of Bathurst and its Dependencies agrees, on behalf 
of His Britannic Majesty, to grant once more peace and friend- 
ship upon the following conditionp, viz. : — 

" 1. That the King of Barra, first, shall deliver up to the 
Lientenant-Gbvei'nor of Bathurst hostages for the good faith 
of himself and his people, to be from among the royal families 
of Barra. 

'*2. That the King, Chiefs, and people of Barra shall 
again ratify and confirm the f onrth clause of the Treaty of 
Jellifree, whereby they ceded, transferred, and made over unto 
His Majesty the King of Otreat Britain and Ireland, his heirs 
and snccessors, for ever, all that part of the northern or right 
bank of the Eiver Gambia for one geographical mile, inland, 
commencing at Banjallad or Creek on the west, and extending to 
Jacado Creek on the east (reserving only unto the said Bmnaji 
King of Barra, and his snccessors, that portion of land at 
present occupied by the French as the Factory of Albreda), the 
same light being now extended from Jocado Creek to the 
Atlantic Ocean /'^ 

* H.T., Tol. xTii, p. 1128. 
t Page 367* 

t 8.P., yol. xlviii, p. 887. 
372 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 90] GBFAT BRITAIN (GAMBIA). [18 July, 1840. 

[Oombo.] 

Cession by Combo of certain Territories to Qreat Britain, 

On the 13th Juij, 1840, a Coayentiou was signed between 
the Lieutenant- Governor of the British Settlements on the 
Gambia and Soalong Jarta, King of Combo, for the cession of 
certain tcrritoiy to Her Majesty. It ran as follows : — 

*' Whereas the said Lieutenant-Governor Huntley has 
treated with the said King of Combo for the territory herein- 
after described, viz., from the north point of the west side of 
the Oyster Creek to Cape St. Mary, then south-westerly from 
that cape, following the beach five miles, aud from the termina- 
tion of the said fire miles in an east by south (trno course) 
direction^ until entering the Eiver Gambia, then following the 
line of the Combo shore until again reaching the north point of 
the Oyster Creek aforesaid, including the whole of the country 
within the aboTe-mentioned limits ; 

"And whereas all sovereignty of the before-specified ter- 
ritory is now vested in the said King of Combo, and has 
descended to him from his ancestors, and the said King of 
Combo haying fall power to dispose of the same, and being 
well assured of the pacific, just, and friendly disposition of the 
said Lieutenant-Goyernor, acting on behalf of Her Majesty the 
Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, and being mo^eoyer fully 
sensible of the benefits to be deriyed fi*om the promulgation 
of British Christian principles, doth, in furtherance of that 
object, and in consideration of the sum of 100 dollars in mer- 
chandise, paid to him before the signing and sealing of these 
presents, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, ced« and 
relinquish to Her Britannic Majesty, her heirs and successors, 
for eyer, all claim, title, and right to the sovereignty of the ter- 
ritory hereinbefore described, as well for himself ns for and on 
behalf of his heirs and successors: Provided alvvajs, that the 
different individuals at present in possession of property of any 
description within the limits hereinbefore specified, shall in 
nowise be disturbed in the enjoyment of the same by any of the 
provisions of this Convention." 

• n.T., vol. xii, p. 2U; S.P., vol. xlvlii, p. 888; vol. Ivii, p. 834, 
t See aUo Treaty, 18th November, 1850, p. 374» 

373 



Digitized by 



Google 



23 Apr,, 18il,] GBEAT BRITAIN (aAMLBU). [No, 90 

[Oartabar. Territory near Albr«da.] 

This Convention was confirmed on tlie 9lih November, 1840 ; 
but it was amended by a Treaty signed on the 26th December, 
1850, p. 378. 

Cession by Cartaha',' to Great Britain of one square mile of 
Territory, 

On the 23rd April, 1841, a Treaty was signed between the 
Lieutenant-Governor of the British Settlement on the Gambia 
and the King of Cartabar, to which Additional Articles were 
attached, whereby he acknowledged Her Majesty to be the pro- 
tecting Sovereign of his country in the following terms : — 

** Art. I. The King of Cartabar, seoing that he is nnable of 
himself to prevent the incursions of neighbouring ill-diBposed 
Chiefs delighting only in war, and who have heretofore annually 
ravaged his country, carrying off his people as slaves, the 
cattle and produce, now and for ever places the country of 
Cartabar under the sole protection of the Sovereign of England, 
and he begs that Her Majesty Victoria I, Queen of England, 
may become, in her own Royal person, and for her heirs and 
successors, the protecting Sovereign of the Cartabar country ; 
and the King of Cartabar freely cedes for ever to the Queen of 
England, her hoirs and successors, one square mile of land in 
such part of his country as shall be pointed out by the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of the British Settlements on the Gambia, or 
other officer authorized to do so. 

'* II. The King of Cartabar agrees that he will not enter into 
any alliance, negotiation, or conlmunication of any political 
nature whatever, with any Power in the world, without the 
knowledge and consent of the Queen of England, and the King 
of Cartabar declares the whole of the annexed Treaty, and 
these two Additional Articles, to be binding equally to himself 
as to bis heirs and successors for ever.'* 

Cession to Great Britain of Territory near Albreda, 

On the 18th November, 1850,* a Convention was concluded 
between the Government of the British Settlements in the 
♦ H.T., vol. xii, p. 44. 

• 374 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 90] GBBAT BRITAIN (aAMBU). [18 Nov., X860. 

[Territory near Albreda.] 

Gambia and Dembar Sonko, King of Barra, and others, for the 
cession to Great Britain of territory at or neax Albreda. It 
contained the following stipulations — 

"Whereas, on the 15th day of Jnnc, in the year of the 
Christian era 1826, a Convention was made bstween his 
Honour Kenneth Macaulay, Acting Governor of Sierra Leone 
and its Dependencies, of the one part ; and Brnnay, King of 
Barra, and his Chiefs and headmen of the other part (p. 
367) ; and whereas, by Article III of the said Convention, the 
sovereignty of the northern or right bank of the said River 
Gtimbia was ceded to His Majesty the King of Great Britain 
and Ireland, his heirs and successors, as in the Convention is 
more particularly set forth ; and whereas, by the said Conven- 
tion, and also by the Additional Article to the said Convention, 
there was excepted from the territory, whereof the sovei'eignty 
had been ceded to His Majesty the King of Great Britain and 
Ireland as aforesaid, a piece of ground near Albreda, on the 
banks of the said River Gambia, which said piece of ground 
then supposed to be occupied by French subjects, and to 
extend 400 yards in breadth and 300 yards in depth, from the 
north bank of the said River Gambia. And whereas a Conven- 
tion was made on the 6th day of January, in the year of 
the Christian era 1832, between his Excellency George 
Rendell, on behalf of His Majesty the King of Great Britain, 
his heirs and successors, of the one part ; and Brunay, King of 
Barra, his Chiefs, and people, of the other part (p. 372) ; and 
whereas by Article II of the said last-recited Convention, the 
sovereignty of the right bank of the River Gambia was con- 
firmed to the King of Great Britain, his heirs and su3cessors, 
with the exception of that portion which was then occupied by 
the French as the factory of Albreda ; and whereas doubts have 
arisen as to the extent of ground which French subjects are 
entitled to occupy at Albreda ; and whereas no provision has 
hitherto been made as to the right of sovereignty over any 
portion of the said hereinbefore-mentioned space of 400 yards 
by 300 ysrds, in the event of any portion of the said space not 
being occupied by French subjects, or being occupied by French 

375 



Digitized by 



Google 



18 Nov,, 1850.] GREAT BRITAIN (aAMBIA). [Ho. 90 

[Torrltory near Albrela.] 

subjects wrongfuUj". Now, therefore, this Convention wit- 
nesseth, that in consideration of his friendship for the Queen 
-of Great Britain, her heirs and successors, and also in con- 
sideration of the sum of 5Z. paid before the signing and delivery 
of these presents, the said Dembar Sonko, for himself, his 
heirs and successors, and the said Amodo Talli, the said Era 
Sonko, and Mahmoudi Sankoora cede and quit claim to all 
right of sovereignty, and all right of property and claims what- 
soever in and to any portion of the hereinbefore-mentioned 
space of 4f00 yards by 300 yards, and in all ground heretofore 
occupied or claimed by any French subjects or citizens, in or 
near to Albreda as aforesaid ; and the said Dembar Sonko doth 
for himself, his heirs and successors, absolutely cede and relin- 
quish to the said Queen of England, her heirs and successors, 
all right and claim of sovereignty of himself the said Dembar 
Sonko, his heirs and successors, over the said reserved spaoe of 
400 yards by 300 yards in the said hereinbefore-recited Con- 
ventions more particularly mentioned and described. Provided 
nevertheless that no just rights of French subjects or citizens, 
or of the French Government, in or to any portion of the said 
reserved spaoe of 400 yards by 300, shall be in any manner 
ceded or diminished by this Convention, or any part thereof. 

Cession to Oreat Britain of Territory near Albreda* 

The following Deed of Cession and Conveyance was at the 
same time (18th November, 1850) signed by the King of Barra 
and the Alcade of Jillifree :— 

To all to whom these presents shall come, I, Demb&r Sonko, 
King of Barra, and I, Amodo Talli, Alcade of Jillifree, send 
greeting : 

Whereas with the advice and consent of the Chiefs and 
headmen of Barra, we have agreed respectively with Richard 
Graves MacDonnell, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the 
British Settlements in the Gambia, and his successors, acting 
Cor and on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain 
and Ireland, and her heirs and successors, to convey, bargain, 
and sell give and ^rant, on the part of ourselves and our sue* 

376 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 90] aEEAT BEITAIN (GAMBIA). [18 NoV., 1850. 

[Tenltory near Albreda.] 

ccssors, and of the Chiefs and headmen of the said Kingdom of 
Barra, to the said Kichard Graves MacDonnell, and his succes- 
sors, for and to the sole nse of her said Majesty, her heirs, 
successors^ and assigns, all right, property, and title in or to the 
hereditaments and lands hereinafter more particularly de- 
scribed ; now, therefore, in pursuance of the said Agreement, 
and in consideration of the sum of 100 dollars paid to me the 
above-mentioned Dembar Sonko, and of the further sum of 200 
dollars paid to me the above-mentioned Amodo Talli, Alcade of 
Jillifree, the receipt of which several sums immediately before 
the scaling and delivery of these presents is hereby acknow- 
ledged, and in consideration of the further sum of lOZ. sterling 
to be paid to us at or immediately after the signing and 
delivery of these presents, I, the said Dembar Sonko, and the 
said Amodo Talli, do hereby convey, bargain and sell, give and 
grant to the said Kichard Graves MacDonnell and his succes- 
sors, all that piece of land immediately adjoining the western 
boundaiy of the French factory at Albreda, and bounded on the 
east (as shown in the Plan marked A hereunto annexed*) by a line 
400 yards in length, and drawn north by south, through a point 
six toises west of the western extremity of the southern wall of 
the house formerly occupied by the French Resident of 
Albreda, and bounded on the west by a line 400 yards in length, 
and drawn parallel to the aforesaid lino, running north and 
south as hereinbefore more particularly set forth, and distant 
1,000 yards from the said line so running as aforesaid north 
and south, and bounded on the north by a line connecting the 
northern extremities of the eastern and western boundaries 
respectively, that is to say, of the northern extremities of the 
two parallel lines afovesaid, and bounded on the south by low- 
water mark, on the beach of the River Gaonbia, ta have and to 
hold the said piece or parcel of land, and the said heredita- 
ments, with their appurtenances, to the use of Her Majesty the 
toid Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, her heirs, successors, 
and assigns for ever ; and we, the said Dembar Sonko, and the 
said Amodo Talli, Alcade of Jillifree, fur ourselves, our heirs, 
and successors, and on the part of tlie headmen and Chiefs of 

• Nofc given. 

377 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 Deo., 1850.] GREAT BBITAIN (GAMBU). [Mo. 90 

[Oombo.] 

Barra respectivelj, tlie parcels, lands, and hereditaments, with 
their appurtenances, hereby bargained and sold, given and 
granted, will for ever warrant and defend against all persons 
whomsoever. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and 
seals, this I8th day of November, in the year of the Christian 
6ra, 1850, at Government House, in the British Settlements of 
Bathorst. 

(Signature in Arabic) KINO OF BABBA. 

ALCADB OF JILLIFRBE. 
RICHARD GRAVES MacDONNBLL, 

Oovemar and Oommander-'in- Chief, 
And several other signatures. 

This Convention was confirmed on the 20th March, 1851. 

Tetritory ceded by Combo to Great Britain. 

On the 26th December, 1850,* a Convention containing the 
following stipulation was concluded between the Gbvemor of 
the British Settlement ia the Gambia and the King and Chiefs 
of Combo and the Headmen of Baccon,in the Kingdom of Combo, 
making the following arrangements with regai-d to the cession 
of certain lands and territories in lieu of those made by the 
Convention of 13th July, 1840 (p. 373) :— 

*' Whereas the aforesaid Contracting Parties hereto have 
agreed for the considerations hereinafter mentioned to make 
this Convention ; and whereas the sovereignty of certain lands 
and territories in the Kingdom of Combo were ceded to the 
Queen of Great Britain and Ireland by a Convention or deed in 
writing, dated 13th July, 1840, and made between Henry 
Vere Huntley, then Lieutenant-Governor of the British settle- 
ments in the River (rambia, and Soulong Jarta, King of Combo 
(p. 373), and whereas the fee-simple and property in certain of 
the lands in the neighboarhood of Baccon aforesaid was con- 
veyed to the use of her said Majesty by an indenture, bearing 

• S.P., vol. xlviii, p. 894; H.T., vol. xii, p. 47. 
378 



Digitized'by 



Google 



Mo. 00] GREAT BRITAIN (GAMBIA). [DeC. 36, 1850. 

[Oombo.] 

date the 24th day of Jaly, in the year 1840, and made between 
Mujabo Seesse and Amadee fianjole,. both of Baccon, of the 
first par.t, and the said Henry Yere Huntley of the second part ; 
and whereas donbts have arisen as to the extent of territory 
granted to her said Majesty by the said Convention, and by the 
said indentore ; and whereas the seyeral parties to this Con- 
vention being desirous of terminating all such donbts, and 
defining more accurately the ground and territory intended to 
be ceded to her said Majesty, appointed Commissioners on the 
part of her said Majesty, Daniel Robertson, Esq., Colonial Secre* 
tary; William Bage, Esq., Colonel, Engineers; and Thomas 
Kehoe, StafE Surgeon, 2nd Class ; and on the part of the King 
of Combo, and the people of Combo, John James Staples 
Finden, Esq., Major Commanding the Royal Gambia Militia ; 
Majabo Cesey, Ansumama Oesey (Alcade of Mandinary), Fody 
ApiynTOA.mn. Munang, and the said Commissioners proceeded on 
the 26th of the present month to view the ground and territory 
hereby intended to be ceded as aforesaid, and did mark out and 
desig^te accurately the said ground and territory. Now, there- 
fore, it is agreed between the several parties to this Conven- 
tion ; first, that in lieu of and instead of any ground heretofore 
ceded by the Conyention and by the indenture hereinbefore 
recited, the absolute sovereignty and entire property, and the 
fee-simple of the ground and territory marked out by the Com- 
missioners aforesaid, shall be hereby given, grantedi and ceded 
to her said Majesty, her heirs and successors, for over, saving 
and excepting any right of property acquired by any parties 
in any portion of the said ground or territory previous to the 
signing of this Convention. 

LimitB of ceded Territory to he defined. 

<< 2ndly. That the said Richard Grayes MacDonnell, or the 
officer administering the Government of the British Settlements 
in the Gambia, shall appoint one or more competent persons to 
make a map of the said ground and territory hereby intended 
to be given, granted, and ceded, as aforesaid, and shall cause 
proper land-marks to be fixed on the said ground the better to 

379 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 May, 1853J CJIIEAT BRITAIN (GAMBIA). [No. 90 

[Combo.] 

define its limits, and shall give to the said Ansnmarna Jarta 
copies of any maps so made as aforesaid, and the said land- 
marks so erected as aforesaid shall be on all occasions referred 
to for the purpose of determining all disputes which may arise in 
reference to the said ground or territory hereby intended to be 
ceded as aforesaid. 

Boad may be made from Ferry at Sarah to Territory ceded, 

"3rdly. Tltat the said Biohard Graves MacDonnell, or the 
oMcer administering the G-overnment for the time being of the 
said British Settlements in the Gambia, may at any time after 
the signing of this Convention make, or cauzie to be made, a 
road, not exceeding 20 yards in breadth, from the ferry at 
Sarah, opposite the Island of St. Mary's, to any part of the 
said ground or territory hereby intended to be ceded as afore- 
said; provided that the said road shall not encroach on any 
dwelling-house erected in any part of the Combo territory pre- 
vious to the signing of this Convention. 

4thly. 302. to he paid to King and owners of ground cededj cu 
well as merchandise of value of lOL 

5thly* 102. to he paid annwsUy to King of Covfibo^ and lOZ. to 
headmen of Baccon. 

6th]y. Customs and rents due to King of Combo to he paid in 
future to Oovemor of British Settlements in the Oamibia, 

This Convention was confirmed on the 26th February, 1851.* 

Cession of British Combo to Great Britain. 

On the 24th May, 1853,t another Convention was concluded 
between the Governor of the British Settlements on the 
Gambia and King Salatti and the Chiefs of Combo, by which 
a further tract of country of considerable extent adjoining 
Cape St. Mary, and now known as British Combo, was ceded 
to Great Britain. The following are exti^acts from that Con- 
vention :— 

" Whereas disturbances have occurred in the said Kingdom 
of Combo, and continued therein for several years, by reason of 

• S.P., vol. xlviii, p. 894. 
t S.P., vol. xlviii, p. 899 ; H.T., vol. xii, 80. 
«80 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 90] GREAT BRITAIN (GAMBIA). [27 July, 1887. 

[Gambia.} 

wbioh the said kingdom as well as Her Majesty's said settle- 
ment have sustained mucli injury, and a portion of the said- 
kingdom has been withdrawn fron the allegiance to the said 
King. 

''And whereas the said King has offered to cede to Her 
Majesty the Queen of England that portion of his said Kingdom 
to Combo from the mouth of Sabijee Creek in a straight line to 
a point Bitaated 1 mile south of Sabijee, and extending to 
a point situated on the seashore 2 miles north of the t^wn of 
Bijulo, and bounded on the other sides by the Fea, in considera- 
tion of his receiving the aid of the Governor of the said settle- 
ment to effect on his behalf a termination of those disturbances 
at Sabijee. 

" It is agreed upon' as follows : 

'' Ist. The King of Combo shall, upon a day to be fixed and 

appointed for that purpose by tho said Governor, cede and 

deliver up to the said Governor, or his accredited agent, for and 

on behalf of the Queen of England, the aforesaid portion of his 

territory to hold to her said Majesty, her heirs and successors 

for ever." 

Portendtc and AJhreda, 

On the 7th March, 1857, a Convention was concluded be- 
tween Ghreat Britain and France relative to Portendic and 
Albreda. (See Great Britain and France, p. 544.) 

Union of the Oambta with Sierra Leone, 
On the i9th February, 1866, Letters Patent were issued for 
uniting the Colony of Sierra Leone together with the forts and 
settlements on the West Coast of Africa (Gambia, Gk)ld Coast, 
and Lagos) under one Commander-in-Chief, and for providing 
for the government thereof;* but these Letters Patent were 
revoked on the 17th December, 1874.t (See Great Britain 
(Sierra Leone), p. 513.) 

Betente* 

On the 25th July, 1887, the Emir of Betente ceded to Her 
Britannic Majesty the full sovereignty and possession of all sucL 

• S.P., vol. lix, p. 119*. 

t H.T.,Tol.xT,p. 531. See also Letters Patent, 17th Jane, 18a5,p. S25; 

381 



Digitized by 



Google 



17 Sept., 1887.] ^REAT BRITAIN (GAMBIA). [No. 90 

[OambU.] 

parts of his kingdom and teri-itories as might not already have 
been by Treaty or otherwise acquired by Great Britain. 

This Treaty was acquiesced in by Chiefs suboi*dinate to the 
Emir who were not present when the Deed of Cession was 
signed. 

Jolah, 

On the 15th September, 1887, the Kings of sixteen towns 
and districts in the Jolah Country went to Kansallah to meet 
the Governor of the West Africa Settlements, when they signed 
a document in which they repeated their request to Her 
Britannic Majesty to accept the sovereignty of the whole Jolah 
country, and to take the Jolah people under her protection, and 
begged the Governor not to leave without hoisting the British 
flag at Kansallah that day, stating that they desired to receive 
it, and that Kansallah was on their own ground in the Jolah 
Country, and belonged to the Woorambang, and that no one had 
any right there but themselves. 

Fogni. 

On the same day, these same Eangs signed a Treaty with the 
Governor of the West Africa Settlements, at Elansallah, '* in the 
Fogni Country," by which they engaged, among other things, 
not to cede any of their territory to any other Power than 
England, or enter into any Agreement^ Treaty, or Arrangement 
with any foreign Government except through and with the 
consent of the British Government. 

Vtntang IHstncL 

On the 17th September, 1887, the Chief and Almany of 
Vintang, in Fogni, signed a Treaty with the Government of 
West Africa Settlements to the same effect; and by another 
document the Chief requested Her Majesty the Queen to accept 
the sovereignty of the whole Yintang District and to take it under 
her protection, and the Governor was earnestly begged not to 
leave Yintang until he had hoisted the British flag there that 
day. 

382 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 90] aBEAT BBITAIN (aAMBIA). [28 NoV., 1888. 

[Gambia.] 

Central Kiang. 

On the 19tb September, 1887, a similar Treaty was signed at 
Qninalla, in Central Kiang Country, and a similar document 
signed by the King of Central Kiang and otbers, requesting 
Her Majesty the Queen to accept the sovereignty of the -whole 
Central Kiang Country and to take it under her protection, and 
earnestly requesting the Governor not to leave without hoisting 
the British flag at Tendabar, Bambako, and Mandina that day, 
stating that these places were all on ground in the Central 
Kiang Country. 

Jarra. 

On the 11th October, 1887, a similar Treaty was entered into 
-with the King of Jarra, and a similar document was signed by 
the Kingi his Headmen and people requesting Her I^jesty to 
accept the sovereignty of the -v^hole Jarry Country, and to take 
it under her protection, and earnestly requesting the Governor 
not to leave without hoisting the British flag that day at Bai, 
in the Jarra Country. 

Central Kiang (Batelling). 

On the 14th October, 1888, a Treaty was signed by Prince 
Mansah Cotto, of Batelling, Independent Chief of a portion of 
Central Kiang, accepting the provisions of the Treaty made 
with the King of Central Kiang on the 19th September, 1887. 

Colony of the Oambia, 

On the 28th November, 1888,* Letters Patent were issued 
revoking the Letters Patent of 17th June, 1885, and 11th 
October, 1887, and declaring the Settlement of the Gambia 
to be erected into a separate Colony, to be called the Colony 
of the Gambia, and announcing that the Colony comprised all 
places, settlements, or territories which might at any time 
belong to Her Majesty in Western Africa between 12^ and 
15'' of north latitude and lying to the westward of the 10* of 
west longitude. 

• H.T., Toi. xviii, p. 168. 
383 



Digitized by 



Google 



10th Aug., 1889.] GREAT BRITAIN (GAMBIA). [No. 90 

[Qambia.] 

British and French Limits, 

On the lOfch August, 1889, an Arrangement was concluded 
between the British and French Qovernments, bj Articles I and 
II of which the limiis of the British Possessions in Senegambia 
were defined. (See Great Britain and France, p. 568.) 

Panchang and Niamhuntafig, 

On the 8th May, 1893, a Joint Report was made by British 
and French Commissioners as to the position of Panchang and 
Niambuntang. (See Great Britain and France, p. 588.) 

Foreign Combo, 
In April, 1894, a Proclamation was issued announcing the 
annexation of Foreign Combo to the Gambia. 



864 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN 

(IMPEBIAL BRITISH BAST AFRICA COMPAlTr 
(« IBEA ").) 



(Sek BRITISH BAST AFRICA COMPANY.) 



2t 



Digitized by 



Google 






Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN 

(GOLD COAST). 



2 > 2' 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



GEEAT BRITAIN (GOLD COAST). 



LIST OF TREATIES, &c. 



Na. Page 

QL 1831—1893 Notes on the Gold Coast 388 



— 27 April, 1831 Treaty ...«..• Kings of Asliantee, &c, Kenan- 

ciation of Tribute from Slings 

of Daikara and others 388 

— SO March, I860.... Oath Akropong. Fealty to British 

Cro?m....... 888 

•— 17 Aug., 1850 Gonyention • . • Great Britain and Denmark. 

Cession of Danish Forts on 
Gold Coast. (See Denmark.) 388 

— 17 June, 1858 Oath Krepee. British Allegianoe ... • 388 

— Not., 1864 Oath Aocoonfee. British Allegiance. • 388 

— 19 Feb., 1866 Letters Patent Union with Sierra Leone of Forts 

and Settlements on West Coast 
of Africa. (See Great Britain 
and Sierra Leone.) [Altered 
bj Letters Patent of 17th Dec., 
1874. 

"- 6 March, 1867 .... Gonyention . • • Great Britain and Netherlands. 

Interchange of Territory on 
the Gold Coast. (See Great 
Britain and Netherlands.) .... 389 

— - 80 Not., 1868 Treaty Awoonah and Addah. Volta 

Biyer 389 

— 26 Feb., 1871 Conyention . . • Great Britain and Netherlands. 

* Sale and Transfer to Great 

Britain of Dutch Possessions 
on the Gold Coast. (See 
Great Britain and Nether- 
lands.); 

»*- 18—14 Feb., 1874. Treaty Ashantee. Benunciation of Su- 
premacy oyer Elmina, &o 390 

•^ March, 1874 Engagements. • Appolonia, &c. Obedience to 

British Laws, &c 390 

— 22 June, 1874 • • • Treaty Awoonah, Jellah-Coff ee, Quittah, 

&c. British Occupation 391 

— 24 July, 187 '« i . • Letters Patent. Gold Coast and lAgos one Colony 891 

385 



Digitized by 



Google 



GEEAT BBITAIN (GOLD COAST). 

(List of Treaties, 4kc.) 
No. Page- 

— 6 Aug., 1874 Order in C.,«. British Jurisdiction in adjacent 

TemtorioB 392- 

— 24 Sept., 1879 Proyisional ^atanu. BritiBli Protection 392* 

Agreement. 

— 1 Dec, 1879 Provisional Afflowhoo. Cession to Great Bri- 

Agreement tain of Seaboard with 1 mile 

inland 393^ 

— 2 Dec., 1879 Agreement. . . . Agbosom^. British Jurisdiction 

over Seaboard, &c 393 

-« t( Dec, 1879 Agreement. . . • Afflowhoo. British Jurisdiction 

over Seaboard,- &c 394- 

— 25 Sept., 1884 Preliminary Little Popo. British Protection. 

IVeaty. (See Great Britain and Ger- 
many) 394 

— April — June, 1885. Exchange of G^eat Britain and Germany. 

Notes. Spheres of Action. Rio del 

Rey,&c 894- 

— 12Kov.,1885 Treaty Krikor. Cession to Great Britain. 395* 

— 13 Jan., 1886 ..... Order in 0. . . • Gold Coast Settlements. Separate 

Colony 896- 

— 27Ju]y,1886 Treaty - Aqnamoo (Volta District). In- 

corporation with Gt>ld Coast 
Colony.^.... 3S^ 

— 12 Aug., 1886 ..... Treaty Aggravie. (Left bank of Yolta 

Biver). Cession to Gb-eat 
Britain 396 

— July — ^Aug., 1896. . Exchange of Great Britain and Germany. 

Notes. Spheres of Action. Bio del 

Bey, &c 395^ 

— 4 Sept., 1886...... Treaty Battor, &c. (Left bank of Volta 

Biver). Cession to Gbeat 
Britain 897 

"" ^OOct I88fi iTreRtv fCrepee. Incorporation with Gold 

■^ fv 1^ I ^ 1 Coast. British Protection,... 897 

— 18Feb.,1887 Treaty Schwhi. British Protection * 

— 9 May, 1887 Declaration... Aquamoo. (Volta District). 

British Protection 897" 

— 80 July, 1687 Declaration. . • 6kima and Bontuka. Allegiance 

to British Crown 398- 

— 29 Dec, 1887. • • • . • Order in C. . . British Jurisdiction in Terri- 

tories adjacent to Gold Coast 

Colony •. 898 

-^ 6 May, 1688 Treaty Q.uahoo. British Protection. .. 898 

— 2 June, 1888 Declaration. . . • Ketoku. Insuaim Ferry. Berim 

Biver. Cession to Great Bri- 
tain •,• ».... 398"" 



Digitized by 



Google 



OBJIitT BBlXAinr (OOBD COABT). 



to) 



No. 

— 3 Julj, 1888 Declaration. • • 

— 3Jul7,Id88 DeolMBtiOB. .. 

— 3 July, 1888 Declaration. . • 

— 3 Julj, 1888 Declaration. , . 

— 10 Aug., 1889 ArrangeiiMnl. 

— 1 July, 1890 Arrangement. 

^ 26 June, 1891 • • . . • ArrangWBent. 

— 12 July, 1893. . • • « • AnangraMnl. 



Page 
Agotine (Crepee). Allegiance to 

British Crown 899 

Anum and Buem. Be^ltj to 

British Crown 399 

Crepee. British Protection . . . • 399 
Adaklu,&c* (Crepee). Allegiance 

to Head King 40^ 

Greftt Britain and Fxancck 

Spheres of In&uenca. Oee* 

Chreat Britain and France.) 
Great Britain and Germanj. 

SphMree of Biflueneeu (Sie 

QreaA Britain and G-einanj.); 
Gkreat Britain and FnneeL. 

Spheres of Influence. (See 

Great Britain and France.) 
Boandsry. British and F r e — h 

Foesessaons on tisha Child CMat* 

(See Great Britaia and 

France.) 



387 



Digitized by 



Google 



1831-1864.] GBEAT BBITAIN (GOLD COAST). [No. 91 

[AahAatoe. Baniflh. PoflflOfuiions.] 



No. VL— Notes cm the OOLD COAST. 1831—1891. 

Ashantee, 

A state of war existed with the Ashantees from 1824 to 1831. 
On the 27th April, 1831, a Treaty of Peace was signed between 
the GoTemor of Cape Coast Castle and British Settlements, on 
the part of His Britannic Majesty, and the Kings of Ashantee, 
Gape Coast, Fantee, Annamaboe, Dinkara, Tufol, Wassaw, and 
AssiB, and the Chiefs of Adjnmacon and Essacoomah, and the 
other Chiefs in alliance with Great Britain, by which the King 
of Ashantee renounced ''all right or title to any tribute or 
homage from the Kings of Dinkara (DSnkera), Assin, and 
others formerly his subjects."* (See also Treaty of |^th Feb- 
ruary, 1874, p. 390.) 

Akrofong, 

On the 30th March, 1850, the Chief and Headmen of Akro- 
pong swore fealty to Her Britannic Majesty according to the 
fashion of their country. 

Danish Forts atid Possessions, 

On the 17th August, 1850, a Convention was concluded be- 
tween Oreat Britain and Denmark, for the cession to Great 
Britain of the Danish Forts and Possessions on the Gold 
Goa8t.t (See Denkask, p. 256.) 

On the 17th June, 1858, the Chiefs of Krepee swore allegi- 
ance to Her Britannic Majesty according to the custom of their 
countiy, and engaged to pay an annual tax of £600. 

Accoonfee Districi. 

In November, 1864, King Akinney of the Accoonfee District, 

• 8.P., ToL xlTiii, p. 887; H.T., toI. xii, p. 13. 
t Accn, Fingo, Addah, Quittah, &o. 
388 



Digitized by 



Google 



Vo. 91] GBEAT BRITAIN (GOLD COAST). [1866-1868. 

[NetherUnd Po — 6 a «to i Mi» 4ka3 

witk a lai^ body of men numberuig 2,000 or 3,000, swore 
allegiance to Her Majesty at Gape Coast Castle in a similar 
manner. 

Union of the Gold Coast with Sierra Leone. 

On the 19th Febmarj, 1866, Letters Patent were issaed 
uniting the Colony of Sierra Leone, together with the Forts and 
Settlements on the West Coast of Africa nnder the Govemor- 
in-Chief, but this arrangement was altered by Letters Patent 
issued on the 24th Jnly, 1874 • 

Interchange of Territory between Great Britain and the 
Netherlands, 

On the 5th March, 1867,t a Convention was concluded be- 
tween Great Britain and the Netherlands for an interchange of 
territory on the Gold Coast. In this Convention the boundary 
between the possessions of Her Britannic Majesty and those of 
the King of the Netherlands was defined as being a line drawn 
true north from the centre of the mouth of the Sweet River as 
far as the boundary of the then existing Ashanteo kingdom, 
but with such deviations within three English miles of the 
coast as should be necessary to retain within British territory 
any villages which had been in habitual dependence on the 
British Government at Cape Coast, and within Netherland 
territory any villages which had been in habitual dependence 
on the Netherland Government at St. George of Elmina. 

Transfer to Great Britain of Netherland Possessions, 

On the 26th February, 1871, J another Convention was signed 
for the sale and transfer to Gb'eat Britain of the Dutch posses- 
sions on the Gold Coast or Coast of Guinea. (See Great Bri- 
tain AND Netherlands, p. 662.) 

Ahwoonah and Addah, Volta B/iver, 

In March, 1865, war broke out between Ahwoonah and 
Addah, which lasted until the 30th November, 1868, when a 

• S.P., Tol. lix, p. 1204; H.T., yol. xiii. p. 26. 
t H^., vol. xii, p. H94. 
$ H.T., Tol. xiii, p. 666. 

389 



Digitized by 



Google 



IMi-iemk] GBSAT BBITAIX (GOLD COAST). [K\ 91 

Ti*fftiy of Peace was signed^ by wbioh it wan agreed, amoni^ 
other things, that the Biver Volta should be kept open for n\\ 
lawful traders, and that, should any dispute thereafter arise be- 
tween those two nations, or between either of them and any 
other tribe or nation, it should be submitted to the Governor- 
in- Chief of Her Majesty's 'West Africa Settlements, whose de- 
cision, after full hearing^ should be final and binding upon both 
parties. Other Chiefs subsequently acceded to this Treaty. 

Ashantee. 

From December, 1872, till February, 1874, a state of war 
again existed between Great Britain and Ashantee. On the- 
j?th February, 1874j.* a Treaty of Peace was concluded, by 
Arty III of which the King again renounced " all right or title 
to any tribute or homage from the Kings of Denkera, Assin^ 
Akim, Adansi, and the other allies of Her Majesty formerly 
subject to the Kingdom of Ashantee.'* 

Elmina^ 

By Art. IV the King also renounced for evei- all pretensions 
to supremacy over Elmina, or over any of the tribes formerly 
connected with the Dutch Government, and to any tribute or 
homage from such tribes, as well as to any payment or acknow- 
ledgment of any kind by the British Government in respect of 
Elmina or any other of the British Forts and Possessions on the 

Appoloniay Aximy Dixccyve, Secoiidee, and Chama, 

Coast. The King iurther engaged, among other things, to 
withdraw all his troops from Appolonia and its vicinity, and 
from the neighbourhood of Dixcove, Secondee, and the adjoin- 
ing Coast line. 

In March, 1874,t the Kings and Chiefs of Western Appo- 
lOnia, Axim, Aquidah, Bossuah and Ahanta (Dixcove), 
Tacorady (Secondee), Dutch Secondee, and Chama entered 

• S.P., vol. kv, p. 4.71. 
t S.P., Tol. Ixv, p. 473. 
390 



Digitized by 



Google 



JTo. 01] aKElAT BBITAI5 (OOLD COAAT). [lA^ 

[AwoonAb, Jaliab»OofliM, fto.] 

into engagements with the British QbTemment that t«hey 
would not again make war on any of the allies of England ; 
that they would not combine at any time for purposes of 
offence or defence with any of the enemies of Her Majesty 
Queen Victoria, her heirs, or snccessors ; that for the future 
they would obey the orders of the English Governinent ; and 
that they would use every efFort to maintain peace and quiet- 
ness on the Coant. 

Awoonah, Jellah- Coffee, Quittah^ Sfc. 

On the 22nd June, 1874, a Treaty was concluded with the 
Chiefs of Awoonah, Accm, Addah, and JeUah-Cofiee, by Ajt. 
Ill of which it was agreed that '^ with the view to remove any 
doubts which the natives might entertain as to the right of Her 
Majesty the Queen of England to occupy Jellah- Coffee, Quittah, 
and any other places deemed necessary to be held, in order to 
place the Awoonah country, or any portion of it, under thesamt^ 
jurisdiction as was exercised by Her Majesty over the other 
portions of the Gold Coast; that, should it seem fit to Her 
Majesty's Government, they should occupy any such place as 
might appear to them expedient for and on behalf of Her 
Majesty the Queen of England.** 

m 

Gold Coast and Lagos one Colony. 

On the 24th July, 1874, Letters Patent were issued separat- 
ing the Settlements of the Gold Coast and Jjagos from the 
Government of the West African Settlements,* and erectinsr 
them into one colony under the title of the Gold Coast Colony, f 
but this aiTangement was altered by Letters Patent issued on 
tkie 17th June, 1885, and again by other Letters Patent issued 
on the 28th ]S'ovember, 1888. 

It may here be mentioned that on tho 6th March, 1844, 
Fantee Chiefs, namely, the King of Denkira and Chiefs of 
Abrah, Assin, Donadie, Domonassie, Annamboe, and Cape 
Coast signed a Declaration in which they acknowledged that 
Her Majesty the Queen exercised power and jurisdiction within 

• S.P., vol. IxTi, p. 942. 
t H.T., vol. XV, p. 619. 
391 



Digitized by 



Google 



1870.] GEBAT BRITAIN (GOLD COAST). [No. 91 

[Kataan, fto.1 

diyers oonntriea and places adjacent to Her Majesty's Forts and 
Settlements on the Gold Coast, and that they were the " Chiefs 
of countries and places so referred to.*' Similar Treaties 
were signed between the 12th March and* 2nd December, 1844, 
by the varioas other Chiefs of the conntries and places. 

British Jurisdiction in Adjacent Territories. 

On the 6th August, 1874,* an Order in Council was passed 
for determining the mode of exercising the power and jurisdic- 
tion acquired by Her Majesty within divers countries on the 
West Coast of Africa, near or adjacent to the Gold Coast 
Colony ; but this- Order was amended by another Order in 
Council issued on the 29th December, 1887 .f 

Katanu. 

On the 24»th September, 1879, a Provisional Agreement was 
entered into between the Governor of the Gold Coast and the 
King and Chiefs of the territory of Katanu, by which it was 
agreed, among other things, as follows : — 

" 1. The King, Chiefs, and territory of Katanu are for the 
present taken under the protection of Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment, pending the final decision and approval of the said 
Government. 

" 2. The King and Chiefs agree to abide by such decision, 
which will be communicated to them without loss of time. 

*' 4. The King and Chiefs of Katanu are hereby allowed to 
impose upon imports and exports passing throogh their waters 
reasonable dues, as is their right, according to native custom, 
and to submit the same to the officer administering the Govern- 
ment of Lagos for approval. 

" 5. They further engage to enter into no disputes or war- 
fare with any neighbouring tribes, but to refer such matters 
without delay to the Government of Lagos ; any encroachments 
or violation of their rights or territory they agree to refer in 
the same manner. 

• H.T., Tol. XT, p. 525 ; S.P., Tol. Ixxvii, p. 957. 
t H.T., Yol. XTii, p. 127. 
392 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 91] GREAT BBITAIN (GOLD COAST). C187&* 

[▲flowhoo, Airboflomi.] 

" 6. They bIuJI fly the British flag in conjunction with their 

own in the town of Katann and at their toll-honse, nutil further 

arrangements are made. 

• • • • • 

" 10. The King and Chiefs of Katann engage not to enter 
into negotiations with any Foreign State except nnder the ex« 
press permission of Her Majesty's Government. 

"11. They further bind themselves to enter into such 
further arrangements for the Gfovemment of snch territory as 
may seem fit to Her Majesty's Government at any future 
period."* 

Afflowhoo, 

On the Ibt December, 1879, a Provisional Agreement-was 
entered into between the Governor of the Gold Coast and the 
Chiefs and Headmen of Afflowhoo, whereby they agreed, in con- 
sideration of a yearly payment of 500 dollars in advance, and 
permission to land yearly, free of duty, 12 panclieuns of mm, to 
hand over to the GoTernor and Commander ^in- Chief of the Gold 
Coast Colony, for and on belialf of Her Britannic Majesty, the 
sea-board of their territory extending from high-water mark to 
one mile inland, and engage to sign a more formal agpreement 
at a future convenient time ; which was done on the 6th of the 
same month. (See p. 394.) 

Aghosome, 

On the 2nd December, 1879, a final Agreement was entered 
into between the Governor of the Gold Coast Colony, acting 
for and on behalf of Her Britannic Majesty, and the King and 
Chiefs of Agbosom^, which contained (among others) the 
following articles relating to cession, territory, Ac. : — 

"1. The King and Chiefs of Agbosome finally acknowledge 
the territorial jurisdiction of Her Majesty the Queen of Great 
Britain and Ireland over the seaboard of Agbosome for two 
miles from the high- water mark inland. 

" 2 They acknowledge the right of Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment of the Gold Coast Colony to impose such duties and taxes 
on the above territory as to them shall seem fit. 

* Bee also Agreement, Great Britain and France, lOtb August, 1889, 
Art. 4, § 8, p. 662. 

^ 393 



Digitized by 



Google 



Itfftr4fi85.] dSEAT BBITAIK (<»OLD CO AST). [No. 01 

[AiBowl&oo, Idtfeto Vopo, 4^o.] 

' ^'8. Tbey formally deny baying at any time ceded any 
sovereign rights to any power other than Her Majesty the 
Queen of Great Britain and Ireland aforesaid." 

Affioujhoo, 

- On ^e 6th December, 1879, a final Agreement was entered 
into between the Governor of the Gold Coast Colony, acting, lor 
nnd on behalf of Her Britannic Majesty, and the Chiefs and 
Headmen of Afflowhoo, which contained the following articles 
{«sumg others) relating to cession, territory, <fec. : — 

*' 1. The Chiefs and Headmen of Afflowhoo finally acknow- 
ledge the territorial jurisdiction of Her Majesty the Queen of 
Groat Britain and Ireland, over the seaboard of Afflowhoo for 
one tnile from high- water mark inland. 

'* 2. They acknowledge the right of Her Majesty's Govem- 
uitent of the Gold Coast Colony, to impose snch duties and taxes 
on the above territory as to them shall seem fit. 

'* 3. They formally deny having at any time ceded any 
severe^ rights to any power other than Her Majesty the 
Q^een of Great Britain and Ireland aforesaid.'^ 

Little Popo. 

On the 25th September, 1884, a Preliminary Treaty was 
.signed by Lieutenant A. Furlonger, B.N., on behalf of Her 
MAJesfy, with the King and Chiefs of Little Popo, hy which 
they and their territories were placed under British protection, 
aiid they on their part engaged not to enter into any corr 
re^s^mlence or Treaty engagements with any other foreign . 
nation without Her Majesty's knowledge and sanction ; but this 
te;*ritory is now included within the German sphere and in- 
fiuence. (See G«eat BaiTAiir and Gbkmany, p. 646.) 

British and Oerman Spheres of Influence, 

In April — Jnne, 1885, an Exchange of notes took placo 
between Great Britain and Germany, relative to their respec- 
tive spheres of action in portions of Africa. 

With regard to the Gold Coast, or Galf of Guinea, the 
following Agreement was entered into : — 

394 k 



Digitized by 



Google 



K^ ffL] a'KEAT BUITAIN (AOLD 00A8T). [IBM. 

[British and OvmiMi flH^OMM -ef Brihi«noe, fto.] 

'* Great Britain engages notto mikrlEe acquisitions of territory, 
aooept Protectorates, or interfere with the extension of Oenni^ 
inftnenoes in that part of th^ coast of the Gulf of Guinea, or in 
the inierior districtB to theeasfc of the folio wing line : that is, on 
the ooMt, 4he right river hank of the Hio del Rey entering *the 
sea hetween 8® 42' and 8* 46' longitnde east of Greenwich ; in 
the interior a lino following the right river bank of the Rio del 
Bey from the said mont^ to its soarce, thence striking direct 
to the left river bank of the Old Oalabar or Cross River, and 
terminating after orossing thai river at the point about 9** 8' of 
loBgitade east of -Greenwicfh, marked '* Rapids '* on the Knglish 
Aiiffiiralty Chart. 

** Germany engages not^o luafee aeqttisitiens, accept Pro- 
tectorates, or interfere with the extension of British TDAnence 
in the coast of the Gnlf of Guinea lying between the right 
river bank of the mouth of the Rio del Rey, as above described, 
and the British Colony of Ls^s; nor in the interior to the 
west of the line traced in the preoeding pairagni^." 

In July— AugiiBt, 1886, tins line was esteoded i«to ibe 
interior by an exchange of votes htfbw^ea the British and 
German Governments, in which it was agreed that from the 
terminal point, iadioated in the OngliA Admiralty chart as 
'* Bapida," of the original frontier line, hj the 29th April and 
7tih KLay, 1885, should be produced a further line, which, etatt- 
ing from the Old Calabar rapids, should pursue a <diiigOBal 
dhreotion towards a point on the tigiit imnk of the River 
Beane, «ftMii!e to the east, and in the imnedtate vicinity ^ 
the town of Tola, and which ahould pM>ve, upon invefi^fefg>a* 
tion, to be practically suitable for the determination of this 
line. (See Great Britain and Gebvaki; ^p, 596, 612.) 

KrAar. 

On the I2tk Nov«mber, IS&^ a T9m$Ay w«m «ig»ed between 
the King of Krikor and tihe GK)vierMr ^ «be iSnsAd Coast Colony, 
for the cesfiion to Great Bntoaia, «Kb|ect ibe the approval >of ttie 
British Govemntent, of the KrikoT'Oonsitty, tl^e boundaries of 
which were declared to be as foUovs : — 

395 



Digitized by 



Google 



1886.] GREAT BRITAIN (OOLD COAST). [No. 91 

[Volta Bivw DiAtrlot, fta] 

*' On the north bj the independent town of Phenyl, Akiefej 
Todje, and Avej ; on the east bj the river Aka and the country 
of Afflahoo ; on the south by the Quittah lagoon and part of 
the kingdom of Agbosomeh ; and on the west by the Awoonah 
country, or however otherwise the same may be bounded or 
situated. 

Gold Coast Colont/, 

On the 13th January, 1886, an Order in Coancil was passed 
erecting tlie Gold Coast Settlements into a separate colony.* 

The boundary of the Gold Coast Colony was therein defined 
as including all British places^ settlements, and territories on 
the Gold Coast between the 5! df west longitude and the 2^ of 
east longitude. 

AqtMinoo (Volta "River District), 

On the 27th July, 1886, a Treaty was concluded between 
the Governor of the Gold Coast and the King and people of 
Aquamoo, for the incorporation of their country with the Gold 
Coast Colony, subject to Her Majesty's approval, in the follow- 
ing terms : — 

'* Art. I. The country and territory of Aquamoo is hereby 
ceded and transferred to Her Britannic Majesty so that the 
same shall become and form a part and portion of the Gold 
Coast Colony. 

'* Art. II. The cession declared in Article I is accepted, and 
the said country and territory of Aquamoo is incorporated 
within tbe said Gold Coast Colony subject to Article III." 

Aggravie (VoUa Biver District), 

On the 12th August, 1886, the Chiefs of the district and 
town of Aggravie, in the Volta River District, ** ceded to Her 
Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, her heirs and successors, 
for ever, all the lands situated on the left bank of the Volta 
Biver between the lagoon or river called Avoo, and that arm or 
crook of the Volta Biyer on which Attetiteh is situated, together 

• H.T., vol. XTii, p. 109 ; S.P., toL Ixxtii, p. 991. | 
396 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 91] GBEIT BRITAIN (aOLD COAST). [1888-1887. 

[Volta Biver Diatriot, Crepee, fto.] 

with the rights and appurtenances whatsoever thereunto be- 
longing, as well as all profits and revenues, absolute dominion 
and sovereignty of the said lands, freely, fully, entirely, and 
absolotely." 

BattoTf ^c. (Left Bank of Volta Biver) . 

On the 4ith September, 1886, the Chiefs of the towns and 
districts of Battor, Merpe, Mlefi, Blappa, Hume, Tefli, and 
Sopey, on behalf of themselves and their people, " ceded to Her 
Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, her heirs and successors, 
for ever, all the lands on the left bank of the Volta River 
between the riverine boundary of Aquamoo and the creek or 
lagoon known as Avoo, together with all the rights and ap- 
purtenances whatsoever thereunto belonging, as well as all 
revenues and profits, absolute dominion and sovereignty of the 
said lands, freely, fully, entirely, and absolutely." 

Crepee (Peki), 

In October and STovember, 1886, Treaties were concluded 
with the Chiefs of Crepee for the incorporation of their Terri- 
tories with the Gold Coast Colony, and, on the 17th December 
following, the German Government were informed that Crepee 
was under British protection. 

On the 18th February, 1887, Schwhi was placed under 
British protection. 

Aquamoo, 

On the 9th May, 1887, the Kings and Chiefs of the country 
of Aquamoo signed a declaration acknowledging that they and 
their country formed part of the Protectorate of Her Majesty the 
Queen of Great Britain and Ireland on the Gold Coast, and 
that they were subject to the authority and jurisdiction of Her 
Majesty, and declaring that they bad that belief, inasmuch as 
their country of old enjoyed similar protection from His 
Majesty the King of Denmark, who, they said, they undei*stood 
had ceded his right and title to their country to the British 
Crown in 1850. (See Denmark, p. 253), . 

397 2 F 



Digitized by 



Google 



1888.1 OEEAT BBITIIN (GOLD COABT). [No. 91 

[UtuOioo, Kotoka, ftc.] 
Oama and B<miuhu. 

On the 30th Jnly, 1887,* the King of Gama and Bontnkn 
declared that he had been offered an English flag by Corporal 
Howard Van Dyke through Captain Lonsdale (the Commis- 
sioDer Native Affairs), and that he had accepted it with the 
consent of his Chiefs and Headmen. . 

29th December, 1887 5 an Order in Conncil was passed 
respecting the exercise of British jurisdiction in ienitorieB 
adjacent to the Qold Coast Colonj.f 

Quahoo. 

On the 6th May, 1888, a Treaty was signed by the District 
Commissioner of Eastern Africa, acting under instructions from 
the Governor of the Gold Coast, placing the country of Qnahoo 
under British protection. 

Kotohu. Insuaim Ferry (Berim River). 

On the 2nd June, 1888, the King of the Kotoku people 
signed an instrument granting and conveying to Her Britannic 
Majesty the ferry across the River Berim, commonly known as 
the Insuaim Ferry, in the following terms : — 

'* Now know je, that I, Attah Fuah, King of the Kotoku 
people, for myself and for my heirs and successors, * * • • hereby 
grant and convey unto Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain 
and Ireland as aforesaid and her successors, the ferry across 
the River Berim commonly known as the Insuaim Ferry, to- 
gether with the land abutting on each bank of the said river, 
and measuring as follows, that is to say, from the north bank 
of the said river two hundred feet extending back in a northerly 
direction and along the bank of the said river from east to west 
six hundred feet the landing place of the ferry on the said 
north bank being the centre of the said six hundred feet from 
the south bank of the said river two hundred feet extending 
back in a southerly direction and along the bank of the said 

• H.T., Tol. xiii, p. 109. S.P., vol. xxrii, p. 991. 
t H.T., vol. xiii, p. 109. 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 91] G^REAT BBITAIN (GOLD COAST). [1887-1888. 

[Orepee, Ac] 

river from easfc to west six hundred feet the landing place of 
the ferry on the said sonth bank being the centre of the said 
six hundred feet and which said river and land is more particu- 
larly described in the plan drawn in the margin* hereof to- 
gether with all and singular the rights, claims, profits, and 
privileges of whatsoever nature and kind appertaining thereto 
which I or my heirs and my successors may have in the said 
ferry and land so granted and conveyed. 

'' To have and to hold the said ferry and land unto and to 
the use of Her Majesty the Queen and her successors for 
ever." 

AgoHne (Or^ee). 

On the 3rd July, 1888, the Head Chiefs anc Chiefs of Ago- 
tine signed a Declaration, stating that they had signed no 
Treaty with any other Foreign Power ; that they were a por- 
tion of Crepee, acknowledging the Head King of Crepee as 
their Head King, that they had always looked upon themselves, 
in common with the rest of Crepee, as English subjects, and that 
they thereby wished, voluntarily and freely, to formally ac- 
knowledge their fealty to Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen 
Victoria. 

Anum and Buem, 

The same day the Chief of Anum and Head Chief of Buem 
signed a Declaration, stating that he had signed no Treaty with 
any other Foreign Power ; that the people of Buem were his 
subjects, and that he, for himself and the Chiefs and people of 
Buem, voluntarily and freely acknowledged their fealty to Her 
Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria. 

Grepee, 

On the same day the Kings and Head Chiefs of Crepee (or 
Krepi) signed a Declai^ation, agreeing, in return for the protec- 
tion afforded to them by the British Government, to keep open, 
and in good order, the roads in their respective districts, and to 
pay a fine if they neglected to do so. 

* IS'ot printed. 

399 2 F 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



1888-1890.] GREAT BRITAIN (GOLD COAST). [No. 91 

[British, Freiioh, and German Spheres of Inilaenoe.] 

Adahlu, 8fc. (Crepee.) 

On the same day tbe Head Chief, Chiefs, and people of the 
towns of Adaklu, Taviewe, Tojingbi^, Avatime, Waja, Jolo, 
and Kpeji signed a Declaration acknowledging their feaify to 
Her Most Gracioas Majesty Queen Victoria, and agreeing to 
look upon Kwadjoe Daje, or anyone else appointed by the 
Governor of the Gold Coast, as Head King of Krepe, to obey 
him in all things, and to refer all matters in dispute to his 
judgment. 

British and French Spheres of Influence. 

On the 10th August, 1889, an Arrangement was entered into 
between the British and French Governments concerning the 
delimitation of their respective possessions on the West Coast 
of Africa. With reference to the Gbld Coast, it was agreed, by 
Art. Ill, § 1, that the boundary line should start from New- 
town, and proceed direct to the Tendo Lagoon ; that it should 
then follow the left bank of that lagoon and of that of Ahy, and 
the left bank of the River Tano6 or Tendo, as far as Nougoua, 
and that tbe line should be prolonged to the 9th degree of 
north latitude. (See Gu£at Britain and Fbano£, p. 559.) 

British and German Spheres of Influence, 

On the 1st July, 1890, an Agreement was entered into between 
tbe British and German Governments with reference to their 
respective spheres of inflaence in East, West, and South 
Africa. The line of boundary between the British Gold Coast 
Colony and the German Protectorate of Togo, and in the Gulf 
of Guinea, was thus defined in Art. IV : — 

" Art. IV. 1. The boundary between the German Protectorate 
of Togo and the British Gold Coast Colony commences on the 
coast at the marks set up after the negoclations between the 
Commissioners of the two countries of the 14th and 28th of 
July, 1886, and proceeds direct northwards to the 6** 10' 
parallel of noith latitude; thence it runs along that parallel 

400 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 91] GREAT BBITAIN (GOLD COAST). [1891. 

[British and French Spheres of Influence.] 

westward till it reaches the left bank of the River Aka ; 
ascends the mid-channel of that river to the 6° 20' parallel of 
north latitude ; runs along that parallel westwards to the right 
bank of the River Dchawe or Shavoe ; follows that bank of 
the river till it reaches the parallel corresponding with the 
point of confluence of the River Deine with the Yolta ; it runs 
along that parallel westward till it reaches the Yolta ; from 
that point it ascends the left bank of the Yolta till it amves 
at the neutral zone established by the Agreement of 1888, 
which commences at the confluence of the River Dakka with 
the Yolta. 

"Each Power engages to withdraw immediately after the 
conclusion of this Agreement all its officials and employes from 
territory which is assigned to the other Power by the above 
delimitation. 

** Gulf of Guinea, Bio del Bey Creek. 

*^ 2. It having been proved to the satisfaction of the two 
Powers that no river exists on the Gulf of Guinea correspond- 
ing with that marked on maps as tho Rio del Rey, to which 
reference was made in the Agreement of 1885, a provisional 
line of demarcation is adopted between the German sphere in 
the Gameroons and the adjoining British sphere, which, start- 
ing from the head of the Rio del Rey Greek, goes direct to the 
point, about 9* 8' of east longitude, marked " Rapids " in the 
British Admiralty chart." (See Gbrat Britain and Germany, 
p. 647.) 

British and French Spheres of Influence. 

On the 26th June, 1891, another Agreement was entered 
into between the British and French Governments, by which it 
was arranged that the boundary lino should follow the frontier 
of Nougoua on the Tano£ between Sanwi and Broussa, Indenie 
and Sahu^, leaving Broussa, Aowin, and Sahoe to Englaud ; 
that the line would then intersect the road from Annihilekron 
to Cape Coast Castle, midway between Debison and Atiebende- 
krou, and follow the direct road from Annihilekron to Bondou- 

401 



Digitized by 



Google 



1891-1893.] GREAT BRITAIN (GOLD COAST). [»o. 91 

[British and French Spheres of Influence.] 

koa, by Bodomfil and Dadiasi, at a distance of 10 kilom. to the 
eastward ; that it wonld then pass Boako, so as to slrike the 
Volta at the spot where that river was intersected by the road 
from Bandagadi to Kirhindi, and wonld then follow the river 
as far as the 9th degree of north latitude. (See Great Britain 
AND France, p. 573.) 

On the 12th July, 1893, an Arrangement was entered into 
between Great Britain and France, fixing the bonndary be- 
tween the British and French Possessions on the Gold Coast. 
(See Great Britain and France, p. 589.) 

Treaties have recently been concluded, in the name of Her 
Britannic Majesty, with the Chiefs of ^Bona, Dagarti, Wa, and 
Mamprusi, at Gambaga, in the Gold Coast Hinterland, by 
which they engaged, among other things, not to conclnde 
Treaties with any other Power, or to cede territory or accept 
Protectorates without the consent of Her Majesty. 



402 



Digitized by 



Google 



< 



GREAT BRITAIN 

(LAGOS), 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



"7 

! 



GREAT BRITAIN (LAGOS). 



LIST OP TREATIES, &c. 



No. Fflge 

92. 1851—1898. NoteBon Lagos 405 

^- Oct., 1851. British Instructions. Deposition and Expulsion of 

Kosoko from Lagos 405- 

— 1 Mar., 1852. Agreement. Akitoje King of Lagos. Grant of piece of 

land to Church Missionary Society 405 - 

— 28 Sept., 1854. Agreement. Kosoko, Chief of £p^, not to attempt to 

regain possession of Lagos. Palma recognised as 

Port of Kosoko 406- 

— 22 June, 1861. Decision of British Goyemment. Lagos to be a British 

Dependency 406 • 

— 6 Aug., 1861. Treaty. Lagos. Cession to Great Britain of Port and 

Island of Lagos. Docemo to retain title of King. 
His stamp and pension , 409 

— 6 Aug., 1861. Proclamation. British occupation of Lagos 410 

— 7 Feb., 1863. Declaration. Docemo, ex-Chief of Ep^ and formerly 

King of Lagos. Extent of Lagos Territory. Palma 
and Leckie 411 

— Mar., 1863. Conditions of Peace. GoTemment of Lagos and Possoo 

of Ep^ ! 411- 

— 27 June, 1863. Agreement. Addo. British Protection 412 - 

•* 29 June, 1863. Agreement. Pocrah. British Protection 413 

— 4 July, 1863. Agreement. Okeodan. British Protection 418- 

— 7 July, 1863. Agreement. Badagry. Cession of Town and Territory 

of Badagry to Great Britain. (See also Declaration 
15May,1886) 414 

— 17 July, 1863. Deed. Okeodan. Sale of piece of land to Great 

Britain for Goyemment residence 416 • 

-* 19 Feb., 1866. Boyal Commission. Union of Lagos with Sierra L^one 

(Revoked 24 July, 1874) 416 

— 24 July, 1874. Letters Patent. Erection of the Settlements of the 

Gold Coast and Lagos into one Colony under the 
Title of the Gold Coast Colony. (Sec also Letters 
Patent, 13 July, 1886) 417 

— 24 Sept., 1879. Agreement. British Protectorate oyer Katanu 417 

— 15 Mar., 1884. Proclamation. British Protectorate oyer Appa 417 

— 16 July, 1884. Treaty. Jakri (Benin Biyer). British Protection 417 

r— 24 Dec., 1884. Treaty. Ogbo. British Protection ,« 418 

408 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN (LAaOS). 

[List of Treaties, Ao,] 
No. Page 

92. 24 Oct., 1885. Treaty. Mahin. Cession to Great Britain of Mahin 

Beach 410 

— 24 Oct., 1885. Treaty. Mahin. Atijere. British Protection 421 

— 13 Jan., 1886. Leiters Patent. Erection of Lagos into a Separate 

British Colony 422 

^-- 5 Feb., 1886. Proclamation. British SoTcreignty and Protection 
over Coast between Odi and the Benin Riyer ( Jakri, 
Ogbo, Mahin, and the Mahin Beach) 422 

— 5 May, 1886. Declaration. Badagry. Meaning of term ** Town of 

Badagry" in Treaty of 7 July, 1863 424 

— 23 July, 1886. Declaration. Delcami. Frah, Denham Waters, and 

Whemi 424 

-— 29 Dec.| 1887. Order in Council. British Jurisdiction in Territories 
adjacent to Colony. S.P., 78, vol. 836 

— 16 May, 1888. Declaration. Igbessa. Non-ceaiion of Territory. 

Boundaries, &c • 426 

•^ 16 May, 1888. Proclamation. British Protection oyer Igbessa 426 

— 22 May, 1888. Declaration. Ife. . Non-oession of Territory, Boun- 

daries, &c 427 

— 28 May, 1888. Declaration. Itebu. Non-oesaion of Territory. Boun- 

daries, &e.« • •'• 426 

— 29 May, 1888. Declaration. Ketu. Non-cession of Territory. Boun* 

daries, &c.. 427 

— 29 May, 1888. Treaty. British Protectorate oyer Ketu 427 

— 31 May, 1888. Declaration. Ibn. Non-cession of Territory. Boun- 

daries, &c • 428 

-— 21 July, 1888. Convention. Ilaro. Non-cession of Territory. Boun- 
daries, &o • 429 

— 21 July, 1888. Declaration. British Protectorate over Daro 429 

— 23 July, 1888. Treaty. Oyo and Yoruftaland. Non-cession of Terri- 

tory. Boundaries, Sic • 430 

— 5Aug.,1891. Note. Igbessa added to Lagos 426 

-* 8 Aug., 1891. Note. Addo added to Lagos 412 

— 18 Aug., 1801. Note. Ilaio added to Lagos 429 

-■^ 9 Oct, 1888. Memorandum. Artijere Wharf. Itebu and Ibu. 

Boundaries , 431 

— 20 Feb., 1889. Treaty. Ondo. Non-cession of Territory. Boun- 

daries, &c 432 

— > 10 Aug., 1889. Agreement. Great Britain and France. Spheres of 
Influence. (See Great Britain and France). 

— 15 Aug., 1893. Treaty. Ibadan. Internal Affairs of Zoruba Towns, &c. 432 



M)4 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 02] GREAT BRITAIN (LIGOS). [1 Mar., 1862. 

LLaffM.] 



No. 92— Notes m LAGOS, 1851—1891. 

In October, 1851, the British GoTemment gave instmctions 
to the Britishr Naval Gonimander in the Bight of Benin to 
expel the Slave Trade Chief, Kosoko, and his people from 
Lagos. These instructions were carried ont in Jannarj follow- 
ing, when Kosoko was deposed and expelled from Lagos, his' 
town destroyed, and the friendly chief, Akitoye, established in 
the seat of power at Lagos in his stead.* Kosoko was, how-p 
ever, allowed to reside at Ep^, by permission of the King of 
Jebn \ but in 1861 he was allowed by the British Government 
to return to Lagos. 

On the Ist March, 1852, the following Agreement was 
signed by Akitoye, King of Lagos, granting pieces of land to 
the Church Missionary Society : — ^f 

*' That Akitoye, King of Lagos, with his Chiefs, has made 
over to the Bev. C. A. Gollmer, on behalf of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society, the undermentioned pieces of land, for the 
purpose of erecting on them churches, schools, and dwelling- 
houses for missionaries, and native agents whom that society 
may employ at this station, Lagos. 

*' Ist. A piece of land in the district, called Okofagi, being 
situated outside the present town, called Brazilian Town, and 
nearly opposite to the mouth of the Badagry Biver Ossa, and 
close to the Lagos Biver, of the following dimensions, viz. : — 

" 200 yards long, from north to south, and 130 yards wide 
from east to west. 

" 2nd. A piece of land known by the bread-fruit trees, on 
the north side of Okofagi ; %Q yards long from north to south, 
and 41 yards wide from east to west. 

*' 3rd. A piece of land known by Limo's place, not far from 
the house of the former Chief, Tapa, 96 yards in length from 

east to west, and 45 yards in width from north to south. 

* 

• S.P., vol. xli, p. d84. 
t S.P., vol. xUy, p. 1207. 
405 



Digitized by 



Google 



28 Sept., 1864.] GREAT BRITAIN (LAGOS). [Nc 92 

" 4th. A piece of land near the water-side called Elrite Ero. 

70 yards long froni north to sonih, and 23 yards wide from east 

to west. 

I 
** 5th. A piece of land on the elevated part of Lagos, behind 

the King's house, and not far from the market, 33 yards long, 

from, east to west, and 23 yards wide fi*om north to south, 

called Ojogim. 

'^ That King Akitoye has made over to the Rev. G. A. Goll- 
mer the above specified pieces of land for the benefit of the 
Church Missionary Society, without any condition, and free of 
expense, and without limit of time, he declares by placing his 
mark to his name in the presence of his Chief and others." 

This Agreement bore the Mark of King Akitoye and those 
of 13 other Chiefs and Elders. 

On the 28th September, 1854, Kosoko, his Caboceera and 
Chiefs, entei*ed into an Agreement with the British Govern- 
ment, in which they solemnly pledged themselves to make no 
attempt to regain possession of Lagos, either by threats, hos- 
tilities, or stratagem ; and in the same Agreement they stated 
that they claimed Palma as their port of trade, which Her 
Britannic Majesty's Consul, and the Commander and Senior 
British Naval Officer in the Bights, engaged to recognize as 
belonging to them for all purposes of legitimate trade. 

Akitoye wa^ succeeded by Docemo as Kiug of Lagos. 

On the 22nd June, 1861,* the British Government decided 
to take possession of Lagos as a British Dependency for reasons 
which were assigned in a despatch addressed by Lord J. Russell 
to Consul Foote, and from which the following is an extract : — 

" In a former despatch I informed you that the question as 
to whether the Island of Lagos should be taken possession of as 
a British dependency was still under the consideration of Her 
Majesty's Government, and I have now to inform you that 
this question has been decided in the affirmative.f 

** It is not without some reluctance that Her Majesty's 

• S.P., Tol. lii, p. 175. 

t See Treaty, 6th August, 1861, and Proclamation of same date, pp. 
407, 408. 

406 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 92] GREAT BRITAIN (LAGOS). [22 June, 1861. 

Government have determined, by the occupation of Lagos, to 
extend the namber of British Dependencies on the African 
coast ; bat they have been indnced to come to this determina- 
tion becanse they are convinced that the permanent occupa- 
tion of this important point in the Bight of Benin is indis- 
pensable to the complete suppression of the Slave Trade in 
the Bight, whilst it will give great aid and support to the 
development of lawful commerce, and will check the aggres- 
sive spirit of the Bang of Dahomey, whose barbarous wars, 
and encouragement to slave-trading, are the chief cause of 
disorder in that part of Africa. 

''Bat in carrying this determination into effect, there are 
several questions of importance which require consideration. 

" Her Majesty's GoTemment would be most unwilling that 
the establishment of British Sovereignty at Lagos should be 
attended with any injustice to Docemo,* the present Chief of 
the island ; but they conceive that as his tenure of the island 
in point of fact depends entirely upon the continuance of the 
protection which has been afforded to him and his predecessor 
by the British naval authorities since the expulsion of Kosoko, 
no injustice will be inflicted upon him by changing this 
anomalous protectorate into an avowed occupation, provided 
his material interests are secured. 

Pension to he granted to King Docemo. 

'* It will be right, therefore, to assign him an adequate 
pension to be paid out of the revenue of the island, unless it 
should be advisable to continue him in some situation or 
employment under the British officer who may be appointed to 
administer the affairs of the island, in which case the remune- 
ration for his services may be a sufficient provision for him 
without a special compensation. 

" If you should think it advisable at once to take temporary 
possession of Lagos pending the final arrangements, you are 
authorized to do so ; but you will carefully explain to King 
Docemo the motives that have induced Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment to take this step. You will inform him that Her 

• See Proclamation, 6th August, 1861, p. 408. S.P., rol. lii, p. 182. 

407 



Digitized by 



Google 



22 June, 1861.] eB£AT Britain (L vgos). [No. 92 

[IMTOS.] 

Majesty's Government are not actuated by any dissatisfaction 
with his condact, but that, on the contrary, they have every 
wish to deal with him in a liberal and friendly spirit ; and that 
their object in taking this step is to secare for ever the free 
population of Lagos from the slave-traders and kidnappers who 
formerly oppressed them ; to protect and develop the important 
trade of which their town is the seat, and to exercise an 
influence on the surrounding tribes which may, it is to be 
hoped, be permanently beneficial to the African race. 

"You will not take any steps for establishing British 
Sovereignty until yon have concert0d with the Commodore in 
command of Her Majesty's naval forces on the African station, 
or with the senior officer of the Bights Division, as to the 
measures which may be necessary on the occasion, and it will 
be well that, previously to taking possession, you should obtain 
from King Docemo and his headmen, a Treaty of Cession, duly 
signed and executed.* 

" But whether yon deem it advisable at once to take posses- 
sion of Lagos, or to defer this step nntil after you have com- 
municated further with Her Majesty's Government on the 
snbject, you will in either case report to me fully your opinion 
as to the amonnt and nature of the compensation to be awarded 
to Docemo, which yon will not positively fix nntil yon have 
obtained the sanction of Her Majesty's Government; the 
arrangements which you would propose for administering the 
Government of the island ; the probable expenditure ; and the 
amount of revenue which may be raised to meet that expendi- 
ture; and, generally, as to the effect which the change of 
Sovereignty may be expected to produce on the state of T^ff^ftirs 
in the island. 

**You will, moreover, report, after consultation with the 
senior naval officer on the station, as to the amount of force 
which will be required for the maintenance of British authority 
on the island, and for the protection of the place from attacks 
on the port of the neighbouring Chiefs. 

" Yon will bear in mind, however, that it will be the policy 

* See Treaty of Gesdioii, 6th August, 1861, p. 409, and Proclamation 
date, p. 410. 

408 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 92] GREAT BRITAIN (LAGOS). [22 June, 186L 

[Laaroa.] 

of Her Majesty's Government strictly to avoid all aggression 
upon the surrounding Chiefs, and that it is on every account 
desirable to keep the expedition for this purpose within the 
narrowest limits compatible with the safety of the place. 

" I have requested the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 
to whom I have transmitted copy of this despatch, to issue 
instructions in conformity therewith to the officer commanding 
Her Majesty's naval forces on the West Coast of Africa." 

Cession to Oreat Britain of Port and Island of Lagos, 

On the 6th August, 1861, a Treaty was concluded by the 
Senior British Naval Officer on the Bight of Benin Station and 
the Acting British Consul, in the name of Her Majesty, with 
Docemo, King of Lagos, on the part of himself and his Chiefs, 
for the cession to Great Britain of the Port and. Island of 
Lagos, subject to certain conditions.* 

The following is an extract from that Treaty : — 

" Art. I. In order that the Queen of England may be better 
enabled to assist, defend, and protect the inhabitants of Lagos, 
and to put an end to the Slave Trade in this and the neigh- 
bouring countries, and to prevent the destructive wars so 
frequently undertaken by Dahomey and others for the capture 
of slaves, I, Docemo, do, with the consent and advice of my 
Council, give, transfer, and by these presents grant and con- 
firm unto the Queen of Great Britain, her heirs and successors 
for ever, the port and island of Lagos, with all the rights, 
profits, territories and appurtenances whatsoever thereunto 
belonging, and as well the profits and revenue as the direct, 
full, and absolute dominion and sovereignty of the said port, 
island, and premises, with all the royalties thereof, freely, 
fully, entirely, and absolutely. I do also covenant and grant 
that the quiet and peaceable possession thereof shall, with all 
possible speed, be freely and effectually delivered to the Queen 
of Great Britain, or such person as Her Majesty shall there- 
unto appoint, for her nse in the performance of this grant ; the 
inhabitants of the said island and territories, as the Queen's 
• S.P., vol. lii, p. 181. 
409 



Digitized by 



Google 



6 Aug., 1861.] GREAT BRITAIN (LAaOS). [No. 92 

[Laffos.] 

subjects, and under her sovereignty, Crown, jurisdiction, and 
government, being still suffered to live there. 

King Docemo to retain title of King. 

m 

'*Art. II. Docemo will be allowed the use of the title of 
King in its usoal African signification, and will be permitted 
to decide disputes between natives of Lagos with their consent, 
subject to appeals to British laws. 

Stamp of King Docemo. 

*' Art. III. In the transfer of lands, the stamp of Docemo 
affixed to the document will be proofs that there are no other 
native claims upon it, and for this purpose he will be permitted 
to use it as hitherto. 

Pension to be paid to King Docemo, 
" In consideration of the cession as before mentioned of the 
port and island and territories of Lagos, the Representatives 
of the Queen of Great Britain do promise, subject to the 
approval of Her Majesty, that Docemo shall receive an annual 
pension from the Queen of Great Britain equal to the net 
revenue hitherto annually received by him ; such pension to 
be paid at such periods and in such modes as may hereafter be 
determined." 

By an Additional Article to the above Treaty, dated 
18th February, 1862, it was agreed that King Docemo should 
receive as a pension from the British Government 1,200 bags of 
cowries yearly, as equal to his net revenue, provided he did not 
break any of the Articles of that Treaty, and resigned all claim 
upon former farmers of his revenue. 

British Occupation of Lagos, 

On the same day (6th August, 1861) the following British 
Proclamation* was issued on the taking possession of Lagos : — 

*' British Consulate , LagoSy Gth August, 1861. 
** Docemo, King of Lagos, having ceded the sovereignty of | 

Lagos to the Queen of Great Britain, her heirs and successors I 

• S.P., Tol. Mi, p. 854. 
410 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ko. 92] GBEAT BRTTMN (Li.GOS). [6 Aug., 1861. 

[Lacos. Palma and Leokle.] 

for ever,* we, Norman B. BediDgfeld, Commander of Her 
Majesty's ship " Prometheus," and senior officer of the Bights 
Division ; and William McCoskry, Esqnire, Her Britannic 
Majesty's Acting Consnl, do this day formally take possession 
in the name of Her most gracions Majesty Qaeen Victoria. 

"Gk)d save the Queen!" 

Palma and Lechie, 
On the 7th February, 1863,t a Declaration was signed by 
Docemo, ex-Chief of Ep6 and formerly King of Lagos, respect- 
ing the extent of his former possessions. It ran as follows :— 

'* Bt the present document, I, Kosoko, ex-Chief of Ep6, and 
formerly King of Lagos, do declare that when King of Lagos, 
my territory extended to the eastward as far as Palma and 
Leckie, and that when I was expelled from Lagos and settled 
at Ep^, by the permission of the King of Jebu, I claimed those 
parts as my ports of trade, by right of my former ownership^ 
and they were recognized as such by the British Government. 

Hight of Lagos Government to Palma and Leckie, 

" Having now left Ep^, and returned to Lagos by the kind 
permission of Her Britannic Majesty's Government, I lay no 
further claim to the ports of Palma and Leckie, which conse- 
quently must revert to the Lagos Government." 

Epe. 

The following are the conditions upon which the Govern- 
ment of Lagos, on the part of Her Majesty's Government^ 
agi'eed to make peace with Possoo of Epe, in March, 1863 : — 

" Abt. I. Possoo acknowledges that he has no claim to the 
Chiefship of Palma and the land lying between it and Lagos 
south of the Ep^ Lagoon. 



* See Treaty, 6th August, 1861, p. 410. 
t S.P., Tol. iTii, p. 364. 

411 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



27 JQB6, 1863.] OBBAT BKITAIN <LA<K>S). [No. 92 

[AMo. ^»6.] 

''Art. III. He will not iitterfei*e wiih penons Teaiding 
within tbe Lagofl territory who maj prooeed to Epe for trade or 
ttny legftl pnrpoBes, and will allow them to fix establishmentfi 
there and grant them every facility in their bosinesg. 



Eights of King of Jehu over Epe, 

" Act. YII. It is clearly nndentood by Possoo and his people 
that these conditions are not in the least to be considered as 
igxu>ring or waiving the right of the Eling of Jeba to the 
sovereignty of Ep^ which the British Government is aware 
forms a part of his territory, bat are merely to be held as con- 
ditioBs with Possoo himself so long as he is as now at Ep6 by 
sidEerance of the said King." 

British Protectorate over Addo. 

On the 27th Jane, 1863,* the King and Chiefs of Addo 
signed the following Agreement for placing their territory 
amder British protection : — 

" The King and Chiefs of Addo having on or aboat the let of 
May, 1863, sent down a message to his Excellency, John 
Hawley Glover, the Lientenant-Govemor of Her Britannic 
Majeaty's Settlement of Lagos, requesting him to take npon 
himself, on the part of Her Britannic Majesty, the protection of 
their town and country, Mr. Thomas Tickei, Resident Agent 
at Badagry, vidiied Addo on the 16th instant, and having con- 
ferred with the Eling and Chiefs touching the request they 
liad made to his Excellency ihe Lieutonant-Governor, and 
iiaving reported that it was their free and spontaneous wish 
that Her Britannic Majesty's Government should exorcise all 
the rights of a protecting power over them, his Excellency 
.^^isited Addo on the 26th June, and having assured himself of 
cHihe correctness of the foregoing statement, and the request 
being again repeated, his Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor 
.of Lagos, on the part of Her Majesty the Queen of Great 
.Britain, has taken upon himself the protection of the King, 
• H.T., Tol. zii, p. 103. Added to Lagoa, Sth August, 1891. 
412 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ko. 92] GBSAT BBITAIN (LA0OS). [29 June, 1803. 

[PooErmli. OlModaa.] 

^hiefry aad people of Addo, and has permitted them to hoist 
the (white) English flag with a red border, subjeot alwaja to 
the approval oi Her Majesty's Qovemment. 

" Therefore, his Excellency John Hawley Glover, the Lien • 
ienani-Qovenior of Lagos and Acting Consul for the Bight of 
Benin, &c., on the part of Her Majesty the Queen of Great 
Britain, and the King and Chiefs of Addo on the part of them- 
selves and their people, have agreed as is hereinbefore set 
forth. And the King and Chiefs further bind themselves to 
be guided in their proceedings with all sarrounding tribes as 
Her Majesty's Qovernment shall from time to time^ direct." 

British FrotectorcUe over PocraJi. 

On the 296h June, 1863,» the King and Chiefs of Pocrah 
•signed the following Agreement for placing their territory 
iunder British protection : — 

" The King and Chiefs of Pocrah having sfenc down repeated 
messages to the Governor of Lagos, through Mr. Thomas 
'Tickel, Resident Agent at Badagry, requesting him to take 
upon himself, on the part of Her Britannic Majesty, the pro- 
tection of their town and country, his Excellency John Hawley 
Glover, Lieutenant-Governor of Lagos, and Acting Consul for 
the Bight of Benin, visited that place on the 29th June, 1863, 
and having assured himself of the wishes of the King and 
Chiefs, and the request being wain repeated, his Excellency 
the Lientenant-Govemor, on the part of Her Majesty the 
•Queen of Great Britain, has taken upon himself the protection 
of the Ejng, Chiefs, and people of Pocrah, and has permitted 
ihem to hoist the (white) English flag with a red border, 
:8iil]ject always to the approval of Her Majesty." 

British Protectorate over Okeodan. 
On the 4th July, 1863, the King and Chiefs of Okeodan 
fiigned the following Agreement for placing their territory 
ttader British protection :- 



• HLT., Tol. xii, p. lOi. 
t S.P., Tol. ItU, p. 357 ; H.T., vol. xii, p 
413 



106. 

413 2 a 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



4 July, 1863.] GREAT BEITAIN (LAOOS). [No. 92 

[Okeodan. Badaffiy.] 

** The Chiefs of Okeodan haying sent down repeated messages 
to the Governor of Lagos, through Mr. Thomas Tickel, Resident 
Agent at Badagry, requesting him to t8.ke upon himself, on the 
part of Her Britannic Majesty, the protection of their town 
and country, his Excellency John Hawley Olover, Lientenant- 
Gk)7ernor of Lagos and Acting Consul for the Bight of Benin 
risited Shagbo, where he was received by the Chiefs of Okeodan 
on the ^th day of July, 1863; and having assured himself of 
the wishes of the Chiefs, and the request being again repeated, 
his Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, on the part of Her 
Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, has taken upon himself the 
protection of the Chiefs and people of Okeodan, and has per- 
mitted them to hoist the (white) English flag with a red border, 
on the understanding that they receive a representative of Her 
Majesty's Government to reside in their town, subject always 
to the approval of Her Majesty's Government." 

Cession of Badagry to Great Britain. 

On the 7th July, 1863, the Chiefs of Badagry signed the 
following Agreement, by which they ceded their territoiy to 
Great Britain : — * 

" His Excellency John Hawley Glover, Lieutenant-Governor, 
Commander-in-Chief, and Vice-Admiral of Her Britannic 
Majesty's settlement of Lagos, and Acting- Consul for the Bight 
of Benin, on the part of Her Majesty the Queen of Great 
Britain, and the Chiefs of Badagry on the part of themselves 
and their people, have agreed as follows : 

" Art. I. In order for the better keeping of the peace and 
quiet of the well-disposed persons living in Badagry, and for 
the better security of their lives and properties, as also for the 
purpose of setting aside all pretensions on the part of the King 
of Porto-Novo and others to the right and royalty of this 
district of Badagry ; 

" We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, being Chiefs of 
Badagry, have freely and willingly ceded to Her Majesty the 

• S.F., vol. hii, p. 869 ; H.T., voL xii, p. 106. See also Treatj, 6th May, 
1886, p. 424. 

414 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo. 92] aKEAT BRITAIN (LAGOS). [17 July, 1863. 

[Badagrjr. Okeodan.] 

Queen of Great Britain^ her heirs and successors, for ever, the 
town of Badagrj, and all the rights and territories and appur- 
tenances whatsoever thereunto belonging, as well as all profits 
and revenues, absolute dominion and sovereignty of the 
said town and territory of Badagry, freely, fully, entirely, and 
absolutely.* 

• • • • • 

" And we further declare that our right and property in the 
district of Badagry has always and does extend westward to 
the village to Witcheree, on the sea-shore, the half of the town 
of Qnameh, and the eastern side or shore of the Qaameh Creek, 
on Lagoon.'' 

Okeodan. 

On the 17th July, 1863, the following Indenture was signed 
by the Chiefs of Okeodan for the cession of their territory to 
Great Britain : — 

" This Indenture made the 17th day of July, in the year of 
our Lord 1863, in pursuance of an Act to facilitate the convey- 
ance of real property between Agro, Kembei, Elucie, Olucade, 
Afulu, Eloh, Maroyah, Ojoe, and Fallalah, Chiefs of Okeodan 
of the one part ; and Thomas Tickel, Resident Agent and 
Acting Yice-Consul of Okeodan, on behalf of Her Majesty the 
Queen of Great Britain, of the other part. 

'* Whereas, by a Convention signed by the above-named 
Chiefs on the 4th day of July, 1863,t the said Chiefs did therein 
agree to receive a representative of Her Majesty's Government 
to reside in their town; and whereas it is necessary that a 
Government [residence?] should be erected at Okeodan for 
accommodating such representative aforesaid, the said Chiefs 
have consented and agreed to the said Thomas Tickel to grant 
and convey to Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, her 
heirs and successors for ever, the piece or parcel of land herein* 
after described at or for the price or sum of 10 bags of cowries 
(equal to the sum of 7Z. sterling money) ; 

* See also Explanatory Declaration, 6th Haj, 18'86, p. 424. 
t Page 418. 

415 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 July, 1874J GBEAT BBITAIK (LAGOS). [Mo. 92 

[Oold Ooast Oolony.] 

" Now, this indenture witnesseth that, in pursnance of the 
said agreement, and in consideration of 10 bags of cowries now 
paid by the said Thomas Tickel to the said Chiefs hereinafter 
named (the receipt whereof the said before-named Chiefs do, 
and each of them doth hereby acknowledge) they the said 
Chiefs before named do, and each of them, doth hereby grant, 
bargain, sell, and assign unto Her Majesty the Qaeen of Great 
Britain, her heirs and snooessors, for eyer, all that piece or 
parcel of land situate and being at Okeodan, measuring 150 feet 
on the east, 150 feet on the west, 150 feet on the north, and 150 
feet on the south, and the said Chiefs hereinbefore named do, 
and each of them doth, farther conyenant with the said Thomas 
Tickel that they have the right to grant and convey the said 
land to Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, her heirs and 
successors, notwithstanding any act of the said Chiefs done or 
committed ; and that any of Her Majesty's representatives, or 
the representatives of her heirs and successors, shall have peace- 
able and quiet possession of the said land free from all in- 
cumbrances ; and that they will execute such further assurance 
of the said land as may be requisite, and that they have done no 
act to encumber the said land. And the said hereinbefore- 
named Chief releases to Her Majesty the Queen of Great 
Britain, her heirs and successors, for ever, all claims upon tho 
said land. 

" In witness whereof the said parties to these presents have 
hereunto set their hands, and the Great Seal of the Settlement 
of Lagos has been hereunto afBzed the day and year above 
written. 

" THOMAS TICKEL, 

" BesiderU Agentr 

[Marks of Chiefs.] 

L<igo8. Gold Coast Colony. 

On the 19th Eebruary, 1866*, a Royal Commission was 

issued for uniting Lagos, Gambia, and the Gold Coast to Sierra 

Leone, but this Commission was subsequently revoked by Boyal 

Letters Patent of 24th July, 1874, so far as regarded the Ck>ld 

• S.P., vol. lii, p. 1194. 

416 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 950 GBBAT SBITAIIf (LAGOS). [15 Mbr^ 1884^ 

[Xatann. Ayp*. Jakxl.] 

Coast and Lagos, which Scyttlements were declared to be ereefod 
into a separate Colony under the title of the Gold Coast Colony* 

On the 24th Jnly, 1874 * Letters Patent were issued for the 
erection of the Settlements of the Oold Coast and of Lagos 
into one Colony under the title of the Gold Coast Colony^ 
It was also declared in those Letters Patent that the Britudi 
Settlement on the Gold Coast comprised all places, settlememto^ 
and 'territories which at any time belong to Her Majesty in 
Western Africa between the 5th degree of west longitude and 
the 2nd degree of east longitude ; and that the British Settle- 
ment of Lagos comprised all places, settlements, and territories 
which might at any time belong to Her Majesty in Westenit 
Africa between the 2nd and 5th degrees of east longitude. 
But, on the 13th January, 1886, Lagos was erected into a 
separate Colony.f 

British Frotectorate over Katant^.X 

On the 24tb September, 1879, an Agreement was entered' 
into in the name of Her Majesty with the King and Chiefs of 
Katanu, by which their territory was placed undor British- 
Protection. 

British Protectorate over Appa.^ 

On the 15th March, 1884, an Agreement was entered into^ 
in the name of Her Majesty with the King, Princes, and Chiefs 
of Appa, by which their territory was i^aced under Britisk 
Protection, and on the same day the British flag was hoisted iar 
that territory. 

British Protectorate over JaJcri, 

On the 16th July, 1884, a Treaty was signed between 
Great Britain and Jakri for placing Jakri under British 
Protection : — § 

'^Art. I. Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and 
Ireland, Ac, in compliance with the request of the Chiefs and 

• S.P., vol. liTi, p. 942. 
t H.T., Tol. xvii, p. 113. 

t See Agreement. Great Britain and France, 10th August, 1889, 
Art. IV, p. 561. 

§ H.T., Tol. iTii, p. 138. 

417 



Digitized by 



Google 



QA Oct, 1885.] ajlEAT BBITAUT (LAaOS). [No. 92 

[Otfbo.] 

people of Jakri, hereby nndertakes to extend to tbem and to 
the territory nnder their authority and jurisdiction Her 
gracious favour and protection. 

*' Art. II. The Chiefs of Jakri agree and promise to refrain 
from entering into any correspondence, Agreement, or Treaty 
with any foreign nation or power, except with the knowledge 
and sanction of Her Britannic Majesty's Oovemment. 

" Art. III. It is agreed that full and exclusive jurisdiction^ 
civil and criminal, over British subjects and their property in 
the territory of Jakri is reserved to Her Britannic Majesty, to 
be exercised by such Consular or other officer as Her Majesty 
shall appoint for that purpose. The same jurisdiction is like* 
wise reserved to Her Majesty in the said territory of Jakri 
over foreign subjects enjoying British protection, who shall be 
deemed to be included in the expression ' British subject ' 
throughout this Treaty.'* 

British Protectorate over Ogho. 

On the 24th December, 1884, the following Treaty was 
signed between Great Britain and the Chiefs of Ogbo, for placing 
the territory of Ogbo under British Protection : — • 

"Art. I. Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and 
Ireland, &c., hereby undertakes to extend to the said Chie& 
and to the territory under their authority Her gracious favour 
and protection. 

"Ajeit. II. The said Chiefs agree and promise to refrain 
from entering into any correspondence, Agreement, or Treaty 
with any foreign nation or power, except with the knowledge 
and sanction of Her Britannic Majesty's Government. 

" Art. III. It is agreed that full and exclusive jurisdiction, 
civil and criminal, over British subjects and their property in 
the territory of Ogbo is reserved to Her Britannic Majesty, to 
be exercised as Her Majesty shall appoint and direct." 

This Treaty was ratified by the British Government, and a 
Proclamation on the subject issued on the 5th February, 1886.t 

• H.T., Tol. xTiii, p. 176. 
t H.T., Tol. x?ii, p. 1132. 
418 



Digitized by 



Google 



IfO. 92] GKEAT BRITAIN (LAGK)S). [24 Oct., 1885. 

CMahin Beaoh.] 

Cession to Qreal Britain of Mahin Beach, 

On the 24th October, 1885, the following Treaty was 
signed at Aboto, between Oreat Britain and the King of 
Mahin for the Cession to Great Britain of Mahin Beach : — * 

" Whebeas Amapetn, King of Mahin, bj a deed of sale dated 
At Mahin Town on the 29th January, 1885, ceded with all 
rights, inelading the sovereignty, to the German subject Herr 
^Gottlieb Leonhard Gaiser, a merchant residing in the city of 
Hambnrg, all that part of the Mahin country which is known 
JUi the Mahin Beach, and is situated in the Gulf of Benin, com- 
mencing as far as Abejanure on the west, extending to Abetobo 
on the east, and bounded inland by the next lagoon. 

'* And whereas the said King Amapetu on the 11th March, 

1885, entered into a Treaty of friendship and protection 
^containing VII Articles) with His Imperial Majesty the 
Emperor of Germany, by Dr. N. G. Nachtigal, His Majesty's 
Imperial General Consul and Commissioner for the West Coast 
^f Africa, endowed with the necessary powers of attorney in 
4he name of His Majesty the German Emperor, King of 
Prussia, Wilhelm I, whereby King Amapetn, in Article I 
>begged His Majesty the Emperor to take him and his country 
oinder his most gracious protection : 

" And whereas by the said Treaty, inter alia, the cession of 
the sea beach as aforesaid by King Amapetu was incorporated in 
the said Treaty under Article lY, and Dr. Nachtigal on behalf 
•of His Majesty the German Emperor acknowledged this assign- 
ment of country and the conditions connected therewith, put 
•the concerned part of the Mahin country under the immediate 
protection of the German Empire, and took the sovereignty 
•over it : 

** And whereas it was provided by Article VII of the afore- 
said Treaty of friendship and protection that it should be ' in 
if orce and legacy ' from the date on which it was signed, with 
the reservation that it should become invalid in case of the 

* H.T., vol. XI, p. 178. Beferred to in Frocbmation of 6th Febmary, 

1886, p. 422. H.T., vol. xyii, p. 1132. 

419 



Digitized by 



Google 



2t 0«t^ 1865.] aBBAT BBrTAIN (LAQO&f. [No. 92 

[Mahin B— ol L] 

non-rntifi cation thereof on the part of the Imperial German 
Goyemment within 18 months of the date on which the said 
Treatj was signed : 

*^ And whereas the before-mentioned Treat j was done aand 
signed at Mahin in the residence of Eling Amapetn, on the 11th 
March, 1885 : 

*' And whereas it has been notified bj the Consul at Lagos 
for the German Empire to King Amapetu of Mahin, that His 
Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Germany had declined to 
ratify and confirm the before mentioned Treaty of friendship 
and protection, whereby the same became nnll and void, leaving 
King Amapetn free to enter into a Treaty with Her Majesty 
Qneen Victoria : 

Mahin Beach. 

" Now, therefore, be it known to all whom it may concern* 
that King Amapetn, King of Mahin, by this Treaty entered 
into between himself as King of Mahin, and Her Most Gracious 
Majesty Victoria, of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Empress 
of India, by William Brandford Griffith, Esquire, Companion of 
the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and St. George, 
Lieutenant- Governor Administering the Government of Her 
Majesty's Gold Coast Colony, duly authorized for the said pur- 
pose, doth hereby for himself and his lawful successors, cede 
unto Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria, her heirs and 
successors, all that part of the Mahin country which is known 
as the Mahin Beach, wheresoever the Mahin country is bounded 
by the sea, the whole of such coast line being hereby ceded to 
Her Majesty, such cession being without prejudice to the rights 
of the said Gottlieb Leonhard Gaiser, as set forth in the deed 
of sale to him of the 29th January, 1885, hereinbefore referred 
to, the grant to him of such land rights extending on the sea 
beach in the Gulf of Benin, from Abejamure on the west to 
Abetobo on the east, and being bounded inland by the next 
lagoon. And Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen accepts 
the cession of the Mahin Beach in its entirety ; and, as respects 
the portion granted to Mr. G. L. Gaiser, and described in the 
dtcd of sale, hereby acknowledges the assignment of country 
made therein, and the conditions connected therewith, to 

420 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 92] ^BEAT BBITAIN (LAGOS). [24 Oct., 1865. 

Gottlieb Leonhard Ghtiser, places the concerned part of the- 
Mahin country under the protcietion of Great Britain, and takes 
the sovereignty over it. 

" This Treaty shall take effect from the day of the date^ 
hereof." 

British Protection over Mahin, 

On the 24th October, 1885, the following Treaty was signed 
between Great Britain and Mahin for placing Mahin Territory 
under British Protection : — * 

" Whereas Amapetn, King of Mahin, on the 11th March ^ 

1885, entered into a Treaty of friendship and protection with 
His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Germany, by Doctor N. 
G. Nachtigal, His Majesty's Imperial Consul General and 
Commissioner for the West Coast of Africa, endowed with the- 
necessary powers of attorney in the name of His Majesty the 
Gennan Emperor, King of Prussia, Wilhelm I, whereby King 
Amapetu, in Article I, begged His Majesty the Emperor to 
take his country under His most gracious protection. 

'^ And whereas it was provided by Article YII of the afore* 
said Treaty of friendship and protection, that it should be ' in 
force and legacy ' from the date on which it was signed, with 
the reservation that it should become invalid in the case of the 
non-ratification thereof on the part of the Imperial German 
Government within eighteen montiis of the date on which the 
said Treaty was signed. 

'' And whereas the before-mentioned Treaty was done and 
signed at Mahin, in the residence of King Amapetu, on the 
11th March, 1885 ; and whereas it has since been officially 
notified by the Consul at Lagos for the German Empire, to 
King Amapetu, that His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of 
Germany had declined to ratify and confirm the before-men- 
tioned Treaty of friendship and protecticfn, whereby the same 
became null and void, leaving King Amapetu free to enter into 
a Treaty with Her Most Ghracious Majesty Queen Victoria. 

" Now, therefore, be it known to all whom it may oonoem, 

* H.T., vol. xviii, p. 180. Beferred to in Proclamation of 6th February,. 

1886, p. 422, H.T., vol. zrii, p. 1182. 

421 



Digitized by 



Google 



18 Jan., ] 886. ] GREAT BRITAIN (LAGOS). [No. 02 

[Hahizu Iiaffo*.] 

.that the hereinbefore mentioned parties of the first and second 
parts of this Treaty of friendship and protection have agreed 
to the following Articles oonstitnting the same : — 

"Art. I. King Amapeta, of Mahin, led bj the desire to 
-strengthen and enlarge the relations, commercial and other- 
wise, maintained bj the trading and mercantile community of 
Lagos with him and his country, to protect the independence 
-of the latter, to fortify his Government, to procure to his sub- 
jects the advantages of civilization, and to secure to strangers 
the due protection of life and property, begs Her Majesty the 
'Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, to take 

Atijere, 

him and his conntry, including the island or land called Atijere, 
and all portions of his country bounded by the sea, under Her 

most gracious protection. 

"Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Empress of India, by Her Lieut.- Governor hereinbefore men- 
tioned, accepts the offer of King Amapetu, and will afford 
Her most gracious protection to him and his country. 

'* Art. II. King Amapetu hereby engages not to cede his 

<jountry nor any parts of it to any other Power, nor to con- 

•clude treaties with other Governments without the special con- 

.sent of Her Majesty the Queen." 

Lagos a Separate Colony, 

On the 13th January, 1886, Letters Patent were issued 
^erecting Lagos into a separate Colony.* 

Coast between Odi and the Benin River, 

. On the 5th February, 1886,t the following Proclamation 
was issued by the Governor of the Gold Coast, declaring the 
whole of the coast line between Odi and the Benin Biver 
including Jakri^ Ogbo, Mahin, and the Mahin Beach, to be 
oinder British Sovereignty and Protection : — 

• H.T., voC XTii, p. 118. 
t H.T., Yol. XTii, p. 1132. 
422 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho: 92] GREAT BRITAIN (LAOOS). [5 Feb., 1886^ 

[Coast between Odi and Benin Biver ; Jakrl, Oybo, Xahln, and 
yah in Beaoh.] 

*' Proclamation by H.E. Brandford Griffith, Esq., C.M.G., 

GoYemor and Commander-in-Chief of the Gold Coast 

Colony, &c., &c., Ac. 

" W. Bbandford Griffith, Governor. 

" Whereas, by a Ti-eaty made the 16th day of July, 1884 
(page 417), and ratified by Her Majesty's Gt)yemment, Her. 
Majesty extended to the Chiefs of Jakri and the territory under 
their authority and jurisdiction her gracious fayonr and protec- 
tion. 

'' And whereas, by a Treaty made the 24th day of December,. 

1884 (page 418), and ratified by Her Majesty's Government, Her 
Majesty extended to the Chiefs of Ogbo and the tenitory under 
their authority her gracious favour aud protection. 

'* And whereas, by a Treaty made the 24th day of October, 

1885 (page 421), the King of Mahin ceded unto Her Majesty aU 
that part of the Mahin country which is known as the MahiA 
Beach. 

" Now, therefore, I, William Brandford Griffith, Companioit 
of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint 
George, Governor of the Gold Coast Colony, do hereby pro- 
claim as follows : — 

'* 1. That the whole of the coast-line between Odi and the 
Benin River, including the above-named territories and the 
Mahin Beach, is now under the sovereignty and protection of 
Her Majesty. 

'* 2. That the above-mentioned coast-line has been attached 
to and forms part of the Protectorate of Lagos, and that the 
Custom Laws of Lagos will, from the date of this Proclamatioir, 
be in force therein. 

'' Given under my hand and the public seal of the Qold Coast 
Colony, at the Government House, at Christiansborg, in ^e 
said Colony, this 5th day of February, in tbe year of our Lord 
1886, and of Her Majesty's reign the forty -nintb. 
*' By his Excellency's command, 

" KNAPP BARROW, 

** Oolonial Secretary^ 
** Qod save the Queen." 
423 



Digitized by 



Google 



1866— 188a] GBSAT BBITA.IK (LAOOS). [Ho. 82 

[Frah, DwOuun WaUrs, Whami, ZirbMsa.] 

On the 5tli May, 1886,* a Declaration was signed by the 
"ChiefB of Badagry in explanation of the meaning of ** Town of 
Badagry and all its rights and territories and appurtenances 
whatsoeyer thereunto belonging," mentioned in the Treaty of 
July, 1863. The definition was given thus ; — " To the north- 
wiu*d, or inland, and inclnsiye thereof, Bagbo, Kogga, Ille, and 
tb line through them to the Ologe waters; to the west, the 
Aado River continued to the sea by a line passing through and 
inclusive of Qnameh ; to tbe eastward, Ologe waters, and a line 
thence to Okogbo, across lagoon to sea. To the southward, the 
sea. Further — ^that its furthest inland town of Kogga Ille was 
the late Chi^f Akrauh's, who signed the Treaty, and was in- 
cluded in the cession." 

On the 28rd July, 1886, the following Declaration was 
signed by certain Chiefs and Elders respecting Dekami, the 
Kingdom of Frah, the Denham Waters, and the Kingdom of 
Whemi. 

Declaeition of Plevekrunu, Vudunu Toso, Vudunu Toti, 
Vudunu Obehi, Vudunu Menu, Headmen, and Kumano* 
. Kokodi, Attn, Yrenh, Agrangbo, Edeinde, Elders, made at 
Dekami, this 23rd day of July, 1886. 

DeJcami and the Kingdom of Frah. 

" We, the undersigned, solemnly declare that Dekami is and 
jklwajs has been part of the Kingdom of Frah. 

'* Shortly before the union of the Kingdom of Frah to Her 
Majesty the Queen of England in the year 1879,t the Chiefs and 
Elders of Dekami attended at Katanu and did homage to the 
King of Frah. 

" They have since frequently and notably (some two moidbs 
Ago) attended at Katanu and dome homage to their lawfal 
King the King of Frah. 

• H.T., vol. iTii, p. 230. 

t S.P., vol. Ixxix, p. 616. 

424 



Digitized by 



Google 



Bo. 92] aBEAT BBITAIN (LAGK)S). [22 May, 1888. 

[IffbMMk. Ift.] 

Denliam Waters, 

*' Owing to the hostile acts and threatening attitude of Tofa, 
King of Porto Novo, they have been lately mach hindered in 
the discharge of their duties as liege of the King of Frah, but 
they still recognize, as they have always recognized, as right to 
settle their palavers in any one else than the King of Frah. 
All the land south of Dekami on the Denham Waters, and 
indeed all the land abutting on the Donham Waters, in or, until 
recently, was part of the Kingdom of Frah. 

Whemi. 

'' The Kingdom of Whemi never has extended to the Denham 
Waters or to the Zunu (Kanji Agege) Greek." 

Ighessa. 

On the 16th May, 1888,* a Treaty was signed between Oreat 
Britain and the Chiefs, Elders, and people of the Kingdom of 
Igbessa, which contained the following Articles : — 

Ighessa. Non^cession of Territory^ Boundaries^ 8fC. 

" 2. The kingdom of Igbessa, which includes the towns of 
Agbara, Okegere, Ishon, Idologbo, Idoye, Agau, Ewutagbe, 
Imuta, Epatira, Igbodo, Ekogbo, Moshi, and Itebu, is perfectly 
independent, and pays tribute to no other Power, and territorially 
is bounded on the north by the Ilubi and Otta kingdoms, on 
the south by the Oloje wattmn and the degree of latitude repre- 
sented by Bu<^ to the west, on the east by the Colony of LagoB 
and the Itele creek, and on the west by the kingdom of Addo. 
• • • • • 

** 6. It is hereby further agreed that no cession of territory 
and no other Treaty or Agreement shall be made by the Eling 
or authorities of Igbessa than the one they have now made, 
without the full understanding and consent of the Governor of 
the Colony of Lagos on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen." 

* H.T., voL ZTiii, p^ 188; QJ?., vol. hudx, p. 61&. Added to Lagos, 5ih 
Angufit, 1891. 

425 



Digitized by 



Google 



29 May, 188a] GREAT BRITAra (LAGOS). [No. 92; 

[Itebu. Xetu.] 

A Declaration, was signed by the Chiefs, Elders, and people- 
of Igbessa on the same day, in which the boundary of that 
kingdom was similarly defined. 

On the 15th May, 1888, a Proclamation was issued annonncing^ 
the establishment of a British Protectorate over Igbessa. 

Ife, Non^cession of Territory^ BoundarieSy 8fc. 

On the 22nd May, 1888,* the following Declaration wa» 
signed by the King, Chiefs, and others of If e : — 

''2. The kingdom of Ife is perfectly independent and 
pays tribute to no other •Power, and territorially is bounded on 
the north by Ibadan territory (by Oshun River) and on the soutL 
by Ondo and Jebu territories, on the east by Ijesha and Ondo- 
territories, and on the west by the Oshun River. 

"6. It is hereby further agreed that no cession of territory 
and no other Treaty or Agreement shall be made by the King^ 
or authorities of Ife than the one they have now made, without 
the full undeistanding and consent of the Governor of the^ 
Colony of Lagos on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen." 

Itehu. Non-cession of Territory^ BoundarieSy ^c. 

*0n the 28th May, 1888,t the following Declaration was^ 
signed by the King, Chiefs, and others of the kingdom of 
Itebu :— 

'' 2. The kingdom of Itebu is perfectly independent and pay» 
tribute to no other Power, and territorially is bounded on the 
north by Oketoro and Akimana territories, on the south by the* 
Atijere market, on the east by Oketero territory, and on the 
west by the Ofara River. 

• • • • • - 

'* 6. It is hereby further agreed that no cession of territory 
and that no other Treaty or Agreement shall be made by the^ 
King or authorities of Itebu than the one they have now made,. 

• S.P., ToL Ixxix, p. 619. H.T., vol. xriii, p. 192. 

t S.P., ToL Ixrii, p. 620. H.T., toL xviii, p. 192. 

426 



Digitized by 



Google 



ITo. 92] GBEAT BBITAIN (LAGOS). [29 May, 1888. 

withont the fall understanding and consent of the Qovernor 
of the Colony of Lagos on behalf of Her Majesty the Qaeen.^' 

Ketu. Non-cession of Territory^ Boundaries, ^c. 

On the 29th May, 1888,* the following Declaration was signed 
by the King-designate, Chiefs, and others of the kiogdom of 
Keta :— 

" 2. The kingdom of Ketu is perfectly independent, and pays 
tribute to no other Power, and territorially is bounded on the 
north by the country of Barba, on the east by the territory of 
the Alafin of Oyo (Yoruba), from which we are divided by the 
Awyun arm of the Ogun River, on the west by Dahomey, and 
on the south by Egba, Ilaro, Okeodan, and Porto Novo. 
• • • • • 

" 6. It is hereby farther agreed that no cession of territory 
and no other Treaty or Agreement shall be made by the Eling 
or authorities of Ketu than the one they have now made, with- 
put the full understanding and consent of the Qovernor of the 
Colony of Lagos, on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen." 

On the same day, the following Treaty was signed between 
Great Britain and the Chiefs and people of Keta for placing 
their territory under British Protection : — 

British Frotectorate over Ketu.f 

*^ We, the King- designate. Chiefs, Elders, and people of the 
kingdom of Ketn, hereby offer ourselves and our territory to be 
included within the protectorate of Her Majesty's Qovemment 
of Lagos, and we do hereby declare that onr rights and pro- 
perty in the kingdom of Ketu comprise all that teiritoiy 
bounded on the north by the country of Barba, on the east by 
the territory of the Alafin of Oyo (Yoruba), from which we are 
divided by the Awyun arm of the Ogun River, on the west by 
Dahomey, and on the south by Egba, Ilaro, Okeodan, and 
Porto Novo. 

• S.P., vol. Ixxix, p. 622. H.T., vol. xriii, p. 103. 

t S.P., Tol. Ixxtx, p. 030. F.T., vol. xviii, p. 194. 

427 2 H 



Digitized by 



Google 



.81 Jolyi 1888.] OBBAT BBITAIK (L1GO0). Qlo. V 

[Ibii. Xtaro.] 

*' 2. We engage to enter into no dispate or warfare with any 
neighbouring tribe, but to refer anch matters to the Govenim^ot 
of Lagos ; any encroachment or violation of onr rights of terri- 
tory we agree to refer in the same manner. 

" 3. We engage not to enter into any negotiations with any 
foreign State without the express permission of Her Majesty *b 
GcYemment. 

** 4. We further engage to make no cession of territory, and 
no Treaty or Agreement other than the one we now have 
made, without the full understanding and consent of the 
Goyemor for the time being of the Colony of Lagos on behalf 
of Her Majesty. 

*' 5. We further engage to enter into such further arrange* 
ments for the government of our territory as may seem fit to 
Her Majesty's Government at any future period, and we 
solenmly declare that we have full right to dispose of our 
kingdom as we propose, that we have made already no such 
offer to any other Power, and that we are on friendly terma 
with all our neighbours, and that open communication exists 
to all." 

Ibu. Non-cession of Territory. Boundaries, Sfc. 

On the 31st May, 1888,* the following Declaration was 
signed by the Chiefs of Ibu : — 

*• 2. The Ibu towns near and around the kingdom of Itebu 
are perfectly independent and pay tribute to no other Power, 
and territorially are bounded on the north by Obu and Ikale 
land, on the south by the Lagoon, on tbe east by Ikonya (a 
section of the Ikale tribe) land, and on tbe west by Ofara' 
Biver, ceai* Makun and Ibigi (Ijebu villages). 

• • • • • 

" 6. It is hereby further agreed that no cession of territory, 
and that no other Treaty or Agreement shall be made by tha 
Chief and authorities of the Ibu towns than the one they have- 
now made, without the full understanding and consent of 

• H.T., Tol. xTiii, p. Ifl5, 8.P^ toI. Ixxix, p. 624, 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 92] OREAT BRITAIN (LAGOS). [23 JlUy, 1888. 

[Oyo and Torabaland.] 

*tho Governor of tlio Colony of Lagos on behalf of Hep Majesty 
the Qneen." 

Haro. Non-cessioH of Territory, Bouiidanes, ^'c* 

On the 21st July, 1888, a Convention was signed between 
the Governor of Lagos and the People of liaro, which contained 
the following clause : — • 

" Convention made on the 2l8t day of July, 1888, between the 
Governor of Lagos and Olngbenle the Oba, or King Taiwo, 
the Elemo Oshagna, the Apena Bankole, Ashipa and Odn^ 
the Balogan of the kingdom of Ilaro, on behalf of themselves 
and the people of the said kingdom of the other parfc. 

^'6. The IlaroB shall not make any cession of territory, 
Treaty, or Agreement, to or with any foreign State, or enter 
into negotiations with any foreign State, withoat the fall 
knowledge, nnderstanding, and consent of the Governor of 
Lagos." 

British ProtectorcUe over Haro. 

On the same day, the following Declaration was made by 
the authorities of the Kingdom of Ilaro :— * 

''Declaration made on the 21st day of July, 1888, by the 
Authorities of the kingdom of Ilaro.f 

*' We, the undersigned, Olugbenla, the Obba (King), Taiwo, 
the Elemo, Oshagua, the Apcna, Bankole, the Ashipa, and Oda, 
the Balogun of the kingdom of Ilaro, declare as follows : — 

"1. Ilaro is an independent kingdom. It does not paj 
tribute to any other Power» Nor is it under the protection of 
any other Power. 

** 2. We and the rest of the people of Ilaro earnestly solicit 
Her Britannic Majesty to accord to ourselves and our counivj 
her gracious protection ; and we entreat Her said Majesty to 
take our territory under her gracious protection ; accord* 
ingly, and to include it in the protectorate of her Colony of 
Lagos. 

* H.T., ToiL xviii, p. 196. S.P., vol. Izxix, p. 625. 
t S.P., ToI» Ixxix, p. 627. Added to Lagos 18th Augoit, 1891. 

2 b2 



Digitized by 



Google 



23 July, 1888.] GEEAT BRITAIK (LAGOS). [No. 92 

[Oyo, Yorubaland, and Ibadan.] 

" 3. Oar said territory is bounded on the west by Dabomey 
and Porto Novo, on the north by Kotn, Ineko, Iboro, Shawonpa, 
and Okele, on the east by Otta and the Egba eonntry, and on 
the south by Ipokia (Pokra), Addo, and Igbessa. 

" 4. The following are our principal towns, viz., Tlaro, Ajilete, 
Pahai, Ijalo, .Itoln, Gbotodu, Epoto, Igbogn, Ilagboro, Igbin, 
Iwoye, Ibeshe, Ijana, Ipake, Idode, Ilobinuwa, Ikemon, Ilobi, 
Palaka, Shasha, Mori, Akaba, Eredo, Ologuntaba, Pakoso, and 
Inonkere. 

'*5. To show our sincerity we are ready to forthwith enter 
into any agreement into which the Governor of Her Majesty's 
Colony of Lagos may reasonably require us to enter." 

Oyo and Yaruhaland, Non-cession of Territory. Boundaries, 8fc. 
On the 23rd July, 1888, the following Treaty was signed 
between Great Britain and Oyo and Yorubaland : — * 

"1. Adejemi, Alafin of Oyo and Head of Yorubaland, the 
four corners of which are and have been from time immemorial 
known as Egba, Kata, Jebu, and Oyo, embracing within its 
area that inhabited by all Yoruba-speaking peoples • • . have 

declared my intention of abiding by the following Articles : — 
• • • • • 

" 7. It is hereby agreed that no cession of territory, and 
no other Treaty or Agreement, shall be made by me other 
than the one I have now made, without the full understanding 
and consent of the Governor for the time being of the said 
Colony of Lagos." 

« • • « * 

To this Treaty the following certificate was added by the 
accredited messengers from the Ibadan Authorities : — 

" Oyo is commonly known as the Yoraba Kingdom, and 
embraces the towns of Oyo, Awe, Akinmarin, Ilora, Iseyin, 
Papa, Tede, also Sabe country. 

" We hereby farther certify that the towns named in the 
marginf are under the direct inflaence of the Balogan and 

• H.T., vol. xviu, p. 198. S.P., rol. Ixxix, p. 628. See also Treaties, 8rd 
February and 15ih August, 1898, p. 482. 

t H.T., Tol. xyiii, p. 20a w ^ 

430 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 02] aBEAT BRITAIN (LAGOS). [1888-1889. 

[Artijere Wharf. Ondo.] 

antborities of Ibadan, and that the above enumerated towns 
and country of Sabe, with their territories, also the towns de- 
tailed in the margin, represent now Yoruba proper, of which 
the capital is Oyo, with Adeyemi as the acknowledged Alafin or 
King 07er the whole." 

Ibadan Jurisdiction. (Towns mentioned in margin of above 
Certificate,) 

Ibadan to Olowa, 1 mile off the River Ona, is the boundary 
now on the south between Ibadan and Jebu Ode. (We may go 
on farming thi*oagh as farther on as we like to Jebu Ode.) 

Boundary between Egba and Ibadan is the farm village of 
Ilugun on the west. 

Chief towns are Lalupou, Snkaru, He Olugbon, Ejioku, 
Ofa II, Iwo, He Igbo, Kuta, Ede, Osogbo, Ikirun, Oguix), 
Lagnnmesin, Ipefcu, Modu, Odunabon, 3Ioro, Modakeke (end of 
Ibadan territory, with Ife). 

Gbangan, Ikire, Yakoyo, Apomyu, Ikoyi, Erunmu, Owobale, 
Ire, Otan, Igbajo, Iba, Jabe, Oyon, Iresi, Erin, Offa (near Edo), 
Okinni, Ilobu, Egigbo, Ido, Ara, Ola, Ogbomoso, Iragberi, 
Ogbagba, Telemu, Isundurin (Ironwork), Otamokun, Ojo, 
Aguodo, Ijaye, Fiditi, Iware, Oroko, Ifan, Iragbiji, Ada, Agba, 
Iberekodo, Eruwa, Awaye, Ilebioku, Iganna, Biolorunpelu,Ipapo, 
Isehin territory, which is conterminous with Ketu and Mahi. 

Artijere WJiarf. Itehu and Ibu, Boundaries, 
On the 9th October, 1888, the following Memorandum was 
sigpied by Ladokun, son of King Manuah, and two accredited 
messengers : — 

'' We are authorized to state that the land from and inclusive 
of Artijere landing and island to a point half-way between 
Ayesau and Araromi is under the jurisdiction of Manuwah, 
King of Itebu, and of the Odele, Akagun and other authorities 
of the Ibu (Ubu) towns and villages. 

*^ That the jurisdiction of the King of Itebu and of the 
authorities of the Ubu towns and villages is separate and dis- 
tinct, and that territorially it is embraced within the area 
occupied by the Mahin (commonly and generally known as llaje) 
speaking tribes. 

431 



Digitized by 



Google 



1888.] aREAT BRITAIN (LAGOS), [No. 92 

[Ondo. IlMtdan.] 

'*That both territories are contermiDOus on the west with 
the kingdom of Jeba." 

Ondo. Nofi-cesnon of Territonj. Bouiidanes. 

On the 20th February, 1889, the following Treaty was 
signed between Great Britain and the King and people of 
Ondo :— * 

"2. The kingdom of Ondo is perfectly independent and 
pays tribute to no other Power, and territorially is bounded 
on the north by the Ife kingdom, on the south by the Ikale 
territory, on the east by Ijesa and Ekiti territories, and on the 
west by the Ijebu territory. 

# * • * * 

" 6. It is hereby further agreed that no cession of territory, 
and that no other Treaty or Agreement, shall be made by the 
King or authorities of Ondo than the one they have now made, 
without the full understanding and consent of the Governor of 
the Colony of Lagos on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen." 

Bnflsh and French Spheres of Infuence, 
On the 10th August, 1889, an Agreement was entered into 
between the British and French Governments defining their 
respective spheres of influence in Africa. (See Grkat Beitain 
AND FRANCE, p. 558.) 

Ibadan. 

On the 15th August, 1893, a Treaty was signed between 
Great Britain and Ibadan. It was declared therein that the 
general administration of the internal affairs of the Yoruba 
towns of I wo, Edo, Osogbo, Ikirun, Ogbomoso, £jigbo, and 
Isein, as well as in all countries in the so-called Ekun Otnn, 
Ekun Osi, were to be vested in the Government of Ibadan, and 
that the local authorities of the said towns acted in harmony 
with and were subject to Ibadan, notwithstanding that the 
Alafin was recognized as the King and head of Yoruba Land. 

• H.T., Tol. xTiii, p. 201. 
432 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN 

• (NATAL). 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN (NATAL). 



No. Pago 

93 1843—1885. Notes on Katal....... 434 

— 12 Hay, 1843. Proclamation. Bktrict of Port NaUl. British 

Protectorate 434 

— 6 Oct., 1843. Treaty. Zoolah. Ceesion. Boundary 434 

— - 31 May, 1844. Letters Patent. Annexation. Natal District to 

Gape Colony .•,•..... 435 

— 21 Aug., 1884. Proclamation. Boundaries of District of Natal • • • 435 

— 11 April, 1850. Treaty. Amapondas. Cession. Boundary •••••• 435 

— 12July,1866. Proclamation. Natal a Separate Colony 485 

— 3Feb.,1858. Order in CounciL Boundaries of Natal 436 

— 5 June, 1858. Proclamation. Boundaries of District of Natal . . • 436 

— 9 Deo., 1863. Letters Patent. Annexation of Nomansland to 

Natal 486 

— 7 Sept, 1865. Proclamation. Boundaries of District of Natal ... 437 

— lODec.,1875. British Plrotection. Amaquatis , 437 



433 



Digitized by 



Google 



1843-1885J GREAT BRITAIN (NATAL). [No. 93 

[Natal and Zululand.] 

No. 93.— Notes on NATAL 1843— X885. 

Dxstrirt of Port Natal, British Protectorate. 

On the 12th May, 1843, a Proclamation was issued bj the 
Governor of the Cape of Qood Hope, which contained the 
following Declaration : — 

" III. — That the district of Port Natal, according to such 
conTenient .limits as shall hereafter be fixed npon and defined, 
will be recognized and adopted by Her Majesty the Qaeen as a 
British Colony, and that the Inhabitants thereof shall, so long 
aa they conduct themselves in an orderly and peaceable manner, 
be taken under the protection of the British Crown." 

CessiMi to Great Britain of Zooldh Territory including St. 
Lucia Bay. 
' On the 5th October, 1843,* a Treaty was concluded between 
Panda, Kiug of the Zoolah nation, and the Hon. Henry Cloete, 
Esq., LL.D., Her Britannic Majesty's Commissioner for th& 
territory of Natal, by which that King and Chief ceded to Her 
Majesty his territories and possessions, the boundaries of which 
were defined to be as follows : — 

*' I, the Undersigned, Chief and King of the Zoolah natiou, 
do hereby declare to cede all right and title which I heretofore 
had to the mouth of the Biver Umvaloosi, and to the bay there 
8itnate,t to and in favour of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, or 
the lawful Sovereign of Great Britain for the time being, for 
ever, with full liberty to visit, land upon, and occupy the 
shores along the said bay and mouth of the said Kiver 
Umvaloosi, the Undersigned hereby agreeing and consentiug to 
appoint, whenever he shall be thereto requested, two Indunas 
or Commissioners, for the purpose of defining and proving the 
limits and extent of the sea shore so ceded and given up to Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria, or the lawful Sovereign of Great 
Britain, for the time being." 

• H.T., ToL XT, p. 848; S.P., Tol. xzxiii, p. 1075. 
t St. Lucia Bay. See Great Britain (Zululand). 
434 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 93] GBEAT BBITAIK (NATAL). [1843-1885, 

[Natal and Ztdvland.] 

Boundary between Natal and Zululand, 

To this Treaty the following Declaration was attached :•— 
" Art. II. — ^It is hereby agreed between the Undersigned 
that the respective bonndaries between the territory of Natal 
and the Zoolah nation, shall be defined at the sea line by the 
month of the River Tngela, and from thence upwards until the 
junction of that stream with the junction with the Hmsinyaatee 
(or Buf^els Biver), from thence upwards by the said River 
Umsinyaatee (or Buff els Biver), or such other boundary line, 
along or near its banks, as may at any time hereafter be fixed 
upon by the Undersigned, Her Majesty's Commissioner for the 
territory of Natal, or such other Commis.> loner as Her Majesty 
may appoint, and by any two Indunas or Commissioners whom 
the undersigned Panda, King of the Zoolah nation, may appoint 
for that purpose ; and from thence northward to the foot of the 
Quathlamba (or Draaksberg) mountains." 

Annexatto7i of Natal District to Cape Colony. 

On the 31st May, 1844,* Letters Patent were issued for 
the annexation of the district of Natal to the settlement of the 
Cape of Good Hope ; and, on the 21 st of August of the same 
year, a Proclamation was issued defining the territories which 
constituted the said district and the boundaries thereof. 

South'Westeim Boundary, 

On the 11th April, 1850,t a Treaty was concluded between 
Faku, Chief of the Amapondas, and Walter Harding, Edq., on 
behalf of Her Britannic Majesty, by which the said Faku ceded 
to Her Majesty all the territory therein mentioned lying 
between the Umtamfuna and Hmzimkulu Rivers, and between 
the Quamlamba Mountains and the sea. 

Natal a Separate Colony. 

On the 12th July, 1856, Natal was declared to be a separate 

colony. 

• Natal Ordinances, vol. ii, 1870*1878. 
t H.T., Tol. XTiii, p. 665. 
435 



Digitized by 



Google 



1943— 1885.J GBEAT BRITAIK (NATAL). [No. 93 

[HomanslancLl 

Bou9idane8 of Natal, 

On the 3rd Febrnary, 1858,* an Order in Council was 
issued defining the boundaries of the Colony of Natal to be as 
follows : — 

'* Within a line on the north-east from the mouth of the 
Briver Tugola, along the right bank of that river to the junctioa 
of the said river with the River Umzinyati, otherwise BnfEalo; 
from thence along the right bank of the said Umzinyati, other- 
wise BnfEalo River, to the source of the first afiBuent, which it 
receives from the Drakensberg, or Qnahlamba MountainSi 
issuing from the point where these mountains cease to be a con* 
tinuous chain, and which is now known as Division Stream ; 
from thence along the crest or watershed of the said mountains 
to the source of the principal western branch of the TJmzimkuIa 
River ; from thence along the said branch to its junction with 
the other branch, or branches, of the said last-mentioned river; 
from thence along the last- mentioned river to where it empties 
itself into the sea ; and from thence along the sea to the mouth 
of the Tugela River aforesaid." 

A Proclamation to this effect was issued on the 5th June 
1858. 

Nomaiisland. Atmexaticni to NaiaX, 

On the 9th December, 1863,t Royal Letters Patent were 
issued for the annexation to the Colony of Natal of the terri- 
toiy lying between the Rivers Umzimknlu and Umtamf una, the 
boundary of which was declared to be as follows : — 

*'0n the north-east, by the Umzimkuln River, from the 
mouth of the said river to its junction with the Ibis! ; on the 
north and north-west by a line drawn from the said junction to 
the nearest point of the ridge or watershed, dividing the waters 
of the Ibisi from those of the Umzimkuli wana ; thence along the 
said ridge to the Ingela range ; thence along the Ingela range, 
keeping the watershed to a large beacon recently erected by the 
Surveyor-General of the said Colony of Natal, and Sir Walter 

• H.T., vol. xviii, p. 661. 

t H.T., Tol. XTiii, p, 666. 

436 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 93] aHEAT BBTTAIN (NAIAL) [1843— 1885. 

[AsuKLuatii.] 

Onrrie, at the weBiem exiiemity of the said range ; and thence 
straight to the nearest source of the Umtamf ana ; on the sonth* 
west of the Umtamf una Biver from the said source thereof to 
the sea ; and on the south-east hj the sea, from the month of 
the Umtamf ana to that of the Umzimknla River." 

On the 7th Septemher, 1865, a Proclamation was issued^ 
fixing the 13th of that month as the day from and after which 
the territory in question shoald he annexed to, and form part 
of, the Colony of Natal. 

' AmaqtuUis, British Protection* 

On the 10th Decemher, 1875, the Chief of the Amaqoatis 
placed his oountry and his trihe under British protection.* 

• H.T., Tol. xr, p. 86. 



4»7 



Digitized by 



Google 



*f '^ . 



Digitized by Vii 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN 

(NIGER). 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN (NIGER). 



NIGER DISTRICTS AND NIGER COAST 
PROTECTORATES. 



No. 

9i 1882—1893. 

— 26 Feb., 1885. 

— April-June, 1885. 



95 6 June, 1885. 

96 10 July, 1886. 
— July, Aug., 1886. 



97 18 Oct., 1887. 

— 1 July, 1890. 

— 5 Aug., 1890. 
08 1884—1892. 

— 14AprU, 1893. 
99 13 May, 1893. 

— 15 Nov., 1893. 



Page- 
Notes on the Niger DiBtricts and Niger Coast Pro- 

tectoratee • . . . • 440* 

General Act. Berlin Conference. (See Africa 
(General.) Application to Niger and its Affluents. 
Agreement. Great Britain and Germany. Spheres 
of Influence. Gulf of Guinea. (See Great Britain 
and Germany.) 
Notification. British Protectorate over Niger Districts 445 
Boyal Charter. " National- African Company " . . . • 44S- 
Supplementary Agreement. Great Britain and Ger- 
many. Spheres of Action. Gulf of Guinea. Bi\dr 
Benu6. (See Great Britain and Germany ) 
Notification. British Protectorate over Niger DU- 
tricts. " National African Company," now called 

'' Boyal Niger Company " 44$^- 

Agreement. Great Britain and Germany. Spheres 
of Influence. Gulf of Guinea. (See Great Britain 
and Germany.) "^ 

Agreement. Great Britain and France. Spheres of 

Influence. (See Great Britain and France.) 
List of Treaties. National Africa Company and 

Boyal Niger Company with Native Chiefs 450* 

Agreement. Great Britain and Germany. Bio 

del Key. (See Great Britain and Germany.) 
Notification. " Oil Bivers Protectorate " to be called 

the "Niger Coast Protectorate" 479> 

Agreement. Great Britain and Germany. Bound- 
aries. Yola, &c. (See Great Britain and Ger- 
many.) 



439 



Digitized by 



Google 



1882-1885.] GREAT BRITAIN (NIGER). [No. 94 

[Niffer DUtricta and Niffer Coast Protectorates.] 

No. 9^.— NOTES on the Niger Districts and Nigeu Coast 
Pkotectokates, 1882 — 1893. 

Naticynal Africa Company. 

In 1882 a company, entitled the ** National African Company 

Limited," was formed to take over the business of the " United 

Africa Company Limited " in Central Africa and in the Niger 

Regions. 

Treaties with Native Chiefs. 

In October, 1884, the Company purchased the business and 
objects of the " Compagnie Fran9aisede I'Afrique Equatoriale."* 

/In the same year various Treaties were concluded between Consul 
Hewctt and native Chiefs of the Niger Districts, by which these 

*tterritories were placed under British protection.f (See List 

-page 450.) 

Navigation of the River Niger, 

On the 26th February, 1885, the General Act of the Berlin 
Conference was signed (No, 17), chapter V of which contained 
•an " Act of Navigation for the Niger,'* which applied, generally, 
(to the Niger and its affluents the free navigation articles of the 
Final Act of the Congress of Vienna of 1815. J 

British and German Sphei'es of Injluaice, 

In April — June, 1885, the British and German Governments 

entered into an Agreement, by an exchange of Notes, defining 

their respective spheres of action in the Gulf of Guinea. By 

this Agreement Germany engaged not to make acquisition, 

accept Protectorates, or interfere with the extension of British 

influence in that part of the Gulf of Guinea lying between the 

right river bank of the mouth of the Rio del Roy entering the 

sea between 8° 42' and 8** 46' long, east of Greenwich and 

the British colony of Lagos, nor in the interior, to west of a line 

following the right river bank of the Rio del Rey from the said 

mouth to its source, thence striking direct to the left river bank 

• " Bupdett's Official InfceUigence," 1893. 
t H.T., vol. xvii, p. 130. 

J Arte. 108-117. Hertslet's "Map of Europe by Treaty," vol. i, 
pp. 269-272. 

440 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 94] GREAT BRITAIN (NIGER). [1885. 

[Niffer Districts and Nifirer Coast Protectorates.] 

of the Old Calabar or Cross River, and terminating, after crogsinj; 
that river, at the point abont 9° 8' of long, east of Grcen>vich, 
marked "Rapids" on the English Admiralty chart. (See 
Great Britain and Germany, p. 596.) 

British Protectorate. Niger Districts, 
On the 5th Jane, 1885,* a Notification was inserted in the 
*^ London Gazette " to the effect that a British Protectorate had 
been established over the Niger Districts; the territories com- 
prised within the Protectorate were defined to be — the line of 
coast between the British Protectorate of Lagos, and the right 
or western bank of the month of the Rio del Rey ; and also the 
territories on both banks of the Niger, from its confluence with 
the River Benne at Lukoja to the sea, as well as the territories 
on both banks of the River Benu6, from the confluence up to 
and including Ibi (page 445). 

Lukoja, 

Lukoja. On the 26th June, 1866, Mr. John Lyons McLeod 
was appointed Consul for the districts bordering on the 
Rivers Niger and Chadda (or Benne), to reside at Lukoja, 
where he arrived on the 23rd of August, 1867.t 

On the 19th of the following month Bishop Crowther and 
others were seized at Oko Okein by Abbokko,J and Mr. William 
Fell was sent by Consul McLeod to procure their release ; but 
the boat in which they were being conveyed down the river was 
fired upon by the natives, and Mr. Fell was killed (28th Sep- 
tember, 1867). § 

On the 30th July, 1868, Lieut. Sandys, R.N., entered the 
Niger with H.M. ships ** Pioneer " and ** Investigator." He 
ascended the Benne as far as the Atipo, which village he 
destroyed (22nd August) ; he then went up the Niger to 
Wanangi, the nearest town to Bidda, the residence of King 
Massamba, and left on the 9th of September. On the 13th of 
September he arrived at Lukoja and destroyed the village on 

• H.T., Tol. xvii, p. 108. 
t S.P., Tol. Iviii, p. 932. 
t S.P., vol. Ixviii, p. 937. 
§ S.P., vol. Iviii, p. 940. 

4il 2x2 



Digitized by 



Google 



18Se-1890.] GKEAT BRITAIN (NIGEB). [No. 94 

[Niflrer District* and Kiffer Coast Protectorates.] 

Beacfort Island (IGth of September). The cause of tbc 
destiniction of these yillageB was that their kings demanded 
that 200 of the Lukoja people should be sold into slavery, or 
tlie sum of £1,000 paid as the ransom for Bishop Crowther, and 
an attack on Lukoja was threatened unless these demands were 
complied with.* The Lukoja Consulate was abolished on the 
13th of May, 1869, and Lieut. Dixon, R.N., then Acting Consul, 
left Lukoja on the 16th September, 1869. 

Royal ChaHer, National Africa Company, 

On the 10th July, 1886, a Rojal Charter was granted to the 
"National African Company, Limited " (page 446). 

British and Qcrman Spheres of Influence. 

In July, August, 1886, a Supplementary Agreement was 
entered into between the British and German Governments 
defining their respective spheres of action in the Gulf of 
Guinea from the Bio del Bey to a point to the east and near to 
ITola. (See Great Britain and Germany, p. 612.) 

British Protectorate. Niger Districts. 

On the 18th October, 1887,t another Notification was in* 
serted in the " London Gazette," in which it was stated that 
the British Protectorate of the Niger Districts then comprised 
the following territories: — On the line of coast between the 
British Protectorate of Lagos and the right or western river 
bank of the mouth of the Rio del Rey, and all territories in the 
basin of the Niger and its affluents, which were or might be for 
the time being subject to the government of the "National 
African Company, Limited '* (then called the " Royal Niger 
Company), in accordance with the provisions of the Charter of 
the said Company, dated 10th July, 1886 (see page 449). 

British and French Spheres of Influence. 

On the 5th August, 1890, a Declaration was signed by 
the British and French Governments, which contained the- 
following clause : — 

• S.P., Tol. Ux, pp. 986—1017. 
t H.T., vol. xvii, p. 126. S.P. vol. hcxyiii, p. 42. 
442 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 94.] GREAT BRITAIN (NiaER). [1890-1893. 

[Nlflrer DJstrlots and IXiger Coast Protectorates.] 

" The Government of Her Britannic Majestj recognises the 
sphere of influence of France to the south of her Mediterranean 
Possessions up to a line from Say on the Niger to Barrawa on 
Lake Tchad, drawn in such manner as to comprise in the 
sphere of action of the Niger Company all that fairly belongs 
to the kingdom of Sokoto : the line to be determined by Commis- 
sioners to bo appointed/'* (See Great Britain and France, 
p. 571.) 

British and German Spheres of Influence. 
On the 1st July, 1890, another Agreement was entered into 
between the British and German Governments defining their 
spheres of influence in the Gulf of Guinea and in other parts 
of Africa. (See Great Britain and Germany, p. 642.) 

Prohibition against Alcoholic Liquors. 
On the 18th June, 1892, that portion of the Niger Protec- 
torate which lies on, or to the north of, the 7-dogree of north 
latitude was, by notification to the Signatory Power3 of the 
Brussels Act, placed under the terms of Art. 91 of that Act, 
within the zone oi prohibition of alcoholic liquors. 

British and German Spheres of Influence, Rio del Bey. 

On the 14th April, 1893, an Agreement was signed be- 
tween the British and German Governments, in which it was 
declared that the right bank of the Bio del Rey waterway should 
be the boundary between the Oil Rivers Protectorate and the 
Colony of the Cameroons. (See Great Britain and Germany, 
p. 654.) 

Niger Coast Protectorate. 

On the 13th May, 1893, a Notification was inserted in 
the '* London Gazette," announcing that the portion of the 
British Protectorate of the Niger Districts which was nnder 
the administration of Her Majesty's Commissioner and Consul 
would, from the date of that Notification, be administered nnder 
the name of the " Niger Coast Protectorate,*' and would cease 
to be known as the " Oil Rivers Protectorate." (Page 480).^ 
• H,T., vol. xrii, p. 118. 
443 



Digitized by 



Google 



1893.] GREAT BRITAIN (NIGER). [No. 9* 

[Nifirer Distriots and Niflrer Coast Protectorates.] 

And on the 15th November, 1893, a further Agreement was 
signed between the British and German Governments defining 
the boundary between their respective spheres of inflnence iix 
the region extending from the Rio do Rey to " a point to the 
east of and close to, Tola," and on Lake Chad. (See Great 
Britain and Germany, p. 658.) 

Treaties with Native Chiefs. 

Between 1881: and 1893 numerous Treaties were concluded 
by the N^ational Africa Company and by the Royal Niger" 
Company with native Chiefs and others possessing territories 
in the basin of tlio Niger districts, by which they engaged to 
make no cession of territoi-y or to enter into any Treaty nego- 
tiations with Foreign States without the previous consent of 
the British Government,- and in return for which they were 
placed under British protection. A list of these Treaties is 
given at page 450. 



4M 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 



No. 95] GREAT BRITAIN (NIGER). [5 Jfme, 1886. 

[Britiah Proiaotorate. Hi«er Dlatriots.] 



No. 95.— NOTIFICATION of tlie British Protectorate of 
the Niger Districts, Foreign Office, 5th June, 1885. 

It is hereby notified for public iBformation that, under and' 
by vii'tue of certain Treaties concluded between the month of 
July last and the present date,* and by other lawful means, the 
territories on the West Coast of Africa, hereinafter referred to* 
as the Xiger Districts, were placed under tho Protectorate of 
Her Majesty the Queen from the date of the said Treaties re- 
spectively. 

The British Protectorate of the Niger Districts comprises the 
territories on the line of coast between the British Protectorate 
of Lagos and the right or western bank of tho mouth of the- 
Rio del Rey.l It further comprises tho territories on both« 
banks of the Niger, from its confluence with the Uiver Benu6 at 
Lukoja to the sea, as well as the territories on both banks of 
the River Benue, from the confluence up to and including Ibi. 

The measares in course of preparation for the administration 
of justice and the maintenance- of peace and good order in tho 
Niger Districts will be duly notified and published. 

[This notification was inserted in tho " London Gazette " of 
5th June, 1885.] 

• See pages 450—467. 

t S.P., vol. Ixxvi, p. 978. See also Notifications of IGth October, 1887, 
and 13th Maj, 1893, pp. 449, 479. 



Ub 



Digitized by 



Google 



10 July, 1888.] GREAT BKITAIN (NIGER). [Ho. 96 

[Charter. Vattonal African Co.] 



Uo. 96.—F.0YAL CHARTER graiUed to tlve Ndtional 
African Company.* IQth July, 1886. 

AU8TBACT. 

Preamble. 

Petition: 

Incorporation of Company in 1882. 

Its Objects, 

Trading Stations, Acquisition of Property, ^c. 

Acquisition of Charters, Concessions, and other Rights, 

Acquisition of Mines, Quan'ies, Fisheries, Sfc. 

Treaties of Cession with Native Chiefs, 

And whereas the Petition further states, that the Kings, 
Chiefs, and peoples of various territories in the basin of the 
River Niger, in Africa,| fnlly recognizing, after many years' 
experience, the benefits accorded to their countries by their 
intercourse with the Company and their predecessors, have 
ceded the whole of their respective territories to the Company 
by various Acts of Cession specified in the schedule hereto. 

Non-interference with Native Laws or Private Property. 
Purchase of Business of all European Traders, 
Lafge Sums of Money expended in acquiring Cessions of 
Territory from Native Chiefs, 

Improvement of Condition of Natives, 
Commercial Prosperity, S(*c,, of British Subjects, 

Authorization to Company, Acts of Cession by Native Chiefs. 

1. The said National African Company Limited (in this our 
Charter referred to as the Company), is hereby authorized nnd 
empowered to hold and retain the full benefit of the several 
cessions aforesaid, or any of them, and all rights, interests, 

• II.T., vol. xvii, p. 118. S.P., vol Ixxvii, p. 1022. Now called the 
'* Royal Niger Company.'* See Notification, 18th October, 18H7, p. 419. 
t See List, p. 450. 

446 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ko. 96] GREAT BRITAIN (NIGER). [10 July, 1886. 

[Charter. National African Co.] 

authorities, and powers for the purposes of govemraent, pre- 
servation of public order, protection of the said territories, or 
otherwise of what nature or kind soever, under or by virtue 
thereof, or resulting therefix)in, and ceded to or vested in the 
Oompany in, over, or affecting the territories, lands, and 
property comprised in those several cessions, or in, over, or 
■affecting any territories, lands, or property in the neighbour- 
hood of the same, and to hold, use, enjoy, and exercise the 
43ame territories, lands, property, rights, interests, authorities, 
and powers respectively for the purposes of the Company, and 
on the terms of this our Charter. 

2. Fulfilment hy Company of Promises given, » 

3. British Chardcter of tlie Company. 
4i, Restriction of Transfer hy Company, 

Foreign Powers, 

5. If at any time our Secretary of State thinks fit to dissent 
from or object to any of the dealings of the Company with any 
foreign Power, and to make to the Company any suggestion 
founded on that dissent or objection, the Company shall act in 
accordance therewith. ' 

6. Slavery, 

7. Religions of Inhabitants, 

8. Administration of Justice to Inhabitants, 

9. Treattnent of Inhabitants generally. 

10. Facilities for British National Ships. 

11. Flag, 

General Powers of Company. 

12. The Company is hereby further authorized and em- 
powered, subject to the approval of our Secretary of State, to 
acquire and take by purchase, cession, or other lawful means, 
other rights, interests, authorities, or powers of any kind or 
nature whatever, in, over, or affecting the territories, lands, or 
properties comprised in the several treaties aforesaid, or any 
rights, interests, authorities, or powers of any kind or nature 
whatever in, over, or affecting other territories, lands, or pro- 
perty in the region aforesaid, and to hold, use, enjoy, and 

447 



Digitized by 



Google 



10Jaly,]BS6.] GKKAT BRITAIN (NIGER). [No. 96 

[Ohartor. National African Co.] 

exeruise the same for the purposes of the Company and on tlio 
terms of this onr Charter. 

13. Questions of Title, 

14. Prohibition of Monopoly. 

Conformity to Treaties. 

15. The Company shall be subject to aad shall perform^ 
observe, and undertake all the observations and stipulations 
relating to the River Niger, its afBuents, branches, and outlets, 
or the territories neighbouriug thereto, or situate in Africa,. 
contained in and undertaken by ourselves under the General 
Act of tiie Conference of tho Great Powers at Berlin, dated the 
2Gth February, 1885 (No. 17), or in any other Treaty, Agree- 
ment, or Arrangement between ourselves and any other State 
or Power, whether already made or hereafter to be made. 

Foreign JuHsdiction, 

16. In all matters relating to the observance of the last 
preceding Article or to the exercise within the Company's 
territories for tho time being of any jurisdiction exercisable by 
us under the Foreign Jurisdiction Acts, or the said General Act 
of the 26th February, 1885 (No. 17), the Company shall con- 
form to and observe and carry out all such directions as may 
from time to time be given iu that behalf by our Secretary of 
State, and the Company shall, at their own expense, appoint 
all such officers to perform such duties and provide such Courts 
and other requisites for the administration of justice as ho 

directs. 

General Frovinons. 

Schedule of 29 Treaties, dated between 31st January and 2tird 
Nouem})er^ 1884, but ioithout the names being given uf any of 
the Contracting Farties.* 
In witness whereof we have canscd these Oar Letters to be 
made Patent. 

Witness Ourself at Westminster, the 10th d»y of July, in 
the 50th year of Our reign. 
By Warrant under the Queen's Sign Manual, 

(L.S.) MUIR MACKENZIE. 

• See pp. 430-436. 
44S 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 97] anKkT BEITAIN (NIGEE). [18 Ofit, 1887. 

[Britlah Ftotectorate. Niffer DMricts.] 



Mo. 97.— NOTIFICATION of the BHtish Protectorate of 
the Niger Districts, Tlie National African Company now 
called the Royal Niger Comjxmy. Foreign OJice, 18fh 
October, 1887.* 

It is hereby notified for public informatioD that, under and 
by virtue of certain Treaties concluded between the month of 
July, 1884, and the present date (No. 98), and by other lawfr.! 
means, tlie territories in West Africa hereinafter referred to 
as the Niger Districts are under the Protectorate of Htr 
Majesty the Queen. 

The British Protectorate of the Niger Districts comprises 
the territories on the line of coast between the British Protec- 
torate of Lagos and the right or western river bank of tlie 
mouth of the Rio del Rey. It further comprises all territories 
in the basin of the Niger and its affluents, which are or may be 
for the time being subject to the government of the NatioDal 
African Company Limited (now called the Royal Niger Com- 
pany), in accordance with, the provisions of the Charter of the 
said Company, dated the 10th July, 1886 (No. 96). 

The measures in course of preparation for the administra- 
tion of justice and the maintenance of peace and good order in 
the Niger Districts will be duly notified and published. 

[This Notification appeared in the " London Gazette " of 
18th October, 1887.] 

• See alM) Notifications of 5th June, 1885, p. 445, andllSth Hay, 1803, 
p. 479. 



449 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884-1892.] GREAT BRITAIN (NIGER). 

[Treaties with Native Ohieft.] 



rNo.98 



No. 98.— LIST of Treaties concluded between the Boyal 
Niger Company and Native Chiefs, 1884 — 1892. 

Alphabetical List of Treaties. (See Note, p. 477.) 



Name. 




Form. 



Abarra .. 
Abinsi . • 

Aboh* 

Abojaga. • 

Abragada 

Abutslii. . . . • • 

Achiagi.. .. .• 

Adagua . . . . . • 

Adanapa . < 

Addaw .. .. •• 

Adiawazi . . • • 

Adigbo . . 

Adjarra. . 

Affor 

Agagba . . 

Agbeni . . . . • • 

Agberi* ( Azama) 

Agegba . . 

Agesa (Agu) .. 

Agezeh (or Ageyeh) • . 

Agita 

Agodamah 

Agoubiri • • • • 

Agooron ..'^^ 

Agwebiri (or Agwebhibi) 

Agwey* 

Agwobhiri 

Agwej . . . . • « 

Aiuberi. . 

Akaboh . . 

Akabri .. •• 

Akapotflhi 

Akassa 

Akaw .. 

Akedda 

Akoumbri . . • . 

Akow» 

Akpa 

Akpama and Omoluku 

Akpeh 

Akpoko. . 
AkriUgidi* .. 

Akri» 

Akuroo . . . • 



103 


5 


182 


4 


76 


1 


149 


5 


88 


5 


111 


5 


208 


6 


143 


5 


298 


o 


219 


6 


71 


5 


164 


4 


144 


5 


66 


5 


58 


5 


25 


5 


51 


6 


147 


5 


216 


6 


304 


Varioaa 


183 


4 


20 


6 


24 


5 


29 


5 


289 


9 


89 


1 


285 


9 


206 


4 


238 


5 


325 


10 


15 


6 


326 


10 


3 


Yarioufl 


6 


5 


267 


5 


26 


6 


52 


1 


180 


4 


173 


4 


67 


5 


168 


4 


95 


1 


105 


3 


148 


5 



• Referred to in Charter of 10th July, 1886, p. 446. See Note, p. 477. 

450 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo. 98] 



GKEAT BBITAIN (NI0BB). 
[TreaUas with Native Ohlefii.] 



[1881-1892. 



Name. 




Fonn. 



Alatubeni 
Alenso*. . 

Allah 

Amakofia Ubi . . . . . . • . 

Amara . . 

Aroa»sama (Moasamah Creek) 
Amassamah (Ayakruamak to Baecabo) 
Amowa.. .. •• •• 

Anaibobe . . ... • • 

Angalabiri 

Angiama (next higher to Angalabiri) 
Angiama (Angiama to Akakoraga) . • 
An jama (Great) 

„ (Small) 

Anjappa .. .« •• 

Appeiebiri .. •• •« •• 

Arago (see Channa). 
Aroua .. .. •• •• •• 

Asaba* • 

Ase (Aasay)* •« 

Aflhakah •• •• •• •• 

Asheku.. •• •• #• •# 

Atani* 

Ataya and Atakapari 

Atflhaka (see Opai Atahaka). 

Atahara •• 

Aupanam* 

Awakoraga (or Awakorogar) . • 

Ajakruama 

Ajama (orAsama) 

Ajelli • .. •• 

Ayinshi.* •• 
A^enueh •• •• 

AjBebobiri • •• 

Babalabri •• •• •• 

Baecabo •• •• •• •• 

Bagmnar 

Bajembor 

Bakepike 

Bakundi 

Bakurana .. •• •• 

Balabri • 

Balagola 

Bapassa • 

Bassa (Ayelli).. 

„ (Abaji) 

Bassama 

Batoro 

Bataunor 

BauUhi 

Bawuru.* •• 

Baseni • •• •• 



278 


5 


104 


3 


134 


6 


827 


10 


166 


4 


28 


5 


240 


5 


178 . 


4 


181 


5 


40 


6 


34 


6 


9 


5 


69 


5 


60 


6 


211 


6 


83 


5 


80 


& 


130 


2 


54 


1 


68 


6 


204 


4 


106 


a 


169 


4 


121 


5 


182 


2 


11 


5 


289 


& 


10 


& 


172 


4 


206 


4 


15 


5 


46 


5 


16 


5 


242 


5 


217 


6 


195 


8 


13 


5 


810 


5 


181 


4 


277 


5 


243 


5 


188 


8 


102 


4 


168 


4 


814 


Various 


18 


5 


187 


Various 


816 


f) 


167 


4 


207 


4 



• Befomd to in Cbuier of lOth July, 1886, p. 416. 
451 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884-1892.] GREAT BRITAIN (NIGER). 

[Treattes with Kative Chlefli.] 



[No. 98 



Name. 




Form. 



Beaufort Island . • 

Beriwoosoo • • • • . « . • 

Boawi .. .. .. .. •• 

Bomodija .. .. .. •• 

Bomodigi .• .. .. •• 

Borgu (Boussa) .. .. •• 

Borotu . . . • . . . • . • 

Boulali.. ••• .. •• 

Brahmio .. .. •• •• 

Buruhu. . •• .. •• •• 

B jonga . . . • 
Chagabo .. .. 

Ohsjina and Arago . . . • « . 
Ohoinul. . •• 

•Cliosali . • . • • • . • . • 
Coudra . • . . . • . . • • 
Bampala .. •• .. .. 

Demsa « 

Doma . . . • . • . . • • 
Donga .. .. .. .. •• 

Eberede 

Eberedene 

Eboo 

Kcebri . . 
Edoni .. 

Effeku 

Effeta 

Egbador •• 

Egbanatoro ' .. •• 

Egbeddi 

Egbaku 

Egba-ku 

Egbn-n-ta 

Egori (or Egorie) 

Egweh .. .. •• .. 

Ejoda 

Ekebiri . . 

Ekebri 

Ekperiwari •• •• 

Ekualo 

EmUama •• .« •• •• 

Enowarri .. .. .. .. 

Epedeh 

Esajoto.. 

Esangama .. .. .. .. 

Kvorogbo »• .• 

Finchah » • . . 

Foonoweli •• .• •• •• 

Foropah .. .. 

FrouKiima 

Gana Guna • • . . • . . • 

Gando (Ist) 

» (2nd) 

Gandy .. •• •• .« 
Oashaka .. •• •• «. 

452 



295 


5 


209 


6 


215 


6 


241 


5 


17 


5 


303 


Various 


2U 


5 


238 


4 


234 


4 


194 


8 


186 


4 


184 


4 


306 


4 


229 


4 


220 


6 


221 


6 


309 


Various 


315 


}» 


305 


4 


320 


Various 


61 


5 


55 


5 


139 


5 


283 


9 


279 


5 


146 


5 


126 


5 


137 


5 


281 


9 


22 


5 


62 


5 


328 


10 


329 


10 


156 


Various 


155 


5 


157 


5 


286 





12 


5 


68 


5 


330 


10 


49 


5 


285 


9 


44 


6 


274 


5 


245 




56 




247 




273 


5 


276 


5 


246 


5 


249 


5 


286 


Various 


318 


9} 


159 


f) 


817 


4 



Digitized by 



Google 



No.d8] 



GEEAT BRITAIN (NiaEB). 
[Treaties with Native Ohiefb.] 



[1884r^l882. 



Name. 



Obebi (op Ghebe) 
Oloria Ibu . . . , , 

Gongomo 
Ooolali . , 

Huboru* .. ., , 

'Ibatsha.. 
Ibo (see Gloria I bo). 
Ibouza . . 
Idu (see Okaba Idu). 

Iga* 

Igabo . . 

Igara (Ogardoo)* 

Tgbaku (or Ibaku)* . . 

Igbokeyen 

Igi ■ 

Ikambri ,. 

Ikolo 

Ikarawa 

Ulah 

Illushi 

Ilorin . . , . , , 

Imgboro 

Imputa . . 

Imusu (see Okija Imusu). 

Inde-Akakwa .. ., 

Inishi (see Ganapnra). 

Inyehreh 

Isara 

Isliara . . 

Isliequa and Assay* . . 

Isi Amudirossa 

ItshickD (see Okija Itsliickej. 

It^liieke and Umuneosa 

Izin ., 

Jaclian . . 

Jangan . . 

Jibu . . , , , , , 

Kabrania 

Kanzn .. 

Katishi (see Ojo). 

Katseim Alia . . , , 

Kiama .. 

Kobama 

Kolama. . 

Korokorossi 

Kwana . . 

Laffia 

Laffiagi . . 
Lapai . , , , 
Lobia ,. 

Maniimquassa • . . • 
Mamondo ,. .. 
Matulu.. ., ,, 




296 
120 
312 
248 
133 
85 

294 

127 

73 

158 

125 

136 

185 

5 

14 

198 

179 

140 

302 

192 

87 

331 

151 
260 
196 
91 
342 

332 
262 
228 
231 
308 
28 
203 

200 

47 

250 

1 

287 

311 

307 

301 

300 

276 

222 

212 

27 



9 
5 
10 
5 
2 
5 



1 
5 
1 
1 
5 
4 
5 
5 
8 
4 
5 
Various 
8 
5 

10 

5 
5 

8 

1 

10 

10 
5 
6 
4 

Various 
. 5 
4 

8 
5 
5 
1 

9 

10 

4 

Various 

j> 
5 
6 
6 
5 



* Referred to in Charter of 10th July. 1886, d 446 
453 ^' ' 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884-18920 ' GREAT BRITAIN (NIGER) . 

[Treaties with Native Chiefs.] 



[Mo. 98 



Name. 




Form. 



Mayeo .. 

Hpoh .. .. .. •• 

Mun:ikor (see Osomari). 
Mungornor .. .. •• 

Mungoya 

Muri 

Neawo ,. ,. ., .. 

N'doni*. . 

Nsube .. .. .. •• 

Ntegi 

Nufali 

Nuliar .. .. .. .. 

Numan . . 

Nupe (let) 

» (2nd) 

N'jamchadda . . 

Obagwa. . • 

Obba 

Obeallah 

Obcze (see Opai Obezi). 

Obiagwey 

Obikwere •• •• 

ObUako 

Obiodiobiri .. •• 
Obirikom .. •• •• 

Obokeno .. •• «• 

Oboliiki 

Oboro (Obokino to Orudda) . . 

„ (from the sea to Forobeni) 
Oburoto •• .. •• 

Ode 

Odekwe* 

Odeleque .. •• 

Odogoberi 

Odoni .. .. •• •• 
Odugiri* •• •• 

Oftnama .. ■• •• 

Ofonibahan .. •• 
Ofunobiri' .. •• «• 
Ogalaj (Great) 

„ (SmaU) .. .. 

Ogardoo (see Igara). 
Ogbakuma* 

Ogidi 

Ogoh 

OgoUama 

Ogrugu* .. .. •• 

Ogu (or Ogoo)* 

Ogu Anotsha . . • • 

Ojo and Kateshi 

Ojo» 

Ojogo 

„ (Upper) 



218 


6 


115 


5 


193 


8 


190 


8 


821 


7 


177 


4 


77 


1 


118 


5 


116 


5 


226 


6 


202 


4 


232 


4 


822 


YariouA 


323 


)) 


225 


6 


259 


5 


293 


5 


141 


6 


96 


5 


66 


5 


833 


5 


35 


5 


82 


6 


261 


5 


291 


5 


253 


5 


280 


5 


84 


5 


135 


5 


108 


8 


138 


5 


254 


5 


50 


5 


90 


1 


48 


5 


70 


6 


284 


5 


37 


6 


86 


5 


101 


6 


290 


10 


255 


5 


32 


5 


129 


1 


94 


1 


86 


5 


160 


4 


128 


1 


174 


4 


175 


4 



* Beferred to in Charter of lOth JuIt, 1886, p. 446. 
454 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo. 93] 



GREAT BBITAIN (NIGEE). 
[Treaties with Native Ohiefii.] 



[1884-1892. 



Name. 




Ojormah* . . . • 

Okaba 

Okabalda 

,, Omuku.. •• 

Okija Imosu . . • • 

„ Itshicke . • • • 

„ TJmudara • • 

Okka 

Oko Amakon* . . 

„ Anara* •• 

„ Onono* •• 
Okobeni • .. ..^ 

Okoloba 

Okomedu 

Okora 

Okortundor • • 

Oliodiama . . 

Ologbobiri 

Omoku ^see Okaba Omoku) 

Omoa (Anambarra)* . • 

Omounim . • • « 

Ondawarri 

Onia» 

Onimasha • • • • 

OnitBha* 

Onono (see Oko Onono). 

Onongu 

Opai* 

„ Atshaka .. 

y, Obeze .. •• 

Opal 

Opehamah • • 
Opokoni • • • • 

Opokuma . • . • 
OpoTo (or Oporano) . . 
OputUTrarri • . • • 
Orea .. 

Oreilla 

Orjie 

Orudda . •• •• 
Osebiti* 

Osepi, &c 

Onaniah 

Osomari and Munakor* 
Osutshi Ane Otoha • • 
Otagba . . 

Ottah 

Otuwa • • • • • • 

Outshi (see Utshi). 

Owere 

Ozara •• .. •• 
Ozormor (or Orgomor) 
Pakiama . . • • 



Form. 



113 


2 


75 


5 


81 


6 


80 


5 


264 


6 


78 


5 


79 


5 


824 


10 


110 


3 


109 


8 


113 


2 


256 


5 


252 


5 


100 


5 


227 


4 


201 


8 


88 


5 


268 


6 


123 


1 


122 


5 


269 


6 


63 


1 


165 


4 


114 


2 


124 


5 


92 


1 


261 


6 


93 


5 


230 


4 


257 


6 


154 


6 


46 


5 


8 


5 


270 


6 


146 


6 


841 


10 


234 


10 


258 


5 


107 


3 


171 


4 


271 


5 


99 


1 


102 


6 


64 


6 


158 


6 


272 


6 


335 


10 


836 


10 


7 


6 


89 


5 



• Referred to in Charter of 10th Jolj, 1886| p. 446. 
455 2 K 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884-1892.] GBBAT BRITAIN (NIGEK). 

[Treaties with Native Chieib.] 



[No. 98 



Name. 




Form. 



Falaya .. 

Fampam • 

Patani (Biff Patzani)* 

Permobri (or Perenobri) 

Poulabouga 

Quanad 

Qu^ 

Bebohu, &c .. •• •• 

Sabagrea (or Sabagregor)* 

Sagbama 

Samabri 

Saiua^ 

Schapia • 

Sengana.* • 

Shonga • • • 

Sinbdco (or Sintako) 

Sokoto(lit) 

n (2nd) 

Takum., •• 

Tigga 

Tembob 

Todama 

Tombiah •• •• 

Torofaoi (or Tono Tanni) 

Ubi (see Amakofia Ubi). 

Uboesui 

Udo 

ITgi 

Ukukwa (see Inde Ukukwa). 

Umari •• •• •• 

XJmoru •• •• 

XTmotsbi • ,« 

Umuazu •• •• •• •• •• 

Umaba •• •• 

TJmudara (see O^a Umudara). 
Umudirossa (see Ibi Umudirossa). 

Umnetshi •• •• 

TJmugor •• 

TJmimeosa (see Itehicke). 

Umuadu • • •• 

Umuogi 

Unkwueh .. 

Utoku 

Utshi Obonu (or Oboma, XTUhi Owereand Obatsha)* 

Utu 

T7ta Bnpari (see Abaga). 

Yanapura or Inishi •• •• .. •• 

Zungwali • •• .. 

Zuwo •• •• •• •• •« •• 



191 

223 

42 

4 

282 

214 

224 

161 

21 

41 

67 

199 

210 

2 

299 

297 

287 

819 

813 

197 

31 

162 

19 

4a 

887 
888 
142 

119 

72 

98 

266 

839 



340 

117 

292 

69 

97 

74 

176 
236 
170 



8 

6 

1 

5 

9 

6 

6 

4 

1 

5 

6 

8 

6 

5 
Yariona 

9 
Yarioue 

f> 
9 

8 
5 

5 
5 

1 

10 

10 

5 

6 
6 
5 
5 

10 



5 
6 

10 
6 

10 
5 

1 
5 

4 
4 
4 



• Beferredto in Charter of 10th July, 1886, p. 446. 



456 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 98] 



GREAT BRITAIN (NIGER). 
[TreaUes with Native Chiefii.] 

Treaties under Form No. 1. 



[1884-1892 



Temtofy. 



Date. 



Aboh* 

Agwej* .. •• 

Akow* 

AkriUgidi» 

Abo ( Amj)* ( Wari Branch) . • 

Iga* 

Igara 

Igbaku (or Ibakn) • 

Ishequa and Assay* • • 

Kolama .. 

Munakor (see Osomari) . 

N'doni* 

Odugiri . . . • . « . • 

Ogbakuma* 
Ogu (or Ogoo)*.. 
Ogrugu* . . 

Ojo* 

Omon (Anambarra)* •• 

Onia* 

Opai* •. 

Osomari and Munakor* 

Patani (Big Patani)* 

Sabagrea (or Sabagreeor)* 
Torofani (Terro Tanni)» 
tJtahi, Oboma, Utslu Owero, and 
Obatsha* 



October 



26, 

11, 
January 31, 
October 31, 
September 28, 
October 23, 

10, 
December 18, 

October 9, 
10, 
15, 
11. 

November 1, 
2, 

October, 23, 
21, 



2, 1884. 
9, „ 



27, „ 

16, „ 

22, „ 

29, „ 

21, „ 

13, „ 



Form No. 1. 

After the years' experience, we, the undersigned 

, fully recognize the benefit 
accorded to our country and people by our intercourse with the 
National African Company (Limited), and, in recognition of 
this, we now cede the whole of our territory to the National 
African Company (Limited), and their administrators, for ever. 
In consideration of this, the National African Company 
(Limited) will not interfere with any of the native laws, and 
also not encroach on any private property unless the value is 
igreed upon by the owner and the said Company. 

The National African Company (Limited) will reserve to 
themselves the right of excluding foreign settlers. 

Any palaver that may exist with any other tribe at any 

• The Treaties marked thus • are those referred to in the Charter of 
10th July, 1886, p. 4f46, and are all included within the proclaimed Pro- 
tectorate. 

457 2 K 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884-1892 ] GBEAT BRITAIN (NIGER). 

[Treaties with Native Ohiefii.] 



[Mo. 98 



time, or in the event of any dispute arising between the 

and territory, shall at once be 
referred to the National African Company (Limited) or their 
representative at the time. 

We, the and district, do hereby 

agree to afford assistance at any time for the protection of the 
said Company's property and people. 

As per mntnal consent of the 
of the foregoing Agreement, the National African Company 
(Limited) agreed to pay 

l^ro the National African Company (Limited), 

DAVID Mcintosh. 

In approval of the foregoing Agreement, we, the 

, do herewith affix our names as nnder. 
We, the Undersigned, are witnesses to the marks of the 

, and also vonch for their understanding 
what they have sighed. 

I do hereby declare that the foregoing A^eement was duly 
and correctly explained to the above , 

and they fully understood it. 

Declared before me at , this 

day of , 18 . 

EDWARD HYDE HEWETT, 

"Rer Britannic Majesty's OonsuL 
(Consular seal aBixed here.) 



Treaties under Form No. 2. 



Territory. 


Index No. 


Date. 


AmihA 

Aupanam , 

fluboru 

Oiormah 

Oko Onono 

Onitsha 

Onono (see Oko Onono). 


ISO 
182 
183 
112 
113 
114 


August 28, 1884. 
October 22, „ 

25, „ 
August 80, „ 

29, „ 
» 20, „ 



458 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 98] aBEAT BBITAIN (NIGEB). [1884-1892. 

[Treaties with Native Ohiefs.] 

Form No. 2. 

We, the , after years' 

experience, fullj recognize the benefit accorded to our country 
. and people by their interconrse with the National African 
Company (Limited), and in recognition of this we now cede 
the whole of oar territory to the National African Company 
(Limited), and their admisistrators for ever. 

In consideration of this, the National Airican Company 
(Limited) agree : — 

1. The said Company will not interfere with any of the 
natiye laws, and will not encroach on any private property un- 
less the value is agreed upon by the owner and the said Com- 
pany. 

2. The said Company will not interfere with any of the 
ground now occupied by the natives of the country unless 
agreed to by both sides. 

3. The said Company reserve to themselves the right of 
excluding foreign settlers other than those now settled in the 
country. 

4. The said Company agree to respect the rights of the native 
land-owners, and the said Comx)any will not take possession of 
their land without payment of the same. 

Done in triplicate, this day of , 188 , 

at 

Pro the National Airican Company (Limited), 

DAVID Mcintosh. 

Witness to the above mark signatures : 

I, the Undersigned, do hereby declare this Agreement was 
correctly interpreted, and the natives fully understood what 
they signed. 

N. •BOBEBT TaTLOB. 

Thus declared by N. Robert Taylor, before me, this 
day of > 188 , at 

EDWAED HYDE HEWBTT, 

Her Britannic Majesty's Consul, 
(Consular seal affixed here.) 
459 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884-1892.] GREAT BRITAIN (NIGBR). 

[Treaties with Native Ohieili.] 



[No. 98 





Treaties under Form No. 3. 


Territory. 


Index No. 


I>ate. 


Akri 


105 
104> 
106 
108 
110 
109 
107 


September 29, 1884. 


Alenso • 


Atani .. •• 


20, „ 


Odekwe •• .. •• .. •. 




OkoAmakom 

Oko Anara 

Osebiti 


October 10, „ 
September 25, „ 





Farm No. 3. 

We, the Undersigned 
in consideration of the benefit that is done to onr country bj 
their establishing factories in it, do hereby cede the whole of 
our country to the National African Company (Limited), and 
their administrators, for ever, and do hereby undertake not to 
allow any other persons to settle in it without the Nationai 
African Company's consent. 

In consideration of such privilege being granted to them, 
the National African Company (Limited) do hereby on their 
part undertake : — 

Firstly. — To respect all native laws and customs of the 
country, and not to interfere with the existing rights of any of 
the natives without first obtaining their consent. 

Secondly. — To assist the 
in everything that may conduce to the welfare of the country 
and to the promotion of trade. 

Should the National African Company {Limited) require 
land at any place in the country ceded to them for any purpose 
whatever, they, the National African Company (Limited), will 
compensate the owner or owners thereof. 

The National African Company (Limited) reserve to them- 
selves the right of excluding any foreigners from the oountiy 
should they think fit. 

In consideration of the foregoing privilege accorded the 
National African Company (Limited), the National African 

460 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 98] 



GREAT BRITAIN (NIGER), 
[Treaties with Native 01iiefii.l 



[1884-1892. 



Company (Limited) agrees to pay a yearly duty of 
measures, local yalue, to 
Pro the National African Company (Limited), 

D. Mcintosh. 

We, the Undersigned, are witnesses to the marks of the 
, and also vouch for their understand- 
ing what they have signed. 

Done in triplicate, this day of , 188 • 

I certify the signatures of as being 

those of the persons themselves, and, further, that a copy of 
this Agreement has been handed to me for registry in my 
Consulate. 

EDWARD HYDE HEWETT, 

Her Britannic Majeattfs OonsuL 
(Consular seal affixed here.) 



Treaties under Form No. 4. 



Territory. 



Index No. 



Bate. 



Abinsi •• •• « 
Adigbo •• .. « 

Agita 

Ahwey 

Akpa 

Akpama and Omolnku • 

Akpoko 

Amara . . 

Amowa 

Arago (see Channa). 
Ashijca t. •• . 
Ataya and Utuknpari . 

AyeUi 

Ayinshi .• 

Bakurana . • * 

Bassa (Ayelli) «. 
Baasa (Abaji) • • 
Bawnru •• 

Bazeni •• •• * 
Boulah •• (» 
Brahmio • • • • • 
Byonga .. 

Chagabo 

Channa and Arago 
Chomiil •• .. 
Boma •• •• • 



182 
164 
183 
206 
180 
173 
168 
166 
178 

204 
169 
172 
205 
181 
162 
163 
167 
207 
283 
234 
186 
184 
306 
229 
805 



March 


8, 


1885 


May 


16, 


)) 


AprQ 


27, 


>| 


Decembei 


26, 


» 


March 


16, 


it 


>i 


18, 


» 


^f 


80, 
6, 


99 

n 


March 


16, 


t» 


April 
May 


10, 


it 


March 


w, 


$f 


April 


9. 


V 


11 


26, 


11 


May 


27, 


If 


»» 


21, 


9t 


. >» 


6, 


}> 


April 


10, 


II 


October 


8,1886. 



46] 



AprU 

II 
March 
July 
May 



18, 1886. 
11, ,1 
^1 II 
18i I, 



Digitized by 



Google 



188^1892.] GREAT BBITAIN (NIGER). 

[Treaties with Native Ohiefik] 



[No. 98 



Territory. 
Gtashaka 

n^ [\ !! 

InUhi (see Yanapura). 
Jangan .. 

Eanza 

Kateshi (see Ojo). 

Laffia 

Neawe •• .• 

Nuhar 

Numan .• 
Ojo and Katesbi 

Ojogo 

Oiogo (Upper) .. 

Okoro 

Gnimasha 

Omoloku (see Akpama). 

Opal 

Osepi, &c 
Ribohn, &c. 

Utukupari (see Ataya). 
Tanapura or Inishi 

Zimgwali 

Zuwo 



Date. 



817 


April 


20,1886. 


185 


19 


11. « 


179 


»» 


18. „ 


281 


July 


19. „ 


203 


April 


10, „ 


807 




177 


April 


18, „ 


202 


,1 


11, » 


282 


July 


19, ., 


160 


May 


13, „ 


174 


Mareh 


18, « 


175 


April 


IS, „ 


227 


i> 


9, „ 


166 


May 


7, .. 


280 


August 


14, „ 


171 


i& 


29. „ 


161 


7. „ 


176 


April 


16, „ 


235 


October 


8,1886. 


170 


March 


19, 1885. 



Form No. 4. 

Agreement made on the day of , 1885, between 

on the one hand, and the National African 

Company (Limited) on the other hand. 

We, the undersigned King and Chiefs of , 

with the view to the bettering of the condition of our conntiy 
and people, do this day cede to the National African Company 
(Limited), their heirs and assigns, for ever, the whole of onr 
territory extending from 

We also give to the said National African Company 
(Limited) full power to settle all native disputes arising from 
any cause whatever, and we pledge ourselves not to enter into 
any war with other tribes without the sanction of the said 
National African Company (Limited). 

We also understand that the said National African Com- 
pany (Limited) have full power to mine, farm, and build in 
any portion of our 

We bind ourselves not to have any intercourse with any 
strangers or foreigners except through the said National African 

462 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 98] GBEAT BBITAIN (NiaEB). [ | 

[Treaties with Native Chiete.] 

Company (Limited), and we give the said Nations 
Company (Limited) fnll power to exclude all other i 
and foreigners from their territory at their discretion. 

Li consideration of the foregoing, the said Nation] I 
Company (Limited) bind themselves not to interfere 
of the native laws or customs of the country, consistc 
the maintenance of order and good government. 

The said National African Company (Limited) i 
pay native owners of land a reasonable amount for ai ; 
they may require. 

The said National African Company (Limited) b ; 
selves to protect the said King and Chiefs from the i 
any neighbouring aggressive tribes. 

Li consideration of the above, the said Nationa 
Company (Limited) have this day paid the said '.\ 
Chiefs of goods to the value of 

of which is hereby acknowledged. 

This Agreement having been interpreted to us, i I 
mentioned King and Chiefs of , we hereb; 

and accept it for ourselves and for our people with I 
sent, and in testimony of this, having no knowledge o I 
do aflSx our marks below it, and I, Egbert Dangerfield 
on behalf of the said National African Company (Lii 
hereby affix my hand. 

(For David Mcintosh), 

EGBERT DANGEEl 

We, the undersigned witnesses, do hereby solemn!! 
that the King and Chiefs whose names are placed 
respective have in our presence affixed their 

of their own free will and consent, and the said 
in our prosence affixed his signature. 

Declaration by Interpreter. 
I, native of , do hereby solemnll 

that I am well acquainted with the langi 

that on the day of , 1885, 1 

faithfully explained the above Agi^eement to all the Ci 
sent, and that they understood its meaning. 

463 



1884-1892.] GREAT BRITAIN (NIGER) . 

[Treaties with Native Ohiefii.] 



[No. 98 



Triaties under Form No. 5. 



Territoiy. 



Index No. 



Date. 



Abarra •• 

Abojaga •• •• 

Abragada •• .. •• •• 

Abutshi •• • 

Adagua •• .. .. .. •• 

Adanapa 

Adiawaji •• 

Adiarra .. •• •• •• 

Affor 

Agagba 

Agbeni .. .. .. •• 

Agberi •• 

Agcffba 

Agodamah .. •• ■• t. 

Agoubiri 

Agoorou . • • . • • • • 

Ajuberi 

Akabri .. .. •• 

Akaw 

Akedda .. 

Akoumbri . « ' • • • . • • 

Akpeh 

Akuroe .. • 

Alatubeni .. •• •• •• 

Allah •• 

Amassama (Moasamah Greek) . • 
Amassamah (Ayakruamah to Baccabo) 
Anaxcobo • * • • • • • • 

Angalabiri .. «« .. #• 

Angiazna (next higher to Angalabiri), . 
Angiama (Angiama to Awakoraga) . • 
Anjama (Great) .. •• •• 

Anyama (Small) .. #• •• 

Appelebiri •• t. •« 

Aroua «• .. •• •• •• 

Ashnkah . « . . • • « • • • 

AUhaka (see Opal Atshaka). 
Atshara .. •• «• •• 

Awakoraga .. •• •• •• 

Ayakruama 

Ayama .. .. 

Ayenneh., «. .. •• •• 
Ayebobiri .. .. •• •• 
Babalabri .. .. •• •• 
Baccabo 



Bakepipe. . 
Bakundi . • 
Balabri . • • 
Baragola . . 
Batoro . . 
Beaufort Island. 
Boniodija 
Bomodigi • 



103 

149 

88 

111 

143 

298 

71 

144 

65 

68 

25 

61 

147 

20 

24 

29 

238 

16 

6 

267 

26 

67 

148 

278 

184 

23 

240 

131 

40 

84 

9 

69 

60 

33 



121 

11 
239 

10 
150 

45 

16 
242 

13 
810 
277 
243 

18 
295 
241 

17 



November 11, 1884. 
March 11, 1885. 

»» "^» >» 

February 24, „ 

March 7, „ 

February 4, „ 

» 23, „ 

March 7, „ 

December 6, 1884. 
9 

October 26, 1885. 

April 16, 1884. 

March 7, 1885. 

June 12, „ 

October 26, „ 
27, „ 

June 18, 1888. 

„ 12, 1885. 

10, „ 

NoTcmber 13, 1886. 

October 27, 1885. 

December 10, 1884. 

March 10, 1885. 

September 8, 1888. 

December 20, 1884. 

October 26, 1885. 

June 14, 1888.; 

December 24, 1884. 
II 27, „ 
,1 27, „ 

June 10, 1885. 

December 9, 1884. 

9, » 
February 17, 1885. 
October 27, „ 
December 6, 1884. 



Juno 



March 

April 

June 



464 



4, 
111 

13, 

11, 

12, 

24, 

12, 

16, 

11, 

February 18, 

September 7, 

June 12, 

12, 

February 18, 

June 12, 

12, 



1885. 

1888. 
1885. 

1884. 
1885. 
1888. 
1885. 

1888. 

1885. 

1888. 
1886. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo. 98] 



GBEAT BBITAIN (NIGEE). 
[Treatlea with Native Chieft.] 



[1884-1892. 



Temtoiy. 



Index No. 



Date. 



Borotu • • 
Eberede .. 
Eberedeno 
Eboo 

Edoni . • 
Effeku .. 
Effeta •• 
Egbador • • 
Egbeddi .. 
Egbukn .. 



Eioda 

Ekebri .. 

Ekperiwari •• •• 

Emblaxna 

Epedeh •• ., •• < 

Esajoto 

Esangama •• .. i 

Eyorogbo .. •• « 

Fineb^ • 

Foonoweli 

Foropali 

FrouKama •• .. • 

Gana Gana • • • • • 
Gloria Ibo •• -.. • 
Goolali .. •• .. « 

Ibatsha .. •• •• « 
Ibo (see Gloria Ibo). 
Idu (see Okaba Idu). 
Igabo •• •• •• 

Igbokejen • 

Ikambri •• •• •• • 

Ikolo 

niuBhi 

Imputa •• •« .. I 
ImiiBu (see Okija Imusu). 
Injehreh .. .. < 

Isara •• 

Itshicke (see Okija Itehicke). 
Izin .. •• .. , 

Jackan .. 

Eabiama.. 

Kiama .. .. .. 

Kobama • • • • . . < 

Lobia .. •• •• i 

Matulu •• •• «.• . 

Mpoh •• •• .• , 

Nsube ., •• •• , 

Ntegi 

Obagwa •» •• •• i 

Obeallah 

Obeze (see Opal Obeze). 
Obiflgwey •• •• « 

Obikwere •• •• . 

Obiodiobiri •• •• « 
Obirikom •• •• « 



244 

61 

65 

189 

279 

146 

126 

137 

22 

62 

155 

157 

12 

68 

49 

44 

274 

245 

56 

247 

273 

275 

246 

249 

120 

248 

83 



73 

136 

6 

14 

140 

87 

151 
260 



228 

28 

47 

250 

276 

27 

115 

118 

116 

259 

141 

96 
66 
85 
82 



June 16, 1888. 

December 9, 1884. 

10, „ 
»» 22, „ 
September 7, 1888. 
February 25, 1885. 
March 26, „ 
» 6, „ 

October 26, „ 
December 8, 1884. 
March 17, 1886. 

26, 1885. 
June 11, „ 

February 23, „ 
April 23, 1884. 

g 

September 5, 1888. 
June 13, „ 

December 10, 1884. 
June 16, 1888. 

September 12, „ 
6, „ 



June 

a 

April 
August 



17, „ 
16, „ 

12, 1885. 
28, 1888. 
16, 1885. 



465 



February 21, „ 
March 3, „ 

June 10, „ 

» 11| 1, 

February 28, „ 
March 28, „ 

August 20, „ 
February 24, „ 

December 19, 1884. 
August 12, 1885. 
October 27, „ 
April 23, 1884. 

June 13, 1888. 

September 5, „ 
October 27, 1886. 
June 6, „ 

February 27, „ 
May 23, „ 

April 4, 188G. 

March 7, 1885. 

February 28, „ 
January 5, „ 
December 27,1884. 
September 21, 1886. 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884-1892.] 



GREAT BBITAIN (NiaER). 
[TraatieB with Native OhiefB.] 



[Ko.98 



Territory. 



Obokeno . • . • • • • • 

Oboro (Obokeno to Orudda) . • 

„ (from the sea to Forobeni) 

Oburoto .. 

Ode 

Odeleque 

Odogoberi 

Odoni •• 

Ofinama . . 

Ofonibaban .. •• •• 
Ogalay (Ghreat) 

,. (Small) 

Ogoh 

Ogollama 

Ogu Anotsba . ^ • . • • 

Oguta .. •• 

Okaba 

» Ida 

„ Omoku 

Okija Imusu . • • • • • 

,, Itsbicke 

„ Umudara. . 
Okobeni •• .. •• 

Okoloba 

Okomedu .. -• •• 

Olodiama •• 

Ologbobiri 

Omoku (see Okaba Omoku). 

Omourum •• •• •• 

Ondawarri •• •• •• 

Onougu 

Opai Atshaka . . • • • • 

Opai Obeze 

Opokoni •• •• •• •• 

Opebamah •• •• •• 

Opokiuna •• •• •• 

Oporo .. •• •• •• 

Oputuwarri 

Orea 

Onidda •• •• •• •• 

Osiamah.. .. •• •• 

Osutsbi Ane Otsha 

Otagba 

Ottah 

Otuwa 

Ojormor.. '>• •• •* 

Pakiama.. « 

Permobri •• •• •• 

Sagbama •• 

Samabri .. •• •• •• 

Sengana •• •• •• 

Tinu)oli 

Todama • •• 

Tombiah • •• 

Ugi 

Umari • •• 



Index No. 



251 
253 

280 

84 

135 

138 

254 

50 

48 

70 

37 

36 

255 

32 

86 

85 

75 

81 

80 

264 

78 

79 

256 

252 

100 

38 

268 

122 
269 
124 
261 

93 
154 
257 

46 
8 
270 
145 
258 
271 
102 

64 

153 

272 

7 

39 
4 

41 

67 
2 

31 
152 

19 
142 
119 



Data. 



June 18, 

18, 
September 7, 
August 16, 
December 23, 
.. 22, 
June 18, 

April 15, 

24, 
February 23, 
June 15, 

December 27, 
June 18, 

December 27, 
April 28, 

March 23, 
February 21, 
October 16, 

15, 
November 4, 
September 26, 

27, 



June 

March 
June 



18, 

18, 

4, 

15, 

November 11, 



1888. 



1885. 
1884. 
1885. 
1888. 
1884. 

1885. 
1886. 
18S4. 

lass. 

1884. 
1886. 
1885. 

1886. 



1885. 

1888. 

1885. 
1886. 



466 



September 

November 

March 

December 

March 

June 

April 

June 

November 

February 

June 

November 

July 

March 

November 

June 

October 

June 

December 

February 

December 

October 

March 

June 

December 

February 



9, 1885. 
11, 1886. 
27, 1885. 

12. 1884. 

29. 1885. 

16, „ 
18, 1888. 
24,1884. 

10, 1886. 

11, 1886. 
27, 1885. 
18, 1888. 

11. 1886. 

17. 1884. 
29, 1885. 
13, „ 

6, 1886. 
10, 1886. 

17, 1886. 
9,1885. 

29, 1884. 

23. 1885. 

17. 1884. 
28,1885. 

12, „ 
12, „ 
27,1884. 

27. 1885. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ho. 98] 



OBEAT BBITATN (NiaSB). 
[TreatiM with VaXiy OhleHi.] 



[1884-1892. 



Territory. 




Date. 



Umaogi •• .. •• •• 

Umoru 

Umotflhi.. • 

Umnazu . . . . • • • • 

Umudara (see Okija TJmudan) 
Umuetshi •• •• •• 

Umugor . . . . . . • • 

Utoku 

Utu 



June 4, 1885. 

Februaiy 28, 
March 4, „ 
December 19, 1881.. 

»> 1"> » 

»i ■* y J »» 

Febniaiy 23, 1885. 



Form No. 5. 

We, the undersigned Chiefs of , with the view to 

the bettering of the condition of our country and people, do this 
day cede to the Royal Niger Company (Chartered and Limited), 
for eyer, the whole of our territory extending from 

We also give to the said Royal Niger Company (Chartered 
and Limited) full power to seftle all native disputes arising 
from any cause whatever, and we pledge ourselves not to enter 
into any war with other tribes without the sanction of the said 
Boyal Niger Company (Chartered and Liniited). 

We understand that the said Royal Niger Company (Char- 
tered and Limited) have full power to mine, &rm, and build in 
any portion of our country. 

We bind ourselves not to have any intercourse with any 
strangers or foreigners except through the said Royal Niger 
Company (Chartered and Limited). 

In consideration of the foregoing, the said Royal Niger Com- 
pany (Chartered and Limited) bind themselves not to interfere 
with any of the native laws or customs of the country, 
consistently with the maintenance of order and good 
govemmenti 

The said Royal Niger Company (Chartered and Limited) 
agree to pay native owners of land a reasonable amount for 
any portion they may require. 

The said Royal Niger Company (Chartered and Limited) 
bind themselves to protect the said Chiefs from the attacks of 
any neighbouring aggressive tribes. 

467 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884-1892.] GREAT BBITAIN (NiaER). 

[Treaties with Native Ohiefii.] 



[No. 98 



The said Royal Niger Company (Chartered and liimited) 
also agree to pay the said Chiefs measures native 

value. 

We, the undersigned witnesses, do hereby solemnly declare 

that the Chiefs whose names are placed opposite 

their respective crosses have in our presence afi&zed their 

crosses of their own free will and consent, and that the said 

has in our presence affixed his signature. 



Done in triplicate at 



this day of 



188 



DeclaraHon by Interpreter, 

I, , of , do hereby solemnly 

declare that I am well acquainted with the language of the 

country, and that on the day of , 1S8 , 

I truly and faithfully explained the above Agreement to all the 

Chiefs present, and that they understood its meaning. 



Treatibs under Form No. 6. 



Territory. 



Index No. 




Date. 




208 


August 


16, 


1885. 


219 


April 


27, 


»» 


216 


If 


17, 


» 


213 


n 


15, 


M 


211 


>j 


14. 


n 


217 


n 


17, 


11 


209 


tt 


16, 


9> 


215 


a 


16, 


)i 


220 


»i 


27, 


n 


221 


tt 


27, 




222 


1) 


27, 


1} 


212 


y> 


14, 




218 


fl 


18, 


>i 


226 


1) 


29, 


}, 


225 


II 


28, 


}> 


223 


)} 


27, 


11 


214 


n 


15, 


it 


224 


f) 


27. 


„ 


210 


Noyember 16, 


» 



Achiagi •• 
Addaw . . 
Agesa (Agu) 
Ajiucoo .. 
Anjappa • • 
Bagumar. • 
Beriwoosoo 
Boawi 
Chosah . . 
Condra . . 
Mamimqiiassa 
Maraondo 
Maveo • . 
Nufali .. 
N'yamchadda 
Pampam , . 
Quanati .. 

Schapia .. 



468 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 98] aSEAT BEITAIN (KiaEB). [1884-1892. 

[Treaties with Native Ohiefii.] 

Form No. 6. 

We, the King and Chiefs of , in Council assembled, 

do cede to the National African Company (Limited), of London, 
their heirs and assigns, for ever, all our territory extending 
from , with all sorereign rights. 

We also agree that no one shall have a right to mine in 
onr coantry (either foreigner or native) without the sanction 
of the National African Company, their heirs or assigns. 

We also give to the National African Company, their heirs 
or assigns, the power to exclude all or any foreigners from 
onr country. 

The National African Company agree to govern on the 
basis of the native laws as among the natives themselves, and 
not to interfere with the rights of private property. 

The National African Company agree to pay, as Sovereign, 

a subsidy of six pieces of cloth per annum to the former 

Rulers of the country. 

Signatures: 

Witness : 



Declaration by Interpreter, 

I, , native of , do hereby declare 

that I am well acquainted with the language, and 

have interpreted the foregoing to the King and Chiefs, and 
they understand its meaning. 



Tbeatt under Form No. 7. 



Territory. 


Index No. 


Date. 


Muri 


821 


January SO, 1685. 



Form No. 7. 

Agreement made on the day of , 188 , between 

Head Chief of the country of , and 

his or Council of Chiefs and their people on 

469 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884-1892.] GBEAT BRITAIK (inGEB). [No. 98 

CTraatlea with Hatlve Ohieft.] 

the one hand^ and the National African Company (Limited) 

on the other hand. 

As in past times, disputes and palayers have arisen among^ 
the Tarions European and other strangers and foreigners in 
the Biver Niger, and between these and the natives, and, as 
it is desirable to prevent snch dispnies and palavers again 
occurring by making a perpetoal settlement, placing under one 
supreme authority all relations and affairs between the natives 
of and all strangers and foreigners : Therefore 

we, the Head Chief and Chie&, and people of , beings 

assembled in , and acting in accordance with 

the laws of our country, do (in consideration of the 
in goods, receipt of which we hereby acknowledge, and in con- 
sideration of the further annual payment mentioned below}, 
hereby promise and bind ourselves and our successors to keep 
and fulfil the following Articles of this Agreement : — 

1. We g^ve and grant to the National African Company 
(Limited) the entire and sole authority to grant, on such 
terms as thafc Company may think fit, to European or other 
strangers and foreigners, the right to trade, to work mines, 
to cultivate ground, to gather produce of any kind, or to 
carry on any other occupations in our country ; and we agree 
that we will not grant such rights to, nor deal in any way 
with, any strangers and foreigners, nor enter into any Treaties 
whatever with them, without the consent and authority of the 
National African Company (Limited). 

2. We promise full liberty and protection to the National 
African Company (Limited) in carrying on its various trades, 
mining operations, and all other occupations, and we give and 
grant to that Company complete freedom and immunity from 

or other taxes of any kind whateyer. 

3. We agree that the National African Company (Limited) 
shall have the sole right to supply all other strangers and 
foreigners with wood and other fioiel. 

4. We agree that the National African Company (Limited) 
shall have the sole and exclusive right to impose, farm, and 
retain for its own benefit, all and any duties it may think 
proper on goods landed by any strangers or foreigners horn 

470 



Digitized by 



Google 



Mo. 98J aREAT BRITAIN (NI^ER). [1884-1892. 

[TreatiM with NatiTe Ohiefli.] 

the rirer, or on native produce shipped bj any strangers or 
foreigners from the land, and that we will not at any time 
interfere with that Company in so doing, bat will give it every 
assistance to enforce such duties as acting on oar behalf, and 
with the full authority of the laws of our country. 

And I, y on behalf of the National African 

Company (Limited), having paid to the Chiefs of 
the above-mentioned in goods, do hereby promise 

to the Head Chief, , Chiefs, and people of 

, that, in further consideration of this Agreement, 
that Company will pay them annually 

And I further agree, on behalf of the National African 
Company (Limited), that nothing in this Agreement shall be 
allowed to interfere with the present rights of the nfitives of 
the country of amongst themselves, nor shall it 

give any authority or right to that Company, or to any person 
on its behalf, to occupy land, to fell trees, or in any other way 
to interfere with private property, without due permission or 
purchase of the same from the owner, as heretofore. 

This Agreement having been interpreted to us, the above- 
mentioned Chiefs in , we hereby approve and 
accept it, for ourselves and for our people, and with their 
consent, and in testimony of this, having no knowledge of 
writing, do affix our marks below it ; and I, , for 
and on behalf of the National African Company (Limited), do 
hereby affix my hand. 

We, the undersigned witnesses, do hereby solemnly declare 

that the Chiefs whose names are placed opposite 

their respective crosses, have, in our presence, affixed their 

crosses of their own free will and consent, and that the said 

has in our presence affixed his signature. 



Declaration by Interpreter. 

I, , native of , do hereby solemnly 

declare that I am well acquainted with the language of the 

country, and that, on the day of , 

at a Council held at , I truly and faithfully 

471 2 L 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884-1802.] QESAX BBITAIK (NIGEB). 

[Tr«ftUeiii.wlth HatiTe COiiefti.] 



Cllo.^8 



explained the above Agreement to all the ChiefR preBent, and 
that they understood its meaning. 



Treaties nnder Form No. 8. 




Form No, 8. 
Agreement made on the day of , 188 , 

between the King and Chiefs of and the 

National African Company (Limited) of London. 

We, the Undersigned King and Chiefs of , 

with a view to the bettering of the condition of our country 
and people, do this day cede, with all sovereign rights, to the 
National African Company (Limited), for ever, the whole of 
our territory extending from 

We also agree that all disputes arising between British or 
foreign traders or neighbouring tiibes shall be submitted to 
the said National ALfrican Company (Limited) for settlenient. 

We also understand that the National African Company 
have sole power to mine, farm, and build in any portion of our 
territory. 

We also g^ve the National African Company the power to 
exclude all or any foreigners from our country. 

In consideration of the foregoing, the said National African 
Company bind themselves not to interfere with any native lawa 
or customs of the country consistently with the maintenance 
of order and good government. 

472 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 98] 



GKBAT BBITAIN (I^IGhBB). 
[Treaties with Native Chiefii.] 



ClSBi^iaQQ. 



The National African Company agree to paj native ov^ners 
of land a reasonable amount for any portion they may require. 

The National Afi'ican Company also agree to pay the said 
King and Chiefs the value of per annum. 

This Agreement having been interpreted to us, the above- 
mentioned King and Chiefs of , we hereby approve 
and accept it for ourselves, and for our people with their con- 
sent, and in testimony of this, having no knowledge of writing, 
do affix our marks below it ; and I, on behalf of the Natiodal 
African Company (Limited), do hereby affix my hand. 

We, the Undersigned witnesses, do hereby solemnly declare 
that the Chiefs whose names are placed against their respective 
crosses have, in our presence, affixed their crosses of their own 
free will and consent, and the said . has, in our 

presence, affixed his signature. 



Dedaraium by Interpreter, 

I, , native of , do hereby 

solemnly declare that I am well acquainted with the ^ 

language, and have interpreted the foregoing to the said King 
and Chiefs, and they understand its meaning. 



Tbbaties under Form No. 9. 



Territory. 



Index No. 


Date. 


289 


July 26, 1889. 


288 


» 2^ »> "' 


288 
281 


ad* " 


286 


». „ 


285 


» Si » 


296 




294 


M»y 17, „ 


287 


July 10, „ 


284 


ft 8, „ 


282 


April 18, „ 


297 


October 14, ^ 


813 


Jamiaiy 4, 1890. 



Agwebiri (or Agvehhiri) 
Agwohbiri .4 
Eoebri .« .• 
Ttehimfttoro .. •• 

Ekebiri 

Bnowarri • • « • 

Gbebi .« 

Ibousa .. .. •• 
KorokoroBsi •• •• 
Of unobiri . • • • 
Ponhibox^ •• •« 
Siotako .. fp 
Takum 



478 



2 l2 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884-1808.] 0BEAT BBTTAIN (KIGEB). CHo. 88 

CttmtMm with VAtive Chiadb.] 

Form No. 9. 

Tbxatt made on the day of , 18 , between 

the Chiefs of on the one hand, and the Rojal 

Niger Company (Chartered and Limited), hereinafter called 
" the Company/' on the other hand. 

1. We, the Undersigned Chiefs of , with the 
consent of onr people, and with the yiew of bettering their con- 
dition, do this day cede to the Company, and to their assigns, 
for ever, the whole of onr territory ; but the Company shall 
pay prirate owners a reasonable amount for any portion of 
land that the Company may require from time to time. 

2. We hereby give to the Company and their assigns, for 
ever, full jurisdiction of every kind ; and we pledge onrselyes 
not to enter into any war with other tribes without the sanc- 
tion of the Company. 

3. We also give to the Company and their assigns, for ever, 
the sole right to mine in our territory. 

4. In consideration of the foregoing, the Company bind 
themselves not to interfere with any of the native laws or 
customs of the country, except so far as may be necessary for 
good government and the maintenance of order. 

5. The Company bind themselves to protect, as far as 
practicable, the said Chiefs from the attacks of any neigh- 
bouring aggressive tribes. 

6. In consideration of the above, the Company have this 
day paid the said Chiefs of goods to the value 
of , receipt of which is hereby acknowledged. 

This Agreement having been interpreted to us, the above- 
mentioned Chiefs of , we hereby approve, and 
accept it for ourselves and for our people with their consent, 
and, in testimany of this, having no knowledge of writing, do 
affix our marks below it, and I, , for and on 
behalf of the Company, do hereby affix my hand. 

We, the Undersigned witnesses, do hereby solemnly declare 
that the Chiefs whose names are placed opposite their respective 
marks have in our presence affixed their marks of their own 

474 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 98] 



GBBAT BBITAIN (NiaSB). 
[TTMitiM with Vattve COO^lte.} 



free will and consent, and the said 
presence, affixed his signature. 



[18M-1802. 
has, in om* 



For Oie Boyal Niger Company (Chartered and 
Limited), 



Declaration hy Interpreter, 

I, , native of do hereby 

solemnly declare that I am well acquainted with the 
language, and that on the day of 18 , 

I truly and faithfully explained the abore Agreement to all the 
native signatories whose marks are affixed to this Treaty, and 
that they understood its meaning. 

Witnesses to the above mark signature : 



Done in triplicate at 



this 



day of 



18 



Treaties under Form No. 10. 



Territory. 



Index No. 



Date. 



Akaboh 

Akspotshi . . . « 

AmakofiaUbi .. 
Egba-ku . . • • • • 
Bgbu-n-ta . . . • 

Ekxudo 

Gongomo 
Inde XJkukwa . • 
lai TJmudirosBa • • 
Itehioke and XJmuneoea 

Kwana 

Obba 

Obilako 

Oboniki 

Ogidi 

Okka 

Oreilla 

Orjie 

Owere • 

Osara 



825 

826 
827 
828 
829 
880 
812 
881 
842 
882 
811 



291 
290 
324 
341 
884 
835 



March 



Maj 

March 

» 
September 
March 
Maj 

»» 
NoTember 
May 
March 



475 



14, 1892. 
14, „ 
H „ 
14, „ 
14. » 
14, „ 
17, 1890. 
14, 1892. 
10, „ 
14. „ 
81, 1890. 

8, „ 
14, 1892. 
27, 1890. 
18, „ 
16, „ 

4,1892. 
14, M 
14, „ 
14, „ 



Digitized by 



Google 



1884*XB9M aBBAT BRITAIN* (NIChBR). 

[Treaties with Kati^COitaiih} j 



[Mo;«8U' 



Territory. 


Index No. 


Date. 


Ubi (see Amakofia Ubi). 








Uburin 


337 


March 


14,1892. 


Udo 


. 388 


1) 


14. „ 


Ukukwa (see Inde-Ukukwa). 








Umuba .. .. .. .• 


839 




14, „ 


Umudirossa (see Ibi tTmudiioaaa). 








Umaneosa (see Itshicke). 








Umuodu.. • 


340 


i> 


14, „ 


Unkwereh .. .• 


292 


May 


21, 1890. 



Fonn No. 10. 

Treaty made on the day of , 18 , betw^en^ 

on the one hand, and the Boyal Niger Compaofy 

(Chartered and Limited), for themselyee and their assignlB, 

for ever, hereinafter eallcd "The Companj," on the other 

hand. 

1. We, the undersigned King and Chiefs of , with 

the view of bettering the condition of onr country and people, 
do this day cede to the Company, including as above their 
assigns, for ever, the whole of our territory, but the Company 
shall pay private landowners a reasonable amount for any 
po£tion of land that the Company may require from time to 
time. 

.2. We thereby give to the Company and their assigns, for 
ever, full jurisdiction of every kind, and we pledge ourselves 
not to enter into any war with other tribes without the sanc- 
tion of the Company. 

3. We give to the Company and their assigns, for ever, 
the sole right to mine in any portion of our territory. 

4. We bind ourselves not to have imy intercourse as 
representing our tribe or state, on tribal or state afiairs, with 
any person or persons other than the Company, who are here- 
by recognized as the authorized Oovemment of onr territories : 
but this provision shall in no way authorize any monopoly of 
trade, direct or indirect;, by the Company or others, nor any 
restriction of pnvate or commercial intercourse with any 
person or person? of any nation whatsoever, subject, however, 

476 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 98] aREAT BBITAIN (l^IGER). [ItBl-1892. 

[Treatiea with Native OhlMfli.] 

to administratiye dispositions in tba interest of commerce and 
of order. 

5. In consideratkm of the foregoing, the Company bind 
themselves not to interfere -with any of the native laws or 
customs of- the country, consistently with the maintenance of 
order and good government, and the progress of civilization. 

6. The Company bind themselves to protect, as far as 
practicable, the said King and Chiefs from the attacks of any 
neighbouring aggressive tribes. 

7. In consideration of the above, the Company have this 
day paid the said King and Chiefs of goods to the 
value of , receipt of which is hereby acknowledged. 

This Treaty having been interpreted to us, the above- 
mentioned King and Chiefs of , we hereby ap- 
prove and accept it for ourselves and for our people, and in 
testimony of this, having no knowledge of writing, do affix oar 
marks below it. 

• We, the undersigned witnesses, do > hereby solemnly declare 
that the King and Chiefs whose names are placed opposite 
tbejr respective marks have^ in our presence, afi&xed their 
marks of their own free will and consent, and that , 

on behalf of the Company, has, in our presence, affixed his 
signature. 

' I, , for and on behalf of the Company, do here- 

by approve and accept the above Treaty, and hereby affix my 
hand. 



BeclaraHon hy Interpreter, 

I, , native of , do hereby solemnly 

declare that I am well acquainted with the langoage, 

and that on the day of , 18 , 1 truly and 

faithfully explained the above Treaty to all the native signa- 
tories, and that they understood its meaning. 

Witnesses to the above mark or signature : 

' Done in triplicate at , this day of 

,18 . 

477 



Digitized by 



Google 



1887'180i.] GRfi^T BAITAIN (NIGKBB). 

[TrMktiM with Hative Ohiofli.] 



[No. 08 



Treaties under Various Forms. 



Territory. 



Date. 



Ageyeh • • 
Akassa .. 
Bossama . . 
Batsurror 
Bautshi .. 
Borga (Boussa) 
Dampara 
Demsa . . 
Donga . . 
Egori 

Oando (let) 
Gando (2nd) 
Gandy • • 
Ilorin 
Jibu 

Lafiagi .. 
Lapai •• 
Nap^ (1ft) 

» (2nd) 
ShoDga • • 
Sokoto (lit) 

., (2nd) 



April 

Norember 

February 

May 

April 

January 

October 

January 

Norember 
June 
April 
I June 
August 
October 
March 



8»1886. 
20,1884. 

8,1890. 
30,1885. 
. 1,1888. 
20,1890. 
16, 1880. 

6,1890. 

2,1886. 

18. 1884. 

13. 1885. 
7.1890. 
4,1886. 
0,1890. 

15, 1889. 

81. 1886. 



» 1^1 i» 

December 26, 1889. 
April 15, 1886. 
June 1, „ 

April 16, 1800. 



On the 2l8t March, 1887, the Bojal Niger Company 
forwarded to the Foreign Office a List of the Treaties of the 
Companj, showing : — 

1. Which Treaties were inside of the British Protectorate as 
then already proclaimed, and which partly inside and partly 
outside; and 

2. Which Treaties were included in the 37 referred to in 
the Charter of 10th July, 1886, and which, on the other hand, 
required the assent of the Secretary of State, under § 12 of the 
Charter. 

The H7 Treaties referred to in the Charter are marked with 
an asterisk. (See pp. 450 — 457.) 

On the 10th April, 1894, the Royal Niger Company sub- 
mitted to the Secretary of State (the Earl of Kimberley), for 
approval, a revised and completed List of 30C Treaties, which 
had been concluded by the Company with the Elings, Chiefs, 
and Peoples of various territories in the basin of the Biver 

478 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 08] aBSAT BRITAIN (KIGBB). 

[Treaties with Native GOiiefli.] 

Niger, in addition to the 37 Treaties enumerated in \ 
to the Charter. With few exceptions, all these/ 
been dnly commnnicated by the Company to the I 
State in previous letters. On the 23rd of April 
approval of these Treaties by the Secretary of St 
veyed to the Company, subject to oertain specified 
all of which were accepted by the Company on the 
same month. 



479 



Digitized by 



Google 



U May, 1893.] aBBAT SBITAIN (SaOBA).. [MelL M . 

No. B9.— NOTIFICATION of the British FrotectaraU of 

the Niger Coast ; to be known as ike " Niger Coast Protect' 

torate" and no longer as the '* Oil Hiyers Protectorate*^ 

Por^n OJice, 13th May, 1893. 

. '^ Wrra . rrference • to. the. Notification' ia the ^LoniioafL 

Qaaeitel of the 18th October, 1887 (No. ft?), respecting the 

British Protectomte oi the Kiger DistiictB, and to certain 

agreements entered into hetween the British and Gterman 

Oovernments,* it is hereby notified, for pnblic information, 

that the portion of the Protectorate nnder the administration 

of Her Majesty's Commissioner and Consul- General will, front 

the date of this notification, form a separate Protectorate, 

nnder the name of the "Niger Coast Protectorate," and will 

cease to be known as the '^ Oil Rivers Protectorate." 

The eastern limit of the line of coast of the Niger Coast 
Protectorate is defined in the Agreement between the British 
and German Govemments of the 14>th April, 1893." 

On the 5th Jane, 1885, a Notification was published in the 
"London Gazette" of the esfcablishment of the British Pro- 
tectorate of the '' Niger Districts," bnt no allusion was made 
to the "Oil Rivei-s" (No. 95),t but on the 1st January, 
1891, Major (now Sir Claude Maxwell) Macdonald, who, in 
June, 1889, was sent on a Special Mission to the Niger Dis- 
tricts, and in the following year to Berlin, with reference to 
the delimitation of the boundary between the Oil Biyei« Pro- 
tectorate and the German Colony of Cameroons, was gazetted 
as Her Majesty's Commissioner and Consul- General in the Oil 
Rivers Protectorate and adjoining native territories, Ac. The 
term "Oil Rivers Protectorate" was abo employed in the 
Instructions issued by the Secretary of State on the 22nd 
February, 1890, under the Order in Council of 15th October, 
1889, and in the Agreement between Great Britain and Germany 
of 14th April, 1893. (See Great Britain and Germany, p. 654.) 

Tbe Oil Rivers are the Benin, Escarvos, Warri, Forcados, 
Brass, St. Nicholas, St. Barbara, St. Bartholomew, Sombrero, 
New Calabar, Bonny, Andorio (St. Antonio), Opobo, Quo Ibo» 
Akpayafi, Qua, Cross, and Old Calabar. 

* See page 698. f See Betom, page 47. 

480 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

(SIBBRA LEONE.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



GKEAT BRITAIN (SIERRA LEONE). 



LIST OF TREATIES, Ac. 



No. 
100 



1788—1892. Notes Bespecting Sierra Leone . 



Page 
484 



22 Aug., 1788. Declaration . . 

10 July, 1807. Treaty 

6 July, 1818. Treaty 

25 May, 1819. Convention. . . 

21 July, 1820. Convention. . . 

20 Oct., 1820. Convention. • . 

7 May, 1821. Act of Pari. . , 



— 6June,1821. Treaty 

-* 2 Aug., 1824. Convention. . . 

— 24 Sep., 1825. Convention. . . 

^ 8 Oct., 1825. Proclamation . 

— 12 Dec., 1825. Convention. . . 

— 80 Dec, 1825. Agreement . . . 

— 16 Apr., 1826. Treaty 



— 8-10 Mar., 1827. Treaty . 



Sierra Leone. Cession of certain terri- 
tories to G-reat Britain 484 

Sierra Leone. Further cessions to 
Great Britain. Bance Island .... 485 

Bago country. Cession to Great 
Britain of the " Isles de Los" 485 

Timmannees. Cession of the Banana 
Islands to Great Britain 486 

Timmannees of the Quia. Cession of 
the Banana Islands to Great Britain 487 

Chiefs of the Bananas. Cession of the 
Banana Islands to Great Britain. . . 487 

Abolition of Africa Company. Terri- 
tories, &o., between 20^ N. lat. and 
20'' S. lat. annexed to Sierra Leone . 4% 

North Bulloms. Cession of Tombo 
Island to Great Britain 488 

North Bulloms. Cession of Bance, 
Tasso, Tombo, and other islands to 
G^reat Britain 489 

Sherbro, &c. Cession of Sherbro, 
Sherbro Island, Tasso, Ya Comba, 
Plantain Islands, &c., to Great 
Britain 491 

Sherbro and Ya Comba. Territories 
annexed to Sierra Leone 498 

Barra. Cession of Bacca Loco to Great 
Britain 494 

Mandingo. Cession of Island of 
Mataoong to Great Britain. Note. . 496 

Soombia Soosoos, and Tura Family. 
Cession of their territories to Great 
Britain. 1 mile ceded inland; also 
the Island of Matacong.* (See also 
Declaration, August, 1867) 495 

Eafu-BuUoms. Cession of their terri- 
tories- to Great Britain 496 



* See note, page 496. 
481 



Digitized by 



Google 



GBBAT BBITAIN (SIEBSA LEONE). 
LIST OF TBEATIES, &o. 



No. 

100 24 June, 1827. Agreement • • • • 



29 Nov., 1847. Treaty.... 

29NoT.,1847. Treaty.... 

4— 7 July, Treaty.... 
1840. 

18 July, 1860. Order in C. 

21Mar.,1861. Treaty.... 

2 Aug., 1851. Treaty . • • • 

28 Dec., 1851. Treaty .... 

26 Deo., 1851. Treaty.. •• 

26 Dec., 1851. ,j,^^ 

20 Jan., 1852. Treaty.... 

26 Aug., 1852. Treaty.. •• 

2 Apr., 1861. Treaty.... 

11 June, 1861. Treaty.. •• 

9 Not., 1861. Treaty.... 

9 Not., 1861. Treaty .... 

9 Nov., 1861. Treaty..,. 

1 Feb., 1862. Treaty.. •• 



«» 19 Feb., 1866. Letters Patent . 



Page 

Biafra. Ceedon of Island of Bulama, 

&o., to Great Britain 408 

(See also Great Britain and Portu- 
gal.) 

Looco Marsamma. Cession to Great 
Britain of territory on north bank . • 
of Sierra Leone Biver, with a 
quarter of a nule inland ..« 490 

£afu-Bullom8. Cession to Great Britain 
of territory on north bank of Siena 
Leone Biver, with a quarter of a 
mile inland 500 

Bompey and Plantain Islands. 
Boundary • 601 

Jurisdiction in vicinity of Sierra 
Leone 601 

Naloes. Boundaries 502 

Fouricaria. Boundaries 602 

Small Scarcies River. Boundaries. •• 602 

£ambia. (Great Scarcies Biver.) 
Boundaries 608 

Maobatees. (Great Scarcies River.) 
Boundaries 608 

Wonkaf ong. Boundaries . . •. 608 

Eaifu-Bulloms. Confirmation of. Ces- 
sion on north bank of the Sierra 
Leone River 508 

Quiah. Cession of portion to Great 
Britam. <' British Quiah " 606 

Ma Bwetie and Ro Wollah. Eambia. 
Boundaries (Great Scarcies River.) 606 

Sherbro. Cession olf Turtle and Sherbro 
Islands 607 

Beodoo and Chah. Cession of portion 
of Bendoo and Chah to Great 
Britain. (Sherbro Country.) 606 

Bagroo. Cession to Great Britain of 
Bagroo, Mana Bagroo, and Belley* 
(Sherbro Country.) 609 

Quiah. Right of Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment to British Quiah. (A portion of 
ths territory was retrooeded to 
Quiah, 29 Jan., 1872.) 610 

Union of Sierra Leone with the 
Gambia, Gold Coast, and Legoa 
(altereQ 17th Dec., 1874) 611 

46IS 



Digitized by 



Google 



GREAT BRITAIN (SIERRA LEONE). 
LIST OF TREATIES, &c. 



No. 




100 29 Jan., 1872. 


Treaty 


— 17 Dec., 1874. 


Letters Patent. 


— 21 Dec., 1875. 


Treaty 


— 30Dec5.,1875, 


Treaty 


— 10 June, 1876. 


Treaty 


— 2 May, 1877. 


Tieaty 


— 30 Mar., 1882. 


Agreement • • . . 


— 28Jiine,1882. 


Conrention.... 



— 18 Not., 1882. 

— 6 June, 1883. 

— 21 Oct., 1888. 

— 18 May, 1886. 

— 17Jnne,1885. 

— 28 Not., 1888. 

— 10 Aug., 1889. 



Agreement .... 

Agreement • • • • 

Agre6iiii0Dt I . • • 

Agreement • • • • 
Letters Patent. 
Letters Patent . 
Arrangement. • ■ 



— 1886—1891. List. 



PHge 

Qaiali. Retrocession of portion of 
British Quiah. Boundaries 612 

West Africa Settlements 613 

Sherbro and Meudi. Cession by 
certain chiefs to Great Britaia of 
right to collect Customs dues 614 

Sherbro and Mendi. Similar Cession 
by oilier chiefs of Cockboro 514 

Ro Wollah, Mk Bwet\e, Kambia. 
Great and Small Scarcies. British 
SoTcreignty oyer waters 614 

Samoo Bulloms. Cession of Country 
to Great Britain 616 

Gallinas. Cession of Territory to Ghreat 
Britain 618 

Great Britain and France. Bound- 
aries between British and French 
Possessions north of Sierra Leocxe. 
Scarcies and Mellicourie RiTcrs. 
(See Great Britain and France.) 

Bullom and Shebar. R-eassertion of 
British SoTereign rights OTcr Terri- 
tories ceded in 1825 520 

Offer of Massah and Erim Country, 
&c., to cede their Territories to 
Great Britain 622 

Offer of other Chiefs of Erim Country 
to cede their Territories to Great 
Britain 623 

Ghdlinas. Boundaries of Territories 
ceded to Ghreat Britain in 1882 .. .. 624 

GoTcrnment of Sieri'a Leone, &c. 
British West African Settlements . . 625 

Separation of Sierra Leone from the 
Gtambia. '* Colony of Sierra Leone " 626 

Great Britain and France. Delimita- 
tion on English and French Posses- 
sions on West Coast of Africa, 
north of Sierra Leone, &c. (See 
Great Britain and France.) 
• Treaties with NatiTe Chiefs 626 



483 



Digitized by 



Google 



22 Aug., 1788.] GBEAT BRITAIN (SIERRA LEONE). [No. 100 
[Sierra Leone.] 

No. 100.— Notes on SIERRA LEONE, 1788—1892. 

Sierra Leone, 

On the 22nd Angast, 1788,* the following Declaration was 
signed by the King and Chiefs of Sierra Leone for the cession 
of certain territories to His Majesty King George III : — 

'* Know all men by these presents that I, King Nambaner, 
Chief of Sierra Leone, on the Grain Coast of Africa, by and 
with the consent of the other Kings, Princes, Chiefs, and 
potentates snbscribing hereto, in consideration of the presents, 
as by a list annexed, now made me by Captain John Taylor, of 
His Britannic Majesty's brig " Miro,'' in behalf of and for the 
sole benefit of the free commnnity of settlers, their heirs and 
successors, lately arrived from England, and under the pro- 
tection of the British Government, have granted, and by these 
presents do grant and for ever quit claim to a certain district 
of land for the settling of the said free community to be theirs, 
their heirs and successors, for ever ; that is to say, all the land, 
wood, water, Ac, which are now contained from the bay com- 
monly called Frenchman's Bay, but by these presents changed 
to that of St. George's Bay, coastwise up the River Sierra 
Leone to Gumbia Island, and southerly or inland from the river 
side, 20 miles. And further, be it known unto all men that I, 
King Nambaner, do faithfully promise and swear for my Chiefs, 
gentlemen, and people, likewise my heirs and successors, that I 
will bear true allegiance to His Most Gracious Majesty 
George III, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Ac, 
and protect the said free settlers, His subjects, to the utmost 
of my power against the insurrections and attacks of all 
nations or people whatever. And I do hereby bind myself, my 
heirs and successors, to grant the said free settlers a con- 
tinuance of a quiet and peaceable possession of the land granted, 
their heirs and successors, for ever. In witness whereof, I and 
my Chiefs have set our hands and seals this 22nd day of 
August, 1788." 

[Here follow the Signatures and Seals and List of Presents.] 

• H.T., Tol. xiT, p. 927. S.P., vol. Ixiii, p. 1091. 
484 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 100] GREIT BRITAIN (SIEERA LEONE). [10 Joly, 1807. 
[Sierra Leone. Banoe leland. Isles de Los.] 

Sierra Leone. 
On the 10th Jaly, 1807,* certain other territories at Sierra 
Leone were ceded to His Majesty by a Treaty with the local 
Ohi*>fs, from which the following are extracts : — 

"1. It is agreed that there shall henceforth be peace and 
friendship between the British. Colony of Sierra Leone and 
King Firama and King Tom, and all the Princes, Headmen, 
and people subject. 

'^ 2. KiDg Firama and King Tom, with the consent of all the 
Headmen at this time assembled, do hereby surrender to fiis 
Majesty the King of Great Britain, for the use and benefit of 
the Sierra Leone Company, all the right, power, and possessions 
of every sort and kind in the peninsula of Sierra Leone and 
its dependencies which they or either of them formerly bad to 
the westward of the colony of Sierra Leone or any part 
thereof. 

Bance Island. 

" 3. It is nevertheless agreed that the claim of the proprietors 
of Bance Islandf to the possession of Cape Sierra Leone and the 
adjacent land shall not bo altered or affected by this Treaty, 
neither shall the claims of any other person or persons to the 
same or any part thereof be affected or altered by it ; but all 
Bucb claims shall remain the same as if this Treaty bad never 
been made." 

Isles de Los. 
On the 6th July, 1818,J the following Treaty was concluded 
between the Governor of Sierra Leone and the Chief of the 
Bago country, by which the Isles de Los were ceded to Great 
Britain, subject to certain annual payments being made : — 

** 1st. The said Mungo Demba, Kin^ of the Bago country, and 
his Chieftains Alimamee Dalla Mohammadu, Secca, Amurab, 
Salea, and Ali, bave for themselves and their successors ceded, 
transferred, and given over to his Excellency Lieutenant- 
Colonel Charles McCarthy, Governor of the Colony of Sierra 

• H.T., Tol. xiv., p. 929. S.P., toI. Ixiii, p. 1092. 

t Sco Conyeation with North Bulloms of 2iid Augosfc, 182 i, p. 489. 

J S.P., vol. Ixiii, p. 109C. 

485 2 M 



Digitized by 



Google 



^f SlSrliiie;] ^^^^'^ Britain (sierra lkone). [Mo. 100 

Leone, and the Governors of the said colony for the time being, 
for the nse of and on behalf of His Majesty the King of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and his sac- 
cesBors, the full, entire, free, and unlimited possession and 
sovereignty of the islands constituting the Isles de Los, viz., 
Factory, Crawfords, Jamara, Whites, and Coral Islands, toge- 
ther with all and every right and title to the navigation, 
anchorage, waterage, fishing, and other revenue and maritime 
claims in and over all the harbours, bays, creeks, roads, and 
roadsteads and waters in and round the said islands." 

Banana lelanda. 

On the 25fch May, 1819,* a Convention was concluded be- 
tween the Governor of Sierra Leone and the Timmanees for 
the cession of the Islands of Bananas to Great Britain, from 
which the following are extracts : — 

" The said Pa London, commonly called Ka Conko, his Chief- 
tains, Headmen, and gentlemen, have for themselves and their 
snccessors ceded, transferred, and given to his said Excellency 
(jovernor McCarthy, as Governor for the time being, for the use 
and on the behalf of His Majesty the King of the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland and his successors, the full, 
entire, free, and unlimited possession and sovereignty of the 
territory and lands commonly known under the name of Mar 
Porto and Ro Bomp, situated on the banks of the Bunch River, 
and extending from to 

with all right and title to the navigation 

of the same river, water, or rivulet, situated on the left side as 
aforesaid. 

'' The extent and limits of the afore-mentioned lands of Mar 
Porto and Bo Bomp shall be duly established in the presence 
and with the consent of Pa London, commonly called Ka Conko, 
or a person or persons duly authorised by him to that effect, and 
no alteration in said limits shall hereafter under any pretence 
or plea be permitted under the authority or sanction of his 
said Excellency the Governor or his successors, without the con- 

• S.P., Tol. liiii, p. 1098. 
486 



Digitized'by 



Google 



M^.-MO] GEEAT BEITAIN (SIEERA LEONE). [JJ^^; 1820. 

[Banana Islands.] 

ourrefice of the said Pa London or his snccessord, it being fnllj 
understood that within the extent of those limits only British 
-soJ^jects shall have a right to occupy lands in those districts." 

Banana Idaiids, 

' • On the 2l8t July and 20th October, 1820,* similar Conven- 
tions were concluded with the Timmanees of the Quia and with 
th^ Chiefs of the Bananas, from which the following are 
extracts: — 

Convention toith the Timmanees of the Quia, 2l8t July, 1820. 

'' 1. The said. Pa London, commonly called Ka Conko, has 
for himself and his successors, and for and in the name of 
Thomas Caulker and his successors, ceded, transferred, and 
given to his said Excellency Governor McCarthy or Governor 
for the time being on the ^behalf of His Majesty George the 
Fourth of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
King, and his successors, the full, entire, free, and unlimited 
possession and sovereignty of the Islands of Bananas, situated 
near and opposite to Cape Shilling, with all and every right 
and title to the navigation, anchorage, waterage, fishing, and 
other revenue and maritime claims in and over the harboui'Sy 
bays, creeks, roads, roadsteads, waters, in and around the said 
islands." 

CoHventio7i with the Chiefs of the Bananas. 20th October, 1820. 

'^ The said Contracting Parties have agreed and do agree as 
follows: — 

" 1st. That the said Thomas Caulker and George Stephen 
Caulker for and on the part and behalf of themselves and their 
successors, and all and every other person or persons having or 
pretending to have any right, title, or interest in the Isles 
known by the name of the Bannanoes, situate opposite to and 
lying antiguous to Cape Shilling on the Western Coast of 
Africa, and also all lands in the immediate vicinity thereof, have 
this day ceded, transferred, and given to his said Honour Acting 
• S.P., v<^. Ixiii, p. 1100. 

487 2 M 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



6 June, 1821.] GBEAT BEITAIN (SIEEBA LEONE). [Ho. 100 

[lombo Island.] 

Governor Grant, or Governor for the time being, on the part 
and behalf of His Majesty George the Fonrth of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King, and his suc- 
cessors, the fnll,' entire, free, and unlimited possession and 
sovereignty of the said islands of Bannanoes and lands in their 
immediate vicinity, with all and every right and title to the 
navigation, anchorage, waterage, fishing, and other revenue 
and maritime claims in and over the harbours, bays, creeks, 
roads, roadsteads, and waters in and around the said islands, &c. 
" 3rd. His said Honour the Acting Governor for himself and 
his successors on the part and behalf of His Britannic Majesty, 
guarantees to Thomas Caulker and George Stephen Caulker, 
their Chieftains and respective successors, the full, certain, and 
free possession of the lands, houses or property of whatsoever 
kind which they do now or may possess on the said islands." 

Abolition of Africa Company. 

On the 7th May, 1821, an Act of Parliament was passed for 
abolishing the Africa Company and transferring to, and vesting 
in, His Majesty all the Forts, Possessions, and property then 
belonging to or held by them. 

By this Act, power was given to His Majesty to order and 
direct that all or any of the said Forts and Possessions, as also 
any Territories, islands, or Possessions on the West Coast of 
Africa, between the 20th degree of north latitude and the 20th 
degree of south latitude which did then, or which might there- 
after, belong to His Majesty, should be annexed to, and made 
Dependencies on, the Colony of Sierra Leone.* 

Cession of Tomho Island to Great Britain, 

On the 6th June, 1821,t the following Declaration was 
signed by the King and Chiefs of the North Bulloms, ceding 
lombo Island to Great Britain : — 

" Now know ye that I, the aforesaid Ba Samma, commonly 
known hj the style and title of Ba Mano, King or principal 
Chief of the North Bulloms and districts of Loco Ma Samma, 

* H.T., vol. xviii, p. 172. 

t S.P., Tol. IrUi, p. 1104. See aUo Convention, 2nd August, 1824, p. 489. 

488 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 100] aREAT BRITAIN (SIERRA LEONE). [2 Aug., 1824. 

[Banoe, Tasso, lombo, and other iBlands.] 

ifiles of Banco, Tasso, Tombo, &c., together with the Chieftains 
and Headmen now assembled with me at lombo, having first 
declared that we possess the fnll authority, absolute dominion, 
and nndispnted territorial right to this effect, do by these pre- 
sents grant, surrender, make over, and resign unto him, the 
said John McGormack, his heirs and assigns, all oar right, title, 
and interest in the said point of the isle or island of lombo ; 
that is to say, from the western extremity of the said isles until 
when the same is bounded by the salt-water creek intersecting 
said isle to the east, the same being the boundary of old between 
lombo, so called, and lama, to have, hold, possess, and enjoy 
the same, with all privileges in and around the same, and 
emoluments, advantages, and uses, absolutely and for ever 
without hindrance from us or our successors henceforth and for 
everphereby reserving, notwithstanding, unto us and our suc- 
cessors, being Kings or principal Chiefs of North Ballom, Loco 
Ma Samma, &c., the yearly rent, custom, or subsidiary gift of 
100 bars, to be paid to us and our successors yearly and every 
year by the said John McCormack, his heirs and assigns, for 
ever, and payable in every year on the 25th day of December, 
commencing from that day and month, in the year 1820. 

" And in default of the said John McCormack, his heirs or 
assigns, so paying or causing to be paid the aforesaid yearly 
rent, custom, or subsidiary gift, then this instrument and Treaty 
shall become null and of no effect, and all advantage, &c., 
derived thereby thenceforward cease/' 

This Agreement was replaced by the following Conven- 
tion : — 

Cession hy North BuUoms of Bance, Tasso, Tonibo, and other 
Islands to Great Britain, 

A Convention which was signed between the Acting 
Governor of Sierra Leone and King of North Bulloms, on 
the 2nd August, 1824,* for the cession to Great Britain of 
certain Islands, &c., on northern side of the River Sierra 
Leone. 

By this Convention it was mutually agreed as follows : — 

'* Ist. Ba Manro, King of the North Bulloms, by the advice 
• H. T., vol. xiy., p. 043. S. P., toI. Ixiii, p. 1108. 
489 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 Aug., 1824.] GREAT BBITAIX (SIEREA LEONE). [No. 100 

[Banoa, TaMo, lombo, and oth«r Islands.] 

aild COD sent of his Chiefs and Headmen, signified by their 
signatare hereto, has for them and himself, and their Bind his 
snccessora, ceded, ti^ansf erred, and given over to his SoBonr 
Daniel Molloy Hamilton, Acting Governor of the colony of 
Sierra Leone, and the Governors of the said colony for the 
time being, for the nso and on behalf of His Majesty the 
King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and his saccessors, the full, entire, free, and unlimited rig^ht, 
possession, and sovereignty of the islands of Banco, Tas8C» 
Tombo, Bob's, Caffoo, Yellway, Kropillar, Yeama, Papill, Mara- 
bump, Callum Bay, Bait, Pentillar, and all the other islands 
and islets lying, sitnate, and being npon the northern side of 
the River Sierra Leone, between Jagreen Point on the west, and 
the creek Ka Onpper, above Mafarree, which divides the terri- 
tories of the said Ba Mauro from those of Al Karlie, King of 
Port Logo, on the east, by whatever name or names the same 
may be known. 

One mile ceded to Great Britain inland on Northern Bank of 
Sierra Leone Bive)\ 

and also the northern bank of the said river on the main land, 
for one mile inland from the River Comso Bay on the west, to 
the said creek above Mafarree on tiie east, together with all 
and every right and title to the navigation, anchorage, water- 
age, fishing, and other revenue and maritime claims in and 
over the said River Sierra Leone, and all the bays, creeks, 
inlets, and waters of the same. 

"2nd. The said Ba Mauro, King of the North BuUoms, with 
the advice and consent of his Headmen, in manner aforesaid, 
further cedes, grants, and transfers over to the said Daniel 
Molloy Hamilton, Acting Governor of the colony of Sierra 
Leone, for the use of his said Majesty, all the right and title to 
the rent or customs due or payable to him for the places named 
in the schedule annexed to this Treaty, together with all the 
obligations of lessees thereof, and which places are the only 
ones he acknowledges as having been leased, let, or given away 
by him or on his account, or by his consent, op that of his 
Chieftains, no other person having any right, claim, or title 

490 



Digitized by 



Google 



J- 



No. 100] aBEAT BRITAIN (8IEBBA LEONE). [24 Sopt, 1825. 
[Shaarbro Tslanil. Sherbro. Ta«ao and Plantain Irianda.] 

-wHatsoever io the use, possession, or occnpation of any part of 
the islands, lands, or territories hereby ceded and transferred 
over." 

It was further agreed that the Governor of the colony of 
Sierra Leone should make an annual payment of a stipulated 
amount to the King of North BuUoms, and that the natives 
sliould retain full possession of their lands. 

Cession to Great Britain of Sherbro, Ya Comha, and Sherbro, 
Tasso, and Plantain Islands, 

On the 24th September, 1825,* a Convention was signed at 
the Plantain Islands between Sir Charles Turner, K.C.B., Cap- 
tain-General and Govemor-in-Chief of the Colony of Sierra 
Leone and its Dependencies, the Forts and Settlements in the 
River Gambia, Cape Coast Castle, and the Forts on the Gold 
Coast, the Isles de Loss, and the islands. Territories, and 
factories to His Majesty belonging, on the Western Coast of 
Africa, from the 20th degree of north latitude to the 20th degree 
of south latitude ; and Banka, King of Sherbro, on the part and 
behalf of his Tributaiy Kings, Chiefs, and Headmen, Kong 
Cuba, Prince of Sherbi*o, Sumana, King of Bendoo, Ta Bompay, 
King of BuUom, Soloccoo, King of Bagroo, Suwarrow, King of 
Char, Kenefarree, Chief of Sherbro Island, Will Adoo, Chief of 
Jenkins ; and Ya Comba, by her lawful representatives and 
next of kin ; Thomas Caulker, Chief of Bompey ; and George 
Caulker, Chief of Tasso and the Plaintain Isles ; on behalf of 
themselves, their Tributary Chiefs, Headmen, and People : by 
the following clauses of which they ceded their Territory to 
the British Crown : 

Boundaries. 

" 1st. Banka, King of Sherbro, by the advice and consent of 
his said Tributary Kings, Chiefs, and Headmen, and the said 
Thomas Caulker, and George Caulker, Representatives of the 
said Ya Comba, Queen of Ya Comba, have, for themselves, their 

• S. P., Tol. Ixiii, p. 1111. 
491 




Digitized by 



Google 



24 Sep., 1825,] great Britain (sierra XtEONE). [No. lOO 

[Sherbro Island. Sberbro. Tano and Plantain lalands.] 

Tributary Kings, Cbiefs, Headmen and People, for them, their 
heirs and successors for ever, ceded, transferred, and given over, 
unto his said Excellency Charles Turner, G-overnor of the said 
Colony of SieiTa Leone, and his successors, the Governors of 
the said Colony for the time being, for the use and on the 
behalf of His Majesty the King of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and his successors, the full, entire, free, and nnlimited richt, 
title, possession, and sovereignty "of all the Territories and Do- 
minions to them respectively belonging, being" situate between 
the southern bank of the Camaranca River, on the north, and 
the town of Camala and the line which separates the Terri- 
tories of King Sherbro from those of the Queen of the Gal- 
linas, on the south ; together with all and every right and title 
to the navigq,tion, anchorage, waterage, fishing, and otiier 
revenue and maritime claims in and over the said Territories, 
and the rivers, harbours, bays, creeks, inlets, and ^vaters of the 
same. 

" 2nd. The said Charles Turner, for himself and his snccessors 
the Governors of the said Colony of Sierra Leone for the time 
being, on the part and behalf of His said Britannic Majesty, 
agrees to accept the cession of the aforesaid Territories and 
Dominions from the said Bauka, King of Sherbro, and the said 
Ya Gomba, Queen of Ya Comba, their Tributary Kings, Chiefs, 
and Headmen ; giving and granting to the said Banka, King of 
Sherbro, and Ya Comba, Queen of Ya Comba, their Tributary 
Kings, Chiefs, and Headmen, and the other native inhabitants 
of the said Territories and Dominions, the protection of the 
British Government, the rights and privileges of British sub- 
jects, and guaranteeing to the said Banka, King of Sherbro, 
his Tributary Kings, Chiefs, and Headmen, namely, Sumana, 
King of Bendoo, Suwarrow, King of Char, Kong Cuba, Prince 
of Sherbro, Ta Bompay, King of Bullom, Soloccoo, King of 
Bagroo, Kenefarree, Chief of Sherbro Island, Will Adoo, Chief 
of Jenkins, and the said Ya Comba, Queen of Ya Comba, Bud 
her representatives, and to the said Thomas Caulker, Chief of 
Bompey, and George Caulker, Chief of Tasso and the Tlant&m 
Isles, and the other native inhabitants of the aforesaid Terri- 
tories and Dominions, and to their heirs and successors for ever, 

492 



Digitized by 



Google 



No. 100] GREAT BRITAIN (SIERRA LEONE). [3 Oct., 1825. 

[Sherbro Island. Sherbro. TasBO and Plantain Islands.] 

the full, free, and nndisturbcd possession and enjoyment of the 
lands they now hold and occapy." 

Annexatimi of Sherbro and Ya Comha Territories to Sierra 
Leone. 

On the 3rd October, 1825,* the following Proclamation was 
issued by the Governor of Sierra Leone respecting the above 
cession, and announcing the accession of the said territory to 
the Colony of Sierra Leone : — 

" Whereas by a Convention entered into at the Plaintain 
Islands on the 24th day of September last, and ratified at Yoni, 
on Sherbro Island, on the first day of this instant month of 
October, Banka, King of Sherbro, and Ya Comba, Queen of Ya 
Comba, did, by and with the advice and consent of their several 
tributary Kings, Chiefs, and Headnien, cede, ti'ansfer, and make 
over to us, for and on behalf of His Majesty, the full, entire, 
free, and unlimited right, title, possession, and sovereignty of 
all the territories and dominions of the Sherbro Balloms situate 
between the southern bank of the Camaranca River in lati- 
tude 7*" 54' N. on the north, and the town of Camala and the 
boundary line which separates the dominions of King Sherbro 
from those of the Gallinas, in or about latitude 7° N. on the 
south, extending eastward to the acknowledged boundaries of 
the Sherbro and Ya Comba kingdoms, together with all and 
every right and title to the navigation, anchorage, waterage, 
fishing, and other revenue and maritime claims in and over the 
Baid territories, and the rivers, harbours, bays, creeks, inlets, 
and waters of the same. 

" Now therefore be it known to all whom it may concern, that 
possession of the said kingdoms have been by us taken in the 
name and on the behalf of His Majesty, and that the same, by 
virtue of the powers in us vested, are constituted an integral 
part of the colouy of Sierra Leone, and are thereby become 
subject to the navigation and other laws of the mother country 
and of the said colony. 

• S. P., vol. Ixiii, p. 1114. H. T., vol. xiv., p. 960. 
493 



Digitized by 



Google 



12 Dec, 1825.3 GREAT BEITAIN (SIERRA LEONE), [No. 100 

[Baooa Loco.] 

** Given at Yoni, on Sherbro Island, the 3rd day of October, 

1825. 

" Bj his Excellency's command. 

" George Rendell, A.C.J. 
« God save the King